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The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response (2019)

Chapter: APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA

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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Page 360
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
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Page 361
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 362
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 363
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 364

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APPENDIX F META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA DATA COMPILATION A meta-analysis of aquatic toxicity data from laboratory exposures with whole organisms was undertaken to better understand the effects of dispersants, and physically and chemically dispersed oil. While the quality of toxicity data varies considerably across studies, selection of data included in this meta-analysis followed a strict set of rules aimed at selecting the best available information. These rules followed those used to develop the Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database, which contains aquatic toxicity for dispersants, and both physically and chemically dispersed oil (NOAA/ERD, 2015; Bejarano et al., 2016), and included: 1. Data from original scientific publications and peer review literature (primary source) rather than from reviews or unverifiable sources; 2. Studies clearly stating the species’ common and/or scientific name, oil source, and dispersant name used in toxicity tests; 3. Studies with complete descriptions of biological test methods, or referencing an appropriate published method; 4. Acceptable effects endpoints relative to control tests, with inclusion of studies that do not discuss or mention the use of controls considered on a case by case basis; and 5. Analytical methods for chemical characterization described or referenced; only toxicity data reported as measured concentrations are included. Data from studies published between 2005 and 2012 were queried directly from CAFE, while studies post 2012 were identified via online searches, or direct contact with researchers in the field. Priority was given to papers reporting toxicity for both WAF and CEWAF for the same oil and under the same testing conditions. In addition, this meta-analysis included NDRA data from the DWH oil spill collected by the Trustees, with most data queried from a public data repository (DIVER 2017). All references and data sources included in this meta-analysis are provided below. For the purpose of this meta-analyses, only median lethal and median effects concentrations (LC50 and EC50, respectively), were included, and to the extent possible, information on testing approaches tabulated and summarized. In all cases, toxicity data reported with qualifiers or displayed in figures, but not reported in the text, were excluded from these analyses. Because of the narrow focus of this meta-analysis, only chemically dispersed oil prepared with select dispersants for which stock piles are currently available (i.e., Corexit 9527, Corexit 9500, Finasol OSR 52, Dasic Slickgone, Accell Clean) are included. Dispersant-only toxicity data from a recent meta-analysis (Bejarano, 2018 and reference herein) that followed a similar approach to the one described above were used in assessments on the relative toxicity of the dispersants listed above. Unlike toxicity data for WAF and CEWAF, most dispersant only toxicity data are commonly reported as nominal concentrations, and thus, all nominally reported PREPUBLICATION COPY 360

Appendix F:Meta-Analysis of Aquatic Toxicity Data 361 dispersant toxicity data were used in these analyses. For consistency with the WAF/CEWAF meta-analysis, dispersant only toxicity data focused on the select dispersants mentioned above. REFERENCES Bejarano, A. C. (2018). Critical Review and Analysis of Aquatic Toxicity Data on Oil Spill Dispersants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Bejarano, A. C., J. K. Farr, P. Jenne, V. Chu and A. Hielscher (2016). The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 35(6): 1576-1586. DIVER (2017). Web Application: Data Integration Visualization Exploration and Reporting Application, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved: [September, 20, 2017], from https://www.diver.orr.noaa.gov. NOAA/ERD (2015). Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) Database. Version 1.1 [Computer Software]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Emergency Response Division, Office of Response and Restoration, Seattle, WA.: 40 + Appendices. USEPA (2017). Technical overview of ecological risk assessment analysis phase: Ecological effects characterization. Washington, DC. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-science-and-assessing-pesticide-risks/technical-overview- ecological-risk-assessment-0. Meta-Analysis: Complete Reference List Abbasova, A., K. Bagirova, G. Campbell, J. Clark, R. Gallagher, N. Garajayeva, A. Georges- Ares, L. Huseynova, D. Nelson and B. Roddie (2005). Evaluation of dispersants for use in the Azerbaijan region of the Caspian Sea. Proceedings of the 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute, Miami Beach, FL, USA. 247-252. Adams, J. (2013). Identification of compounds in heavy fuel oil 7102 that are chronically toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos. Department of Biology Kingston, Ontario, Canada Queen's University. Masters: 194. Adams, J., M. Sweezey and P. V. Hodson (2014). Oil and oil dispersant do not cause synergistic toxicity to fish embryos. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33(1): 107-114. Akah, P. A., C. A. Ezike, N. Offiah and C. C. Agbata (2009). Evaluation of the acute toxicity of Corexit 9527/Forcados crude oil mixture on Tilapia guineensis and Sarothedron melanotheron. Sustainable Human Development Review 1(4): 157-178. Alexander, F. J., C. K. King, A. J. Reichelt‐Brushett and P. L. Harrison (2017). Fuel oil and dispersant toxicity to the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36(6): 1563-1571. Aurand, D. and G. Coelho (2005). Cooperative aquatic toxicity testing of dispersed oil and the “Chemical response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF)”. Technical Report., EM&A Inc., Lusby, MD. 79. PREPUBLICATION COPY

