National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response (2019)

Chapter: APPENDIX A: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES

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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Page 304
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Page 305
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 306
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 307
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 308
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A: COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Page 309

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APPENDIX A COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES COMMITTEE Mary E. Landry (Chair) retired from the United States Coast Guard’s Senior Executive Service in 2015 after over thirty years of active duty with the Coast Guard and the rank of Rear Admiral. Until 2015, RADM Landry served as the Senior Executive Director of Incident Management Preparedness Policy, where she was responsible for establishing, developing, and implementing all hazards incident management goals, strategies, policies, and doctrines to meet Coast Guard responsibilities in incident preparedness and response. From May 2013 to May 2014, RADM Landry also served at the White House as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Resilience Policy. During her flag service, RADM Landry served as the Commander of the Eighth Coast Guard District and Commander of Task force 189.8, based in New Orleans. In this role, she was responsible for USCG operations covering 26 states, more than 1,200 miles of coastline, and 10,3 00 miles of inland waterways. Moreover, RADM Landry served as the Federal on Scene Coordinator in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. She also held the position of Executive Officer of Marine Safety Office (MSO) Boston during the 9/11 attacks and oversaw the federal response to the Buzzard’s Bay oil spill during her tour as Commanding Officer of MSO Providence, Rhode Island. Her military decorations include the Legion of Merit (three awards), Meritorious Service Medal, Coast Guard Commendation Medal (three awards), 9-11 Medal, and Achievement Medal. Ms. Landry completed Officer Candidate School in 1980 after graduating from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1978. She holds a Masters of Arts in Management from Webster University and a Master of Marine Affairs from the University of Rhode Island. She is also a National Security Fellow, earning this distinction at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government in 2000. Since retiring from the USCG, Ms. Landry currently serves as an Independent Corporate Director and as part of the Member Audit Committee for the United Services Automobile Association (USAA). E. Eric Adams serves as a Senior Lecturer and Senior Research Engineer in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His areas of expertise include water quality modeling and the design and environmental evaluation of effluential disposal systems. Recent research projects include modeling multi-phase plumes with application to deep-sea oil spills; applying chemical dispersants to subsurface oil spills; and creating a flexible curtain to contain oil from a deep ocean blowout. Dr. Adams is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineering, and the International Association of Hydro-Environment and Research. After receiving a B.S in Engineering from Harvey Mudd College, Dr. Adams went on to MIT to earn an S.M in Civil Engineering and a Ph.D hydrodynamics. Adriana Bejarano is the Senior Aquatic Eco-Toxicology at Research Planning, Inc. in Columbia, South Carolina. Her past research includes the ecological and toxicological effects of organic pollutants on marine and estuarine invertebrates, and she has developed skills in applied ecology, modeling, and ecological risk assessments of contaminated sediments and complex contaminant mixtures, and statistical data analysis. During her time at RPI, Dr. Bejarano has provided technical and scientific support to various inland and marine oil spills. She also led data analyses on the potential toxicological impacts of surface dispersant use to aquatic organisms during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and co-author a report to the USCG. She was also the lead toxicologist of the Biological Assessment for the RRT4 and RRT9 Preauthorization Plan for Dispersant Use. Furthermore, Dr. Bejarano is an Adjunct Professor at the Department of Environmental Health and Sciences at the University of South Carolina and an active PREPUBLICATION COPY 304

Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies 305 member of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. She received her Ph.D. in Aquatic Toxicology from the Arnold School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina in 2004. Michel Boufadel is a Professor of Environmental Engineering and Director of the Center for Natural Resources Development and Protection at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He also holds a title of Professor in the Department of Biological, Chemical, and Pharmaceutical Engineering. He is a professional engineer in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers. His expertise lies in environmental fluid mechanics and modeling of processes, and has applied the expertise in researching the behavior of oil since 1995. Dr. Boufadel was involved in addressing the persistence of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and the fate and behavior of the Deepwater Horizon spill and the the Enbridge Pipe 6 spil in Michigan, both in 2010. He has served on several National Academies committees dealing with oil spill. He also served on the Royal Society of Canada Committee on the “Behaviour of oil in aqueous environments, in 2016”, and the EPA Science Advisory Board on Shale Gas. He has more than 150 refereed publications in environmental fluid mechanics and modeling. He received a B.S. in Civil Engineering from the Jesuit University at Beirut in Lebanon, and M.S. and Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. Gina Coelho has over 25 years of experience in environmental research, consulting, program management, and regulatory compliance in the offshore oil and gas sector. She began working in the field of dispersant and dispersed oil research as a staff scientist for the Marine Spill Response Corporation (1993-1995). In 1996, she began working as an environmental consultant with a small firm supporting onshore and offshore oil and gas and related energy sector projects. Since that time, she has worked on projects for oil companies and associated regulatory agencies (including USCG, EPA, BOEM, and NOAA) on the use of science in supporting dispersant use, policy, and decision making. Dr. Coelho focuses on integrating dispersant and dispersed oil research into spill contingency planning, and serves as an expert on regulatory outreach and community engagement strategies on dispersant issues, both in the US and abroad. She previously served as the President of Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc. and as a Principal Professional Associate and Offshore Oil and Gas Sector Director for HDR Inc. Most recently, she has worked as a Principal Senior Scientist for Sponson Group, Inc. Dr. Coelho was Chief Scientist on the Deepwater Horizon monitoring of subsurface dispersant injection, and served as a scientific liaison between BP and the Trustees on dispersant issues during and after the spill response. In addition, she has worked on other spills in US waters. She received a B.A. in Biology from St. Mary’s College of Maryland, completed her graduate coursework through the University of Maryland, Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, and received her Ph.D. in Ecology/Environmental Science from Bircham International University in Madrid, Spain. Thomas S. Coolbaugh is an Oil Spill Response Advisor for Exxon Mobil Corporation’s Safety, Security, Health and Environment Support organization where he provides technical guidance and training on the full suite of oil spill response strategies in support of global operations. Dr. Coolbaugh has extensive experience in a variety of research settings as a scientist and leader. He is a Vice Chair of IPIECA’s Oil Spill Working Group (immediate past Chair), a member of the American Petroleum Industry (API) Spills Advisory Group, the Marine Preservation Association Dispersant Advisory Committee, and the Science Advisory Panel of the University of New Hampshire/NOAA Coastal Response Research Center. He served on the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Responding to Oil Spills in Arctic Environments and was an invited subject matter expert for a Consensus Environmental Risk Assessment project led by US Coast Guard Sector Delaware Bay relating to potential incidents involving Bakken crude and diluted bitumen. His focus is often on the scientific understanding and regulatory aspects of the use of dispersants during an oil spill response and communicating with a variety of groups on the topics. Dr. Coolbaugh received his B.A. in chemistry from Amherst College, a Ph.D. in chemistry from the California Institute of Technology (Advisor: Professor Robert Grubbs, 2005 Nobel Laureate), and an M.S. in the Management of Technology from New York University. He has been with ExxonMobil since 1988. PREPUBLICATION COPY

306 The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response Cortis Cooper retired after over 27 years of service as a Fellow with Chevron Energy Technology Company, one of 22 Chevron scientists who advise corporate managers about science-related issues. Over his career in the offshore industry, he has focused on quantifying winds, waves, and currents that are used by engineers to operate and design offshore facilities at various locations around the world. His research has included the study of the fate of oil spills, modeling hurricane alleys in the Gulf of Mexico, forecasting the Loop Current and associated eddies in the Gulf of Mexico, supervising the development of ocean current models in the Gulf of Mexico, and investigating the fate of oil and gas from deepwater blowouts. Dr. Cooper was a member of the National Research Council’s’ Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects, and he formerly served as a member of the Ocean Studies Board. He earned a Ph.D. in environmental engineering from the University of Maine in 1987, and a M.Sc. and B.S. in civil engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977 and 1975, respectively. Dominic Di Toro (NAE) is the Edward C. Davis Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Delaware. He has specialized in the development and application of mathematical and statistical models to stream, lake, estuarine, and coastal water and sediment quality problems. He has participated in the development of water and sediment quality criteria for the U.S. Environmental Agency (EPA), sediment flux models for nutrients and metals, and integrated hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and water quality models. Recently he has participated in developing models for predicting environmental partitioning and toxicity parameters from molecular structure. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and served on the NRC Committee on Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites, and Committee on the Evaluation of Chesapeake Bay Program Implementation for Nutrient Reduction to Improve Water Quality. He received a B.E.E. from Manhattan College, an M.A. in electrical engineering from Princeton University, and a Ph.D. in civil and geological engineering from Princeton University. Julia Gohlke is an Associate Professor in the Department of Population Health Sciences at Virginia Tech. Her research utilizes spatial epidemiology, risk assessment, and toxicology approaches to characterize human health implications of global environmental change and large-scale environmental disasters, including the Deepwater Horizon blowout. She has served on several advisory boards related to environmental health, including for federal agencies such as the USEPA, NIEHS, and CDC. She received a B.S. in Biology at the University of Michigan and a M.S. and Ph.D. in Environmental Health at the University of Washington. Bernard Goldstein is Emeritus Dean and Emeritus Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), and has chaired over a dozen NAM or National Research Council Committees. He has also chaired committees related to environmental health for the World Health Organization and the United Nations Environmental Program. His past experience includes service as Assistant Administrator for Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1983-1985, and President of the Society for Risk Analysis. His involvement in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill includes serving as an Advisory Board member of the National Academies Gulf Research Program and as the original chair of the Coordinating Committee of the Gulf Research Health Outreach Program. He is also active on shale gas issues and on issues related to the science/policy interface. Terry Hazen currently holds a joint appointment with the University of Tennessee –Knoxville’s College of Engineering’s Civil and Environmental Engineering Department and the College of Arts and Sciences’ departments of Microbiology and Earth and Planetary Sciences. He also serves as a Faculty Fellow at the University of Tennessee -Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Joint Institute for Biological Sciences and the Center for Environmental Biotechnology. Specializing in bioremediation and bioenergy, Hazen’s research more narrowly focuses on how naturally occurring bacteria can sometimes break down and detoxify hazardous material. He also works with a team of researchers who have developed a method of using bacteria to help test for the presence of a wide array of pollutants. He previously served as the Program Director for the Deepwater Horizons Oil Spill Systems Biology program at the Energy Biosciences PREPUBLICATION COPY

Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies 307 Institute at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Hazen received his B.S. and M.S. in Interdepartmental Biology, specializing in Parasitology, from Michigan State University in 1973 and 1974, respectively. He then went on to earn his Ph.D in Parasitology-Ecology at Wake Forest University in 1978. Kenneth Lee is the National Senior Science Advisor for Oil Spill Research, Preparedness and Response for Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Until recently the was the Director of Oceans and Atmosphere in the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO—Australia's national science agency) with the goal to enhance Australia’s prosperity and wellbeing through research to underpin sustainable economic, social, and environmental use of Australia’s marine estate and the management of its atmospheric environment. He also served on the Australian Government’s National Plan for Maritime Environmental Emergencies Committee. Dr. Lee’s research activities include studies on the transport, biotransformation and biodegradation of organic and inorganic contaminants, development of toxicological and modelling approaches to assess the potential impact of the offshore oil and gas industry (including accidental oil spills), and the development and validation of oil spill countermeasure technologies. He has served on the National Research Council’s Committee on the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Committee on Arctic Oil Spill Response. In 2016, Dr. Lee chaired the Royal Society of Canada’s Expert Panel on the The Behaviour and Environmental Impacts of Crude Oil Released Into Aqueous Environments. Dr. Lee received a Ph.D. and M.Sc. in botany/environmental studies from the University of Toronto in 1982 and 1977, respectively, and a B.Sc. in biology from Dalhousie University in 1975. Steve Murawski is Professor and Peter Betzer Endowed Chair of Biological Oceanography in the College of Marine Science at the University of South Florida. His research group aims to understand the impacts of human activities on the sustainability of ocean ecosystems. He has developed approaches for understanding the impacts of fishing on marine fish complexes exploited in mixed-species aggregations, with the goal to help inform investments to rebuild the Gulf of Mexico from effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, loss of nursery areas, nutrient enrichment, and overfishing. Dr. Murawski serves as Director of the Center for Integrated Analysis and Modeling of Gulf Ecosystems, is a USA Delegate of the International Council for the Exploration of the SEA, and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences’ Ocean Studies Board, in addition to being appointed to serve on the committee for Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences 2015. He received a B.S. and M.S. in Fisheries Biology and a Ph.D. in Fisheries and Wildlife Biology from the University of Massachusetts at Amerst. W. Scott Pegau is a Research Scientist and Research Program Manager at the Oil Spill Recovery Institute (OSRI). His research aims to develop novel oil spill detection and tracking approaches to understand the fate and behavior of oil spilled in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. At OSRI, he monitors grant contracts and provides leadership in planning research programs. Prior to joining OSRI, Dr. Pegau was a Senior Scientist and Research Coordinator at the Kachemak Bay Research Reserve in Alaska. He received a B.S. in Physics from the University of Alaska Fairbanks and a Ph.D. in Oceanography from Oregon State University. Ronald Tjeerdema is the Associate Dean of Environmental Sciences and Donald G. Crosby Endowed Chair in Environmental Chemistry at the University of California, Davis. With a focus on marine and freshwater ecosystems, Dr. Tjeerdema’s areas of expertise range from chemical fate in the environment, sensitive life stage bioassays, and biochemical mechanisms of toxicity. He has also worked extensively with pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, dispersants, and marine algal toxins. Notably, his research on oil spills and dispersants resulted in the development of the widely-used standardized CROSERF methods for toxicity assessment. During the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Dr. Tjeerdema served on several NOAA panels advising response plans. He currently serves as co editor-in-chief on the flagship journal Aquatic Toxicology. He completed his Ph.D in pharmacology and toxicology, with an emphasis in environmental toxicology, in 1987 from the University of California, Davis PREPUBLICATION COPY

