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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25193.
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3 Background Alternative fuels (AFs) and efficiency practices offer strategies for reducing emissions from the transportation sector. This report is a follow-up to ACRP Synthesis 85: Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets (Morrison et al. 2017), which reviewed airport experiences with implementing AFs in vehicles owned and operated by airports. The current synthesis is intended to help airport managers understand the experience of private ground transportation (GT) operators working with airports to implement fuel and emission-reduction strategies, including the use of AFs, fuel-efficient vehicles and technologies, and energy-efficiency practices. The implementation of the use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), low- and zero-emission vehicles, and fuel-efficient vehicles offers opportunities for airports to reduce petroleum use, improve air quality, and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Clean vehicles have less of an environmental impact than do conventional internal combustion engine vehicles operating on gasoline or diesel. This report compiles the experiences of private GT operators and airports in the development of clean vehicle policies that include AFVs and fuel-efficient vehicles, as well as fuel-efficiency practices that include strategies and technologies for reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Alternative Fuels The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) passed by Congress in 1992 recognizes the following as AFs: methanol, ethanol, ethanol blends, natural gas and other liquid fuels derived from natural gas, propane, hydrogen, electricity, biodiesel, coal-derived liquid fuels, and P-series fuels [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1997]. More than a dozen AFs are in production or under review for use in vehicle propulsion. Table 1 provides a description of the most prevalent AF types, which were included in the survey questionnaire for this synthesis. Although petroleum-based vehicle fuels continue to dominate the market, the private and public sectors are exploring diesel and gasoline alternatives because of increasing fuel demands, the instability of imported petroleum supplies, and the need to reduce criteria pollutants and GHG emissions to meet environmental goals (O’Connor 2007). AF legislation first appeared in the Clean Air Act of 1970, which mandated the reduction of mobile pollution sources. In 1975, Congress passed the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, which established the basis for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards and required that information be disseminated to consumers regarding vehicle fuel economy (DOE 2017c). The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 and Clean Air Act 1990 Amendments helped estab- lish the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) in 1991, which collects data and disseminates C H A P T E R 1 Introduction

4 Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers information specific to AFs, AFVs, and fuel efficiency (U.S. DOE 2017c). Two key pieces of legislation, the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act and the 1992 Energy Policy Act, established mandates for implementing programs related to AFVs, infrastructure, and regulations that required public fleets—including federal, state, and alternative provider fleets—to implement the use of vehicles powered by AFs (U.S. DOE 2017c). The U.S. DOE established the Clean Cities program as a result of EPAct legislation. The Clean Cities program was created to provide objective information and technical resources to expand the adoption of AFVs and infrastructure by establishing local partnerships. Program goals and interests intersect with federal objectives to reduce GHG emissions, create variety in fuel supply types, and improve air quality (U.S. DOE 2017b). More recent legislation, including the 2005 EPAct amendments, the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, continues to expand the presence of AFs and includes provisions to increase their supply. Role of Alternative Fuels Alternative fuels play a critical role in reducing emissions, improving air quality, and decreas- ing the nation’s dependence on imported petroleum (U.S. DOE 2017a). The U.S. Energy Informa- tion Administration (EIA) collects annual data on the number of alternative fuel and advanced Fuel Type Definition Biodiesel Biodiesel is a cleaner-burning AF made from domestic, renewable resources. Biodiesel is derived from plant oils, animal fats, and grease, and is offered in blended form ranging from 5% biodiesel to 100% in pure, unblended form. Natural gas Natural gas is an odorless, nontoxic gas made up of mostly methane. Two forms of natural gas are used to power vehicles: compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Fuel produced from solid waste and other biomass feedstocks is renewable natural gas (RNG), which is sourced from the by-product of the anaerobic processes of solid waste material. Electricity Electricity can be used to power all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids. Ethanol Ethanol is a renewable fuel made from plant materials, including corn. Nearly all the gasoline in the United States is a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline. E-85 is a high-level blend used in flexible-fuel vehicles. Propane Liquefied propane gas (LPG), also known as propane autogas, is a by-product of natural gas processing and oil refining and is nontoxic, colorless, and odorless. Hydrogen fuel cell Hydrogen is an AF produced from a variety of domestic sources, including fossil fuels, solar energy, wind, and biomass. Hydrogen generates electrical power in a fuel cell, which is used to power vehicles. Fuel cell vehicles are only beginning to enter the market in localized regions, but industry and government are working toward developing this AF. Renewable diesel Renewable diesel (RD), also referred to as green diesel, is produced from fats or oils and refined through a hydro- treating process. RD can be used as a stand-alone AF or as a blend. Source: Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles (U.S. DOE 2017a). Table 1. Alternative fuel types and definitions.

