National Academies Press: OpenBook

The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response (2020)

Chapter: APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA

« Previous: APPENDIX E: CONSULTANTS' REPORT
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×

APPENDIX F

META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA

DATA COMPILATION

A meta-analysis of aquatic toxicity data from laboratory exposures with whole organisms was undertaken to better understand the effects of dispersants and of physically and chemically dispersed oil. While the quality of toxicity data varies considerably across studies, selection of data included in this meta-analysis followed a strict set of rules aimed at selecting the best available information. These rules followed those used to develop the Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) database, which contains aquatic toxicity for dispersants as well as both physically and chemically dispersed oil (Bejarano et al., 2016; NOAA/ERD, 2015), and included:

  1. Data from original scientific publications and peer-reviewed literature (primary source) rather than from reviews or unverifiable sources;
  2. Studies clearly stating the species’ common and/or scientific name, oil source, and dispersant name used in toxicity tests;
  3. Studies with complete descriptions of biological test methods, or referencing an appropriate published method;
  4. Acceptable effects endpoints relative to control tests, with inclusion of studies that do not discuss or mention the use of controls considered on a case by case basis; and
  5. Analytical methods for chemical characterization described or referenced; only toxicity data reported as measured concentrations are included.

Data from studies published between 2005 and 2012 were queried directly from CAFE, while studies post-2012 were identified via online searches or direct contact with researchers in the field. Priority was given to papers reporting toxicity for both water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced water-accommodated fraction (CEWAF) for the same oil and under the same testing conditions. In addition, this meta-analysis included Natural Resource Damage Assessment data from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill collected by the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustees, with most data queried from a public data repository (DIVER,

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×

2017). All references and data sources included in this meta-analysis are provided below. For the purpose of this meta-analyses, only median lethal and median effects concentrations (LC50 and EC50, respectively) were included, and to the extent possible, information on testing approaches was tabulated and summarized. In all cases, toxicity data reported with qualifiers or displayed in figures but not reported in the text were excluded from these analyses. Because of the narrow focus of this meta-analysis, only chemically dispersed oil prepared with select dispersants for which stock piles are currently available (i.e., Corexit® 9527, Corexit® 9500, Finasol® OSR 52, Dasic Slickgone, Accell Clean) are included. Dispersant-only toxicity data from a recent meta-analysis (Bejarano, 2018, and references herein) that followed a similar approach to the one described above were used in assessments on the relative toxicity of the dispersants listed above. Unlike toxicity data for WAF and CEWAF, most dispersant-only toxicity data are commonly reported as nominal concentrations; thus, all nominally reported dispersant toxicity data were used in these analyses. For consistency with the WAF/CEWAF meta-analysis, dispersant-only toxicity data focused on the select dispersants mentioned above.

REFERENCES

Bejarano, A. C. 2018. Critical review and analysis of aquatic toxicity data on oil spill dispersants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37(12):2989-3001. DOI: 10.1002/etc.4254.

Bejarano, A. C., J. K. Farr, P. Jenne, V. Chu, and A. Hielscher. 2016. The Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects database (CAFE), a tool that supports assessments of chemical spills in aquatic environments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 35(6):1576-1586. DOI: 10.1002/etc.3289.

DIVER. 2017. Web Application: Data Integration Visualization Exploration and Reporting Application. Washington, DC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. https://www.diver.orr.noaa.gov.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2017. Technical Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment Analysis Phase: Ecological Effects Characterization. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-science-and-assessing-pesticide-risks/technical-overview-ecological-risk-assessment-0.

NOAA ERD (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Emergency Response Division). 2015. Chemical Aquatic Fate and Effects (CAFE) Database. Version 1.1 [Computer Software]. Seattle, WA: ERD, Office of Response and Restoration, NOAA.

META-ANALYSIS: COMPLETE REFERENCE LIST

Abbasova, A., K. Bagirova, G. Campbell, J. Clark, R. Gallagher, N. Garajayeva, A. Georges-Ares, L. Huseynova, D. Nelson, and B. Roddie. 2005. Evaluation of dispersants for use in the Azerbaijan region of the Caspian Sea. International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings 2005(1):247-252.

Adams, J. 2013. Identification of Compounds in Heavy Fuel Oil 7102 that are Chronically Toxic to Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Embryos. Kingston, Ontario, Canada: Department of Biology, Queen’s University. Masters: 194.

Adams, J., M. Sweezey, and P. V. Hodson. 2014. Oil and oil dispersant do not cause synergistic toxicity to fish embryos. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33(1):107-114.

Akah, P. A., C. A. Ezike, N. Offiah, and C. C. Agbata. 2009. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of Corexit 9527/Forcados crude oil mixture on Tilapia guineensis and Sarothedron melanotheron. Sustainable Human Development Review 1(4):157-178.

Alexander, F. J., C. K. King, A. J. Reichelt Brushett, and P. L. Harrison. 2017. Fuel oil and dispersant toxicity to the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36(6):1563-1571.

