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APPENDIX F META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA DATA COMPILATION A meta-analysis of aquatic toxicity data from laboratory exposures with whole organisms was undertaken to better understand the effects of dispersants, and physically and chemically dispersed oil. While the quality of toxicity data varies considerably across studies, selection of data included in this meta-analysis followed a strict set of rules aimed at selecting the best available information. These rules followed those used to develop the Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database, which contains aquatic toxicity for dispersants, and both physically and chemically dispersed oil (NOAA/ERD, 2015; Bejarano et al., 2016), and included: 1. Data from original scientific publications and peer review literature (primary source) rather than from reviews or unverifiable sources; 2. Studies clearly stating the speciesâ common and/or scientific name, oil source, and dispersant name used in toxicity tests; 3. Studies with complete descriptions of biological test methods, or referencing an appropriate published method; 4. Acceptable effects endpoints relative to control tests, with inclusion of studies that do not discuss or mention the use of controls considered on a case by case basis; and 5. Analytical methods for chemical characterization described or referenced; only toxicity data reported as measured concentrations are included. Data from studies published between 2005 and 2012 were queried directly from CAFE, while studies post 2012 were identified via online searches, or direct contact with researchers in the field. Priority was given to papers reporting toxicity for both WAF and CEWAF for the same oil and under the same testing conditions. In addition, this meta-analysis included NDRA data from the DWH oil spill collected by the Trustees, with most data queried from a public data repository (DIVER 2017). All references and data sources included in this meta-analysis are provided below. For the purpose of this meta-analyses, only median lethal and median effects concentrations (LC50 and EC50, respectively), were included, and to the extent possible, information on testing approaches tabulated and summarized. In all cases, toxicity data reported with qualifiers or displayed in figures, but not reported in the text, were excluded from these analyses. Because of the narrow focus of this meta-analysis, only chemically dispersed oil prepared with select dispersants for which stock piles are currently available (i.e., Corexit 9527, Corexit 9500, Finasol OSR 52, Dasic Slickgone, Accell Clean) are included. Dispersant-only toxicity data from a recent meta-analysis (Bejarano, 2018 and reference herein) that followed a similar approach to the one described above were used in assessments on the relative toxicity of the dispersants listed above. Unlike toxicity data for WAF and CEWAF, most dispersant only toxicity data are commonly reported as nominal concentrations, and thus, all nominally reported PREPUBLICATION COPY 360
Appendix F:Meta-Analysis of Aquatic Toxicity Data 361 dispersant toxicity data were used in these analyses. For consistency with the WAF/CEWAF meta-analysis, dispersant only toxicity data focused on the select dispersants mentioned above. REFERENCES Bejarano, A. C. (2018). Critical Review and Analysis of Aquatic Toxicity Data on Oil Spill Dispersants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Bejarano, A. C., J. K. Farr, P. Jenne, V. Chu and A. Hielscher (2016). The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 35(6): 1576-1586. DIVER (2017). Web Application: Data Integration Visualization Exploration and Reporting Application, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved: [September, 20, 2017], from https://www.diver.orr.noaa.gov. NOAA/ERD (2015). Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) Database. Version 1.1 [Computer Software]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Emergency Response Division, Office of Response and Restoration, Seattle, WA.: 40 + Appendices. USEPA (2017). Technical overview of ecological risk assessment analysis phase: Ecological effects characterization. Washington, DC. Available from: https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-science-and-assessing-pesticide-risks/technical-overview- ecological-risk-assessment-0. Meta-Analysis: Complete Reference List Abbasova, A., K. Bagirova, G. Campbell, J. Clark, R. Gallagher, N. Garajayeva, A. Georges- Ares, L. Huseynova, D. Nelson and B. Roddie (2005). Evaluation of dispersants for use in the Azerbaijan region of the Caspian Sea. Proceedings of the 2005 International Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute, Miami Beach, FL, USA. 247-252. Adams, J. (2013). Identification of compounds in heavy fuel oil 7102 that are chronically toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos. Department of Biology Kingston, Ontario, Canada Queen's University. Masters: 194. Adams, J., M. Sweezey and P. V. Hodson (2014). Oil and oil dispersant do not cause synergistic toxicity to fish embryos. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33(1): 107-114. Akah, P. A., C. A. Ezike, N. Offiah and C. C. Agbata (2009). Evaluation of the acute toxicity of Corexit 9527/Forcados crude oil mixture on Tilapia guineensis and Sarothedron melanotheron. Sustainable Human Development Review 1(4): 157-178. Alexander, F. J., C. K. King, A. J. ReicheltâBrushett and P. L. Harrison (2017). Fuel oil and dispersant toxicity to the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36(6): 1563-1571. Aurand, D. and G. Coelho (2005). Cooperative aquatic toxicity testing of dispersed oil and the âChemical response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF)â. Technical Report., EM&A Inc., Lusby, MD. 79. PREPUBLICATION COPY
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