Introduction 5 technology vehicle models available, the number of AFVs in use, and the distribution of AF con- sumption to track national trends. The 2015 EIA survey, which provides the most recent publicly available data, shows that more than 392,000 AFVs were deployed by state and federal fleets, fuel providers, and transit agencies (U.S. DOE 2017e). The DOE-sponsored Clean Cities program also publishes annual data on the sale and deployment of AFVs and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) based on information submitted by local Clean Cities coalitions. The submissions are used to estimate annual petroleum reduction and GHG emission reductions. Figure 1 shows the annual petroleum savings since 1994. Fuel Efficiency This synthesis also considers energy-efficiency vehicles, strategies, and technologies that reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Fuel-efficient vehicles include those fueled by gaso- line or diesel that have higher miles per gallon (mpg) when compared with traditional vehicles. Fuel-efficiency strategies include practices, behaviors, and policies that encourage or mandate the reduction of fuel consumption, such as operating fuel-efficient vehicles, enforcing idle reduction, and working to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Research in the area of energy efficiency focuses on technologies that improve overall fuel economy and reduce emissions. These may involve improving engine efficiency, after-treatment technologies to reduce tailpipe emissions, reducing idling, and reducing vehicle weight (U.S. DOE 2013). Airport Experience with Alternative Fuels The transportation sector accounts for more than 25% of the total U.S. GHG emissions made by light-, medium-, and heavy-duty trucks, cars, aircraft, rail, and other sources [U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA) 2017a]. Figure 2 shows GHG emissions emitted by the transpor- tation sector between 1990 and 2014. Light-duty trucks and passenger cars make up a substantial portion of the total, followed by medium- and heavy-duty trucks and commercial aircraft. The aviation industry accounts for nearly 12% of total GHG emissions from transportation (Balakrishnan and Hansman 2010). Airport emission sources include aircraft, ground access Figure 1. Clean Cities annual petroleum savings. Source: Johnson and Singer, 2016.

6 Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers vehicles, and ground support equipment. Many airports now consider GHG emissions and other environmental impacts stemming from GT activities as part of their sustainability planning and reporting measures. Although airports are not regulated to conduct carbon emission reporting, many include it in their overall sustainability planning efforts. In 2009, the Airports Council International Europe launched the Airport Carbon Accreditation program to provide a framework for assessing air- port carbon emissions and recognizing the airports reducing their emission levels. The aviation sector produces a variety of emission sources typically categorized into the following groups: aircraft, auxiliary power units, ground support equipment, stationary sources, ground access vehicles, and construction emissions (Kenney et al. 2015). These groups are further categorized into three distinct emission types (FAA 2017a): Scope 1: Direct emissions Refers to GHG emissions from sources owned and operated by the airport. Airports have direct influ- ence over these sources. Scope 2: Indirect emissions GHG emissions sourced indirectly from airport operations. Scope 3: Other/indirect emissions GHG emissions from sources over which the airport has indirect control. These include aircraft emis- sions, ground access vehicles, tenants, and waste management. The term “ground access vehicle” generally refers to public roadway−access vehicles oper- ating at the airport, including shuttle buses, taxis, and light-duty vehicles, which can be a signif- icant emissions source (Kim et al. 2009). Ground access vehicles contribute the following types of air pollutants and GHG emissions: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxides, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (Kim et al. 2009). Although carbon reporting often accounts for emissions from vehicles that are airport owned and operated, emissions from private GT providers are considered Scope 3 emissions. Scope 3 includes ground access vehicles from private GT fleets that operate on airport property, such as Figure 2. U.S. transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions. Source: U.S. EPA 2016.