362 The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response Aurand, D., G. Coelho and M. A. Slaughter (2009). The Relationship Between Acute and Population Level Effects of Exposure to Dispersed Oil, and the Influence of Exposure Conditions Using Multiple Life History Stages of an Estuarine Copepod, Eurytemora affinis, as a Model Planktonic Organism, Report to the Coastal Response Research Center, UNH. 4.0. Coelho, G. and D. V. Aurand (2011). Rapid toxicity evaluation of several dispersants: a comparison of results. Proceedings of the 2011 International Oil spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute, Portland, OR, USA. 1-11. Cohen, J. H., L. R. McCormick and S. M. Burkhardt (2014). Effects of dispersant and oil on survival and swimming activity in a marine copepod. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 92(4): 381-387. DIVER (2017). Web Application: Data Integration Visualization Exploration and Reporting Application, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved: [September, 20, 2017], from https://www.diver.orr.noaa.gov. Duffy, T. A., W. Childress, R. Portier and E. J. Chesney (2016). Responses of bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) larvae under lethal and sublethal scenarios of crude oil exposure. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 134: 264-272. Esbaugh, A. J., E. M. Mager, J. D. Stieglitz, R. Hoenig, T. L. Brown, B. L. French, T. L. Linbo, C. Lay, H. Forth and N. L. Scholz (2016). The effects of weathering and chemical dispersion on Deepwater Horizon crude oil toxicity to mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) early life stages. Science of The Total Environment 543: 644-651. Finch, B. E., S. Marzooghi, D. M. Di Toro and W. A. Stubblefield (2017). Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 36(10): 2640-2650. Frometa, J., M. E. DeLorenzo, E. C. Pisarski and P. J. Etnoyer (2017). Toxicity of oil and dispersant on the deep water gorgonian octocoral Swiftia exserta, with implications for the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Marine pollution bulletin 122(1-2): 91-99. Gardiner, W., J. Word, J. Word, R. Perkins, K. McFarlin, B. Hester, L. Word and C. Ray (2013). The acute toxicity of chemically and physically dispersed crude oil to key arctic species under arctic conditions during the open water season Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32(10): 2284-2300. Garr, A. L., S. Laramore and W. Krebs (2014). Toxic effects of oil and dispersant on marine microalgae. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 93(6): 654-659. Goodbody-Gringley, G., D. L. Wetzel, D. Gillon, E. Pulster, A. Miller and K. B. Ritchie (2013). Toxicity of Deepwater Horizon source oil and the chemical dispersant, Corexit® 9500, to coral larvae. PLoS One 8(1): e45574. Greer, C. D., P. V. Hodson, Z. Li, T. King and K. Lee (2012). Toxicity of crude oil chemically dispersed in a wave tank to embryos of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Environmental toxicology and chemistry 31(6): 1324-1333. PREPUBLICATION COPY

Appendix F:Meta-Analysis of Aquatic Toxicity Data 363 Hansen, B. H., D. Altin, A. J. Olsen and T. Nordtug (2012). Acute toxicity of naturally and chemically dispersed oil on the filter-feeding copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 86: 38-46. Hemmer, M. J., M. G. Barron and R. M. Greene (2011). Comparative toxicity of eight oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC to two aquatic test species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30(10): 2244-2252. Hodson, P. V., C. W. Khan, G. Saravanabhavan, L. Clarke, R. S. Brown, J. Short, B. Hollebone, Z. Wang, K. Lee and T. King (2007). Alkyl PAH in crude oil cause chronic toxicity to early life stages of fish. ARCTIC AND MARINE OILSPILL PROGRAM TECHNICAL SEMINAR, Environment Canada; 1999. 291. Hook, S. and H. Osborn (2012). Comparison of Toxicity and Transcriptomic Profiles in a Diatom Exposed to Oil, Dispersants, Dispersed Oil. Aquatic Toxicology: 139-151. Incardona, J. P., L. D. Gardner, T. L. Linbo, T. L. Brown, A. J. Esbaugh, E. M. Mager, J. D. Stieglitz, B. L. French, J. S. Labenia and C. A. Laetz (2014). Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(15): E1510-E1518. Langdon, C. J., E. S. Stefansson, S. M. Pargee, S. M. Blunt, S. J. Gage and W. A. Stubblefield (2016). Chronic effects of non‐weathered and weathered crude oil and dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident on development of larvae of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 35(8): 2029-2040. Laramore, S., W. Krebs and A. Garr (2014). Effects of Macondo Canyon 252 oil (naturally and chemically dispersed) on larval Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791). Journal of Shellfish Research 33(3): 709-718. Lee, K., M. Boudreau, S. Johnson, S. Courtenay, L. Burridge, M. Lyons, K. MacKeigan, D. Wong, C. Greer, P. Hodson, Z. Li and S. Ryan (2013). Toxicity Effects of Dispersed Alaska North Slope Oil on Fish, Centre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research (COOGER), Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada. 68. Lee, K., T. King, B. Robinson, Z. Li, L. Burridge, M. Lyons, D. Wong, K. MacKeigan, S. Courtenay and S. Johnson (2011). Toxicity effects of chemically-dispersed crude oil on fish. Proceedings of the 2011 International Oil spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute, Portland, OR, USA. 1-17. Lin, C. Y., B. S. Anderson, B. M. Phillips, A. C. Peng, S. Clark, J. Voorhees, H. D. I. Wu, M. J. Martin, J. McCall and C. R. Todd (2009). Characterization of the metabolic actions of crude versus dispersed oil in salmon smolts via NMR-based metabolomics. Aquatic Toxicology 95(3): 230-238. Martin, J. D., J. Adams, B. Hollebone, T. King, R. S. Brown and P. V. Hodson (2014). Chronic toxicity of heavy fuel oils to fish embryos using multiple exposure scenarios. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 33(3): 677-687. McFarlin, K. M., R. A. Perkins, W. W. Gardiner and J. D. Word (2011a). Evaluating the biodegradability and effects of dispersed oil using Arctic test species and conditions: phase 2 activities. Arctic and marine oil spill program technical seminar. PREPUBLICATION COPY