308 The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response David Valentine is a Professor of geochemistry and microbiology, and holds the Norris Presidential Chair in Earth Science at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His main research interest is the interactions of microbes and the Earth system, and more specifically, the Archaea, biogeochemistry and microbial ecology of hydrocarbons, and the development of novel isotopic approaches to study microbes and geochemical processes. Dr. Valentine’s Lab currently works on projects probing the global methane and hydrogen cycles, with field sites from Alaska to the Coal Oil Point seep field in California. He is well known for his contributions to understanding the fate of hydrocarbons and bacteria from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. He was the recipient of the National Science Foundation CAREER award and is a fellow of the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program. After receiving his M.S and B.S degrees in chemistry from the University of California at San Diego, Dr. Valentine went on to earn another M.S and a Ph.D. in earth system sciences from the University of California at Irvine. Helen White White is an Associate Professor of Chemistry and Environmental Studies at Haverford College in Haverford, Pennsylvania. Dr. White’s research interests examine the sources, sinks, and cycling of human-derived compounds in the marine environment with a focus on how chemical structure, physical associations, and bioavailability determine the persistence of specific organic compounds. Dr. White has investigated persistent oil residues in the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, as well as in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Dr. White is a recipient of the National Academies of Sciences Gulf Research Program Early-Career fellowship, and a Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award. Dr. White received her M.Chem degree in Chemistry from the University of Sussex, UK, and her Ph.D in Chemical Oceanography from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Following her graduate studies, Dr. White was awarded the Microbial Science Initiative Postdoctoral Fellowship at Harvard University. STAFF Susan Roberts is the Director of the Ocean Studies Board at the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. She started as a Program Officer for the Ocean Studies Board in 1998 and became the Director of the Board in 2004. Dr. Roberts specializes in the science and management of living marine resources. She has served as study director for eighteen reports produced by the National Academies on topics covering a broad range of ocean science, marine resource management, and science policy issues. Her research publications include studies on fish physiology and biochemistry, marine bacterial symbioses, and cell and developmental biology. Dr. Roberts received her Ph.D. in Marine Biology from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Prior to her position at the Ocean Studies Board, she worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of California, Berkeley and as a senior staff fellow at the National Institutes of Health. Recently, she served on the editorial panel for UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Global Ocean Science Report (2017) and currently is a member of the editorial panel for the second edition. Dr. Roberts is an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Washington Academy of Sciences. Constance Karras is a program officer with the Ocean Studies Board. She joined the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine in 2012 as a fellow, and served as a research associate for the Ocean Studies Board between 2013 and 2015. She then served as an associate program officer until 2016, when she took on her current role. She received her B.A. in marine affairs and policy with concentrations in biology and political science from the University of Miami in 2007. The following year she received an M.A. in marine affairs and policy from the University of Miami’s Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. In 2012, she earned her J.D. from the University of Virginia, School of Law. Trent Cummings graduated in August 2015 from The George Washington University in Washington, D.C., where he received a B.A. in environmental studies, sustainability. Prior to working at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, he interned with the Business Network for Offshore PREPUBLICATION COPY

Appendix A: Committee and Staff Biographies 309 Wind covering the completion of the Block Island Wind Farm. He joined the Ocean Studies Board as a program assistant in December 2017. PREPUBLICATION COPY

Next: APPENDIX B: DISCLOSURE OF CONFLICT OF INTEREST »
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Whether the result of an oil well blowout, vessel collision or grounding, leaking pipeline, or other incident at sea, each marine oil spill will present unique circumstances and challenges. The oil type and properties, location, time of year, duration of spill, water depth, environmental conditions, affected biomes, potential human community impact, and available resources may vary significantly. Also, each spill may be governed by policy guidelines, such as those set forth in the National Response Plan, Regional Response Plans, or Area Contingency Plans. To respond effectively to the specific conditions presented during an oil spill, spill responders have used a variety of response options—including mechanical recovery of oil using skimmers and booms, in situ burning of oil, monitored natural attenuation of oil, and dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants. Because each response method has advantages and disadvantages, it is important to understand specific scenarios where a net benefit may be achieved by using a particular tool or combination of tools.

This report builds on two previous National Research Council reports on dispersant use to provide a current understanding of the state of science and to inform future marine oil spill response operations. The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill included an unprecedented use of dispersants via both surface application and subsea injection. The magnitude of the spill stimulated interest and funding for research on oil spill response, and dispersant use in particular. This study assesses the effects and efficacy of dispersants as an oil spill response tool and evaluates trade-offs associated with dispersant use.

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