Aurand, D., and G. M. Coelho. 2005. Cooperative Aquatic Toxicity Testing of Dispersed Oil and the Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). Technical Report 07-03. Lusby, MD: Ecosystem Management & Associates, Inc.

Aurand, D., G. Coelho, and M. A. Slaughter. 2009. The Relationship Between Acute and Population Level Effects of Exposure to Dispersed Oil, and the Influence of Exposure Conditions Using Multiple Life History Stages of an Estuarine Copepod, Eurytemora affinis, as a Model Planktonic Organism. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire, Coastal Response Research Center. Version 4.0.

Coelho, G. M., D. V. Aurand, A. Slaughter, L. Robinson, and B. C. Jones. 2011. Rapid toxicity evaluations of several dispersants: A comparison of results. International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings 2011(1):abs416.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×

Cohen, J. H., L. R. McCormick, and S. M. Burkhardt. 2014. Effects of dispersant and oil on survival and swimming activity in a marine copepod. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 92(4):381-387.

DIVER. 2017. Web Application: Data Integration Visualization Exploration and Reporting Application. Washington, DC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. https://www.diver.orr.noaa.gov.

Duffy, T. A., W. Childress, R. Portier, and E. J. Chesney. 2016. Responses of bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) larvae under lethal and sublethal scenarios of crude oil exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 134:264-272.

Esbaugh, A. J., E. M. Mager, J. D. Stieglitz, R. Hoenig, T. L. Brown, B. L. French, T. L. Linbo, C. Lay, H. Forth, and N. L. Scholz. 2016. The effects of weathering and chemical dispersion on Deepwater Horizon crude oil toxicity to mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) early life stages. Science of the Total Environment 543:644-651.

Finch, B. E., S. Marzooghi, D. M. Di Toro, and W. A. Stubblefield. 2017. Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36(10):2640-2650.

Frometa, J., M. E. DeLorenzo, E. C. Pisarski, and P. J. Etnoyer. 2017. Toxicity of oil and dispersant on the deep water gorgonian octocoral Swiftia exserta, with implications for the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Marine Pollution Bulletin 122(1-2):91-99.

Gardiner, W., J. Word, J. Word, R. Perkins, K. McFarlin, B. Hester, L. Word, and C. Ray. 2013. The acute toxicity of chemically and physically dispersed crude oil to key arctic species under arctic conditions during the open water season. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32(10):2284-2300.

Garr, A. L., S. Laramore, and W. Krebs. 2014. Toxic effects of oil and dispersant on marine microalgae. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 93(6):654-659.

Goodbody-Gringley, G., D. L. Wetzel, D. Gillon, E. Pulster, A. Miller, and K. B. Ritchie. 2013. Toxicity of Deepwater Horizon source oil and the chemical dispersant, Corexit® 9500, to coral larvae. PLoS One 8(1):e45574.

Greer, C. D., P. V. Hodson, Z. Li, T. King, and K. Lee. 2012. Toxicity of crude oil chemically dispersed in a wave tank to embryos of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31(6):1324-1333.

Hansen, B. H., D. Altin, A. J. Olsen, and T. Nordtug (2012). Acute toxicity of naturally and chemically dispersed oil on the filter-feeding copepod Calanus finmarchicus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 86:38-46.

Hemmer, M. J., M. G. Barron, and R. M. Greene. 2011. Comparative toxicity of eight oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC to two aquatic test species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30(10):2244-2252.

Hodson, P. V., C. W. Khan, G. Saravanabhavan, L. Clarke, R. S. Brown, J. Short, B. Hollebone, Z. Wang, K. Lee, and T. King. 2007. Alkyl PAH in crude oil cause chronic toxicity to early life stages of fish. In Proceedings of the 30th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Environment Canada.

Hook, S., and H. Osborn. 2012. Comparison of toxicity and transcriptomic profiles in a diatom exposed to oil, dispersants, dispersed oil. Aquatic Toxicology 124-125(15):139-151.

Incardona, J. P., L. D. Gardner, T. L. Linbo, T. L. Brown, A. J. Esbaugh, E. M. Mager, J. D. Stieglitz, B. L. French, J. S. Labenia, and C. A. Laetz. 2014. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(15):E1510-E1518.

Langdon, C. J., E. S. Stefansson, S. M. Pargee, S. M. Blunt, S. J. Gage, and W. A. Stubblefield. 2016. Chronic effects of non weathered and weathered crude oil and dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident on development of larvae of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 35(8):2029-2040.

Laramore, S., W. Krebs, and A. Garr. 2014. Effects of Macondo Canyon 252 oil (naturally and chemically dispersed) on larval Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791). Journal of Shellfish Research 33(3):709-718.

Lee, K., T. King, B. Robinson, Z. Li, L. Burridge, M. Lyons, D. Wong, K. MacKeigan, S. Courtenay, and S. Johnson. 2011. Toxicity effects of chemically-dispersed crude oil on fish. International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings 2011(1):abs163.