Introduction 7 hotel and parking shuttle buses, limousine and taxi services, shared van rides, rental car shuttles, scheduled airport service vehicles, and TNCs. Accounting for Scope 3 emissions can be challeng- ing and complex because airports do not directly control passenger vehicle trips. However, there is an opportunity for airports to reduce Scope 3 emissions by influencing airport-permitted commercial GT through the development of clean vehicle and fuel requirements or incentive programs. Air Quality In addition to carbon monitoring, airport sustainability planning often includes air quality. The Clean Air Act regulates air quality at the national level and classifies carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, PM, and sulfur dioxide as criteria air pollutants. The Clean Air Act 1990 Amendments established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these six air pollutants (U.S. EPA 2017b). The EPA designates areas as in attainment or nonattainment for each of the criteria pollutants based on pollutant levels in the airshed. Many airports are located in nonattainment areas and may be subject to local and regional air quality regulations for reduc- ing air pollution. Benefits of Alternative Fuels Airports may have various reasons for implementing AF technologies in their fleets or encouraging private GT fleets to use AFVs or other advanced propulsion technologies while operating at the airport. These reasons might include improving local or regional air quality; reducing vehicle operating costs; achieving Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) or similar certification; establishing a “green” image in the community; complying with local/regional government regulations; implementing an environmental mitigation plan contained in the environmental assessment or environmental impact statement of an airport project; or pursuing a business opportunity (e.g., own an alternative fueling station on airport property or share profits from station operations). These reasons are not mutually exclusive, so airports may actually have multiple motivations for implementing AFs. Improve Air Quality Thirty-seven percent of the largest 100 commercial airports in the United States are located in nonattainment areas with pollutant levels in violation of the NAAQS as defined in Clean Air Act Amendment P.L. 91-604. Almost 20% of the largest 100 commercial airports are located in areas with nonattainment for PM, and almost one-third of the largest airports are located in areas of ozone nonattainment. Additionally, 23% of the 100 largest airports are located in geographic areas classified as maintenance status for one or more criteria pollutants tracked by the EPA. The list of the U.S. airports and their attainment status can be accessed through the web address provided in the references section (FAA 2017b). Air travel has experienced moderate growth in recent years. Since June 2015, enplanements on domestic flights have increased by 12.2% and international enplanements on U.S. airlines have increased by 9.2%, resulting in an 11.8% overall increase in enplanements on U.S. airlines during a 3-year period [U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 2017]. These trends indicate growth and place considerable pressure on airlines to expand service. Although motor vehicles may not necessarily be the largest source of pollution at airports, often they are under direct airport control or influenced by various airport policies. Therefore, encouraging or mandating the use of AFs, clean vehicle technologies, and trip reduction strate- gies by GT fleets serving the airport (both airport-owned and private fleets) have been popular strategies for reducing airport pollution and improving local air quality.