364 The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response McFarlin, K. M., R. A. Perkins, W. W. Gardiner, J. D. Word and J. Q. Word (2011b). Toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed oil to selected Arctic species. International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings (IOSC), American Petroleum Institute. abs149. McIntosh, S., T. King, D. Wu and P. V. Hodson (2010). Toxicity of dispersed weathered crude oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Environmental toxicology and chemistry 29(5): 1160-1167. Morris, J., M. Krasnec, M. Carney, H. Forth, C. Lay, I. Lipton, A. McFadden, R. Takeshita, D. Cacela and J. Holmes (2015). Deepwater Horizon oil spill natural resource damage assessment comprehensive toxicity testing program: Overview, methods, and results. DWH-AR0293761, Technical report. Prepared by Abt Associates, Boulder, CO and Chesapeake Biological Laboratoy, Solomons, MD, for National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Assessment and Restoration Division, Seattle, WA. Retrieved from https://www.fws.gov/doiddata/dwh-ar-documents/952/DWH- AR0302396.pdf. Olsen, G. H., N. Coquillé, S. Le Floch, P. Geraudie, M. Dussauze, P. Lemaire and L. Camus (2016). Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23(7): 6497-6505. Özhan, K., S. M. Miles, H. Gao and S. Bargu (2014). Relative Phytoplankton growth responses to physically and chemically dispersed South Louisiana sweet crude oil. Environmental monitoring and assessment 186(6): 3941-3956. Peiffer, R. F. and J. H. Cohen (2015). Lethal and sublethal effects of oil, chemical dispersant, and dispersed oil on the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Aquatic Biology 23(3): 237-250. Perkins, R. A., S. Rhoton and C. Behr-Andres (2005). Comparative marine toxicity testing: A cold-water species and standard warm-water test species exposed to crude oil and dispersant. Cold Regions Science and Technology 42(3): 226-236. Schein, A., J. A. Scott, L. Mos and P. V. Hodson (2009). Oil dispersion increases the apparent bioavailability and toxicity of diesel to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental toxicology and chemistry 28(3): 595-602. Vignier, J., P. Soudant, F. Chu, J. Morris, M. Carney, C. Lay, M. Krasnec, R. Robert and A. Volety (2016). Lethal and sub-lethal effects of Deepwater Horizon slick oil and dispersant on oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae. Marine environmental research 120: 20-31. Wu, D., Z. Wang, B. Hollebone, S. McIntosh, T. King and P. V. Hodson (2012). Comparative toxicity of four chemically dispersed and undispersed crude oils to rainbow trout embryos. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 31(4): 754-76 PREPUBLICATION COPY

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Whether the result of an oil well blowout, vessel collision or grounding, leaking pipeline, or other incident at sea, each marine oil spill will present unique circumstances and challenges. The oil type and properties, location, time of year, duration of spill, water depth, environmental conditions, affected biomes, potential human community impact, and available resources may vary significantly. Also, each spill may be governed by policy guidelines, such as those set forth in the National Response Plan, Regional Response Plans, or Area Contingency Plans. To respond effectively to the specific conditions presented during an oil spill, spill responders have used a variety of response options—including mechanical recovery of oil using skimmers and booms, in situ burning of oil, monitored natural attenuation of oil, and dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants. Because each response method has advantages and disadvantages, it is important to understand specific scenarios where a net benefit may be achieved by using a particular tool or combination of tools.

This report builds on two previous National Research Council reports on dispersant use to provide a current understanding of the state of science and to inform future marine oil spill response operations. The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill included an unprecedented use of dispersants via both surface application and subsea injection. The magnitude of the spill stimulated interest and funding for research on oil spill response, and dispersant use in particular. This study assesses the effects and efficacy of dispersants as an oil spill response tool and evaluates trade-offs associated with dispersant use.

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