Lee, K., M. Boudreau, S. Johnson, S. Courtenay, L. Burridge, M. Lyons, K. MacKeigan, D. Wong, C. Greer, P. Hodson, Z. Li, and S. Ryan. 2013. Toxicity Effects of Dispersed Alaska North Slope Oil on Fish. Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada: Centre for Offshore Oil, Gas and Energy Research, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

Lin, C. Y., B. S. Anderson, B. M. Phillips, A. C. Peng, S. Clark, J. Voorhees, H. D. I. Wu, M. J. Martin, J. McCall, and C. R. Todd. 2009. Characterization of the metabolic actions of crude versus dispersed oil in salmon smolts via NMR-based metabolomics. Aquatic Toxicology 95(3):230-238.

Martin, J. D., J. Adams, B. Hollebone, T. King, R. S. Brown, and P. V. Hodson. 2014. Chronic toxicity of heavy fuel oils to fish embryos using multiple exposure scenarios. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 33(3):677-687.

McFarlin, K. M., R. A. Perkins, W. W. Gardiner, and J. D. Word. 2011a. Evaluating the biodegradability and effects of dispersed oil using Arctic test species and conditions: Phase 2 activities. In Proceedings of the 34th Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response. Banff, Alberta, Canada: Environment Canada.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×

McFarlin, K. M., R. A. Perkins, W. W. Gardiner, J. D. Word, and J. Q. Word. 2011b. Toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed oil to selected Arctic species. International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings 2011(1):abs149.

McIntosh, S., T. King, D. Wu, and P. V. Hodson. 2010. Toxicity of dispersed weathered crude oil to early life stages of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(5):1160-1167.

Morris, J., M. Krasnec, M. Carney, H. Forth, C. Lay, I. Lipton, A. McFadden, R. Takeshita, D. Cacela, and J. Holmes. 2015. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment Comprehensive Toxicity Testing Program: Overview, Methods, and Results. DWH-AR0293761, technical report. Prepared for National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Assessment and Restoration Division, Seattle, Washington. Boulder, CO: Abt Associates, and Solomons, MD: Chesapeake Biological Laboratoy. https://www.fws.gov/doiddata/dwh-ar-documents/952/DWH-AR0302396.pdf.

Olsen, G. H., N. Coquille, S. Le Floch, P. Geraudie, M. Dussauze, P. Lemaire, and L. Camus. 2016. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23(7):6497-6505. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5869-5.

Özhan, K., S. M. Miles, H. Gao, and S. Bargu. 2014. Relative Phytoplankton growth responses to physically and chemically dispersed South Louisiana sweet crude oil. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186(6):3941-3956.

Peiffer, R. F., and J. H. Cohen. 2015. Lethal and sublethal effects of oil, chemical dispersant, and dispersed oil on the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Aquatic Biology 23(3):237-250.

Perkins, R. A., S. Rhoton, and C. Behr-Andres. 2005. Comparative marine toxicity testing: A cold-water species and standard warm-water test species exposed to crude oil and dispersant. Cold Regions Science and Technology 42(3):226-236.

Schein, A., J. A. Scott, L. Mos, and P. V. Hodson. 2009. Oil dispersion increases the apparent bioavailability and toxicity of diesel to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(3):595-602.

Vignier, J., P. Soudant, F. Chu, J. Morris, M. Carney, C. Lay, M. Krasnec, R. Robert, and A. Volety. 2016. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of Deepwater Horizon slick oil and dispersant on oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae. Marine Environmental Research 120:20-31.

Wu, D., Z. Wang, B. Hollebone, S. McIntosh, T. King, and P. V. Hodson. 2012. Comparative toxicity of four chemically dispersed and undispersed crude oils to rainbow trout embryos. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31(4):754-765.

Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 325
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 326
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 327
Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX F: META-ANALYSIS OF AQUATIC TOXICITY DATA." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25161.
×
Page 328
The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $75.00 Buy Ebook | $59.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Whether the result of an oil well blowout, vessel collision or grounding, leaking pipeline, or other incident at sea, each marine oil spill will present unique circumstances and challenges. The oil type and properties, location, time of year, duration of spill, water depth, environmental conditions, affected biomes, potential human community impact, and available resources may vary significantly. Also, each spill may be governed by policy guidelines, such as those set forth in the National Response Plan, Regional Response Plans, or Area Contingency Plans. To respond effectively to the specific conditions presented during an oil spill, spill responders have used a variety of response options—including mechanical recovery of oil using skimmers and booms, in situ burning of oil, monitored natural attenuation of oil, and dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants. Because each response method has advantages and disadvantages, it is important to understand specific scenarios where a net benefit may be achieved by using a particular tool or combination of tools.

This report builds on two previous National Research Council reports on dispersant use to provide a current understanding of the state of science and to inform future marine oil spill response operations. The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill included an unprecedented use of dispersants via both surface application and subsea injection. The magnitude of the spill stimulated interest and funding for research on oil spill response, and dispersant use in particular. This study assesses the effects and efficacy of dispersants as an oil spill response tool and evaluates trade-offs associated with dispersant use.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!