8 Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers Reduce Vehicle Operating Costs For many fleets, fuel cost is a major expense. The use of AFs often allows fleets to save on oper- ating costs owing to the better fuel efficiency of AFVs, lower cost of fuel, and potentially lower maintenance costs. Larger vehicles and high-mileage vehicles are usually the first candidates for switching to AFs because they can provide the largest impact on fleet operating costs. In the airport setting, large buses, shuttle buses, and taxicabs can arguably provide the greatest benefit from converting to AFs owing to vehicles’ size, predictable duty cycles, and mileage driven. Both airport-owned fleets and private GT fleets serving the airport may achieve reductions in fuel and operating costs by using AFVs. LEED Certification LEED is a green building certification program that uses a rating system, assigning points for the efficient use of resources during construction, operations, and maintenance of buildings and allowing owners to achieve four levels of building efficiency: certified, silver, gold, and platinum (U.S. Green Building Council 2017). Accommodating AFVs by providing preferred parking to AFVs or an AF refueling station in the parking area adjacent to the building can earn LEED cer- tification credits. These are viable pollution reduction strategies that airports can pursue while seeking LEED certification. Green Image Airports are integral parts of local communities. Whether housed in a city or county govern- ment or part of an authority, airports feel connected to the community and often desire recog- nition as a responsible member of that community. For local communities that place value on sustainability and environmental integrity, airports may be compelled to engage in environ- mentally friendly initiatives, such as implementing AFs, to minimize environmental impact and enhance a green image. Comply with Local/Regional Government Regulations Airports may implement AF technologies or other clean vehicle programs as a means of com- plying with environmental regulations aiming to reduce airport emissions from mobile sources. Regulating agencies at any level (federal, state, or local) can impose environmental requirements that are legally binding to the airport or may be conditional to obtaining grant funding. Addi- tionally, airports owned by state or local governments may be subject to EPAct (P.L. 109-58) or other requirements that apply to local government fleets, including AFV usage, fleet fuel efficiency, and emissions standards. Implement Environment Mitigation Plan When a proposed airport project is expected to cause significant negative impact to the environment, an airport may be required to conduct and implement an environmental mitiga- tion plan to offset that impact. Implementing AF or other clean vehicle programs are potential mitigation efforts airports can employ. Business Opportunity Major commercial airports often have public-use alternative fueling stations on airport prop- erty. In some cases, airports own the stations, whereas in others, third-party vendors lease space from the airport and sometimes share profits with them. In either case, airports that have AF stations on their property can directly benefit from the increased sales of AFs. Encouraging air- port fleets to use AFVs may expand the market base for AFs and increase the airport’s revenue from fuel sales.

Introduction 9 Tools for Alternative Fuel Information and Evaluation Fleet managers have access to a vast pool of publicly available resources on AFVs and other advanced propulsion technologies, allowing them to evaluate the performance and costs of such technologies, assess emissions benefits, and compare life-cycle costs of AFVs with traditionally fueled vehicles. The U.S. DOE, EPA, and national laboratories associated with the U.S. government developed the information resources and evaluation models provided later. All these resources are publicly available free of charge, although registration may be required. This list is not exhaustive and is presented only as an example of popular resources covering the technical, economic, and environmental aspects of operating AFVs. Alternative Fuels Data Center AFDC is the DOE’s clearinghouse of information on AF and advanced propulsion technologies. AFDC was developed and is managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). It has extensive data on available AFV models, fuel economy, vehicle emissions, alternative fueling station locations and fuel pricing, government incentives, and other useful information and pub- lications related to the deployment and operation of AFs and advanced propulsion technologies. Additionally, AFDC features calculators, interactive maps, and online evaluation tools that allow fleets to assess different AFVs and compare their economic viability to traditionally fueled vehicles. The AFDC resource is available online at http://www.afdc.energy.gov. FuelEconomy.gov FuelEconomy.gov is a website maintained by the U.S. DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy with input from the EPA. The site provides comprehensive consumer informa- tion on the availability, energy efficiency, and emissions ratings of all light-duty vehicles on the market, including AFVs. The website also features fuel cost calculators, data on government incen- tives, and energy-saving driving tips. The site allows DOE and EPA to fulfill their responsibility under the EPAct of 1992 to provide accurate information on fuel economy to U.S. consumers. The website can be accessed at http://www.fueleconomy.gov. GREET Model The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model is a spreadsheet-based model that evaluates the energy and emission impacts of alternative transportation fuels and vehicle technologies on a life-cycle basis. GREET was developed and is maintained by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a research facility operated by the University of Chicago and funded by DOE (ANL 2017). The GREET model is available for download free of charge from the ANL website: https://greet.es.anl.gov. AFLEET The Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) Tool is a spreadsheet-based tool that allows users to estimate petroleum use, GHG emissions, and air pollutants, as well as calculate the economic costs and benefits of light-duty and heavy- duty alternative fuel and advanced propulsion vehicles. AFLEET uses data from GREET to eval- uate vehicles’ well-to-wheels petroleum use and GHG emissions. AFLEET was developed and is maintained by ANL. Users can download the tool free of charge from the ANL website: https:// greet.es.anl.gov/afleet. MOVES Model The Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) is an emission modeling system that allows users to estimate emissions from mobile sources at the national, county, and project levels,

10 Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers accounting for criteria pollutants, GHG emissions, and toxic air pollutants. MOVES was devel- oped and is maintained by EPA, and is available for download at https://www.epa.gov/moves. Funding Resources Although AFVs may have lower operating and life-cycle costs, many AFV technologies have higher (sometimes significantly higher) up-front costs. Fleet managers and consumers often cite the higher up-front costs of AFVs compared with conventional vehicles as common obstacles to acquisition. To overcome this and other obstacles related to the adoption of alternative fuel and advanced propulsion vehicles, the U.S. government established federal, state, and local eco- nomic incentives to make AF technologies attractive and competitive. The existing incentives vary by type, form, and application. Some states and local jurisdictions are more active than others in promoting AFs and technologies. There are six broad categories of government incentives that apply to AFs, including grants, tax incentives, loans and leases, rebates, exemptions, and others. The DOE website lists 99 grant programs, 120 tax incentives, 36 loans and leases, 104 rebate programs, 137 exemptions, and 48 other forms of incentives that apply to AFs, vehicles, advanced technologies, or air quality on the federal and state levels (U.S. DOE 2017d). These incentives encourage a wide range of activi- ties, from AFV fueling infrastructure development to AFV acquisition/conversion/operation to production, blending, or selling AF, to researching or demonstrating advanced technologies. Previous research found that consumers are more likely to take advantage of grant and rebate programs than tax-based incentives (e.g., tax exemptions or tax credits) because grants offer immediate benefit and certainty (Kolpakov and Reich 2014). Therefore, direct grants are con- sidered the most effective form of incentives. Federal Incentives There are 38 different types of federal incentives, and 20 of them are direct grants (U.S. DOE 2017d). These grant incentives support activities such as biofuels research, mitigating congestion impacts, air pollution prevention, implementation of renewable energy programs, and AF infrastructure development. Not all of these activities are related to AFVs or relevant to airports. However, two federal grant programs directly apply to airports: the Voluntary Airport Low Emis- sion (VALE) Program and the Airport Zero Emissions Vehicle and Infrastructure Pilot Program. Voluntary Airport Low Emission Program VALE provides funding to commercial service airports located in nonattainment or main- tenance areas through the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) and passenger facility charges for acquisition of low-emission vehicles, development of refueling and recharging infrastruc- ture, implementation of gate electrification, and other air quality improvements. The pro- gram is managed by the FAA. More details, including eligibility criteria, program guidance, and the application process, are available on the FAA website: https://www.faa.gov/airports/ environmental/vale. Airport Zero Emissions Vehicle and Infrastructure Pilot Program The Airport Zero Emissions Vehicle and Infrastructure Pilot Program provides funding through AIP to eligible airports, covering up to 50% of the cost to purchase zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) and install or modify supporting fueling infrastructure. Grant funding can be used for airport-owned vehicles used exclusively for airport purposes. The primary goal of the program is to improve air quality and facilitate the use of zero-emission technologies at the airport. More details about the program are available at https://www.faa.gov/airports/environmental/zero_emissions_vehicles.

Introduction 11 Plug-in Electric Drive Motor Vehicle Tax Credit In addition to the two mentioned grant programs, the Internal Revenue Code Section 30D provides a tax credit of up to $7,500 (depending on battery capacity and vehicle weight) for the purchase of a new, qualified, light-duty plug-in vehicle that draws propulsion from a battery. Individuals and fleets may take advantage of this incentive, which directly affects the types of vehicles operating at airports. More details on this tax credit, including eligibility criteria and credit phase-out conditions, are available on the Internal Revenue Service website: https://www.irs.gov/ businesses/plug-in-electric-vehicle-credit-irc-30-and-irc-30d. Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program The Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program provides fund- ing to state transportation departments and local governments for implementing projects that reduce emissions from mobile sources and reduce congestion, helping nonattainment areas meet Clean Air Act requirements. More information on this program, administered by the FHWA, is available on the FHWA website: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/air_quality/cmaq. Although CMAQ is not designed specifically for airports, airports located in nonattainment areas can take advantage of the program to fund AF initiatives. State Incentives The U.S. DOE website lists 506 incentives at the state level that apply to AFs and emission reduc- tion efforts. Of those, 79 are direct grants, 117 are tax incentives, and 103 are rebates. There are also 30 loans and leases, 134 exemptions, and 43 other forms of incentives (U.S. DOE 2017d). The state of California offers by far the largest number of incentives (50) regarding clean transpor- tation technologies and fuels. States with the largest number of grants include California (16), Colorado (5), and Virginia (5), whereas those offering the greatest number of clean energy rebates include California (14), Florida (6), and Illinois (6). State grants and rebates mainly cover the purchase, conversion, and operation of AFVs; production or blending of AFs; development of alternative fueling infrastructure; or implementation of other emission reduction projects. In addition to the state incentives, local utility companies offer rebate programs to encourage the purchase of electric vehicles (EVs) and installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). Various state agencies and departments, especially departments of environmental control/ management/protection, departments of natural resources and agriculture, or similar depart- ments, may provide funding for environmental projects. Researching state government websites may help identify funding opportunities for airport environmental initiatives. ACRP Synthe- sis 24: Strategies and Financing Opportunities for Airport Environmental Programs lists federal, state, and local government and nongovernmental funding opportunities available to airports to implement their environmental programs (Molar 2011). When implementing the use of AFs, clean vehicles, or other emission reduction practices, airports are encouraged to explore these sources of funding on federal, state, and local levels to help cover project costs. Airports in different states will have different funding opportunities because of the various incentives and programs available across the country. However, a lack of state and local incentives should not discourage airports from exploring AFVs or other clean vehicle programs because many such projects have been successfully implemented without the help of government funding. Volkswagen Settlement In 2016, the EPA sued Volkswagen (VW) Group for equipping its diesel vehicles (including Volkswagen, Audi, and Porsche models) sold in the United States with defeat devices (in the form of software) that allowed cheating on federal emission tests. The German manufacturer

12 Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers settled the case out of court for $15 billion. As part of the settlement, VW agreed to spend $10 billion on a vehicle buyback program, pay $2.9 billion to the environmental mitigation trust fund, and spend $2 billion on ZEV infrastructure (U.S. EPA 2017c). ZEV Investment. VW established the Electrify America program, which will invest $2 billion over the next 10 years in ZEV infrastructure and education programs in the United States. The investment will come in four 30-month cycles. Electrify America will invest $1.2 billion in EV charging infrastructure outside the state of California and $800 million in California (Electrify America 2017). This investment is intended to provide a nationwide network of workplace, com- munity, and highway chargers to enable the convenient operation of zero-emission battery EVs. Airports may be able to benefit from this program, but they will not be involved in nominating eligible infrastructure projects. Electrify America will select sites for infrastructure installation; states and municipalities will not be able to influence the site selection process. Environmental Mitigation Trust Fund. As part of the settlement, VW will provide $2.9 billion to the Environmental Mitigation Trust Fund to be distributed to states for funding projects (including upgrading and repowering older vehicles and equipment) aimed at lower- ing the emission of nitrogen oxide (NOx) (U.S. EPA 2017b). The amount of money each state receives will be based on the number of VW vehicles in that state affected by the settlement. Air- ports around the country, as well as private fleets serving airports, have an opportunity to work with their state beneficiary agencies (i.e., agencies that will distribute the mitigation trust funding) to nominate potential projects to be funded by the proceeds distributed from the VW mitigation trust fund. Although this funding was not designed for airports, there are certainly no restrictions precluding airports from receiving funds for eligible NOx-reducing projects, including alternative fuel and clean vehicle programs. Previous Studies Several previous studies document the implementation of AF initiatives at airports, provide guidance, and describe common practices. ACRP Synthesis 10: Airport Sustainability Practices (Berry et al. 2008) provides an overview of environmental, economic, and social practices at both U.S. and non-U.S. airports, including the description of motivating factors, barriers, and incentives for sustainable behavior. The study does not focus exclusively on transportation or AFs but rather looks at a wide spectrum of activities that fit the definition of sustainability, from land use, building efficiencies, and clean transportation options, to biodiversity, accessibility, and responsible economic practices. ACRP Report 80: Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into Traditional Airport Projects (Landrum & Brown Inc. et al. 2012) describes sustainability approaches in planning and imple- menting airport projects and the environmental and economic benefits of sustainable initiatives, and reviews notable case studies. The study also provides an airport sustainability assessment tool for airport managers and planners to use in evaluating proposed sustainability initiatives and determining their applicability to airport projects. Although the study discusses strategies for encouraging the use of AFs by airport vehicles and private fleets, it does not provide many details or recommendations on implementing specific types of projects or policies. Instead, it presents a general overview of sustainability and its applicability to traditional airport construction and everyday maintenance projects. The U.S. Government Accountability Office’s report Aviation and the Environment (GAO 2008) describes a wide range of environmental issues that U.S. airports are facing and discusses common practices to address these challenges. Although the report states that noise pollution and water pollution at or around an airport are the primary challenges for airports, it also emphasizes air

Introduction 13 quality as a growing concern for future operations. The survey of the airports cited in the report highlights the demand for parking and traffic congestion as being the largest issues affecting air quality. Common strategies airports take to reduce air pollution emissions include the use of AFVs and alternative fueling/charging infrastructure and gate electrification. ACRP Report 83: Assessing Opportunities for Alternative Fuel Distribution Programs (Miller et al. 2013) presents a methodology for planning and evaluating commercial opportunities to establish AF hubs at airports. The study examines opportunities for powering aircrafts, ground support equipment, and other airside vehicles and equipment, as well as road vehicles, with vari- ous AFs. General guidance to airport managers on how to make AF projects successful is also included. Although the report focuses on airport-owned fleets, it also suggests how airports can encourage private GT providers to use AFs. ACRP Synthesis 54: Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at Airport Parking Facilities (Richard 2014) presents a brief overview of the state of practice of providing EV charging infrastructure at air- ports. The synthesis compiles information on EV charging infrastructure needs, available funding mechanisms, policy approaches, and common obstacles and caveats, as well as describes effective practices in planning, funding, and installing EV charging infrastructure on airport property. ACRP Synthesis 85: Alternative Fuels in Airport Fleets (Morrison et al. 2017) describes airports’ experience with the use of various AFs for powering airport-owned vehicles, including shuttles, emergency/security vehicles, and facility maintenance vehicles. The study reports on the current state of practice and general observations regarding the use of AFVs in airport fleets based on the survey of 33 public-use commercial airports in the United States. A number of case studies outlining the experiences of individual public-use airports with running AFVs or implementing alternative fueling infrastructure at the airport are available on DOE’s AFDC website. However, most of those case studies describe the use of AFVs in airport- owned fleets. Few studies focus on the experiences of public-use airports with encouraging private GT providers to use AFVs or other low-emission vehicles. Report Organization The current synthesis is organized into four chapters. The introductory chapter provides background information about currently available AF technologies and vehicles, as well as the environmental, economic, and social benefits of AF usage. Following an overview of the exist- ing resources for evaluating performance and life-cycle costs of AF technologies is a summary of government incentives and funding sources available. A brief review of the literature on the experience of U.S. airports with implementing clean vehicle programs is also presented. Chapter 2 describes the methodology and study approach used to collect primary data for the current synthesis. The results of interviews with both airports and fleets are presented in Chapter 3, followed by a summary of the findings, which also highlights the experiences and best practices in implementing clean vehicle and AF programs. Chapter 4 discusses the main conclusions of the study and next steps.

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 89: Clean Vehicles, Fuels, and Practices for Airport Private Ground Transportation Providers documents effective approaches and reviews best practices employed by airports to encourage different types of private ground transportation providers to run more environmentally friendly operations. The report summarizes the experiences of public-use airports with developing and implementing clean vehicle policies involving private ground transportation operators serving the airports.

Download the report appendices online:

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