National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Chapter 8. References
Page 153
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 153
Page 154
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 154
Page 155
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 155
Page 156
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 156
Page 157
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 157
Page 158
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 158
Page 159
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 159
Page 160
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 160
Page 161
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 161
Page 162
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 162
Page 163
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 163
Page 164
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 164
Page 165
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 165
Page 166
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 166
Page 167
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 167
Page 168
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 168
Page 169
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 169
Page 170
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 170
Page 171
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 171
Page 172
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 172
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 173
Page 174
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 174
Page 175
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 175
Page 176
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 176
Page 177
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 177
Page 178
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 178
Page 179
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 179
Page 180
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 180
Page 181
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 181
Page 182
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 182
Page 183
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 183
Page 184
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 184
Page 185
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 185
Page 186
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 186
Page 187
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 187
Page 188
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 188
Page 189
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 189
Page 190
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 190
Page 191
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 191
Page 192
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 192
Page 193
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 193
Page 194
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 194
Page 195
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 195
Page 196
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 196
Page 197
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 197
Page 198
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 198
Page 199
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 199
Page 200
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 200
Page 201
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25206.
×
Page 201

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A-1 Appendix A. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 1 Spreadsheet Tool 1 is a spreadsheet-based benefit-cost analysis tool that can be used to assess the cost-effectiveness of specific improvement alternatives for implementation in conjunction with a 3R project. The tool helps highway agencies in making the decision as to whether the 3R project should consist of pavement resurfacing only or should also include geometric design improvements. Tool 1 is used to assess one improvement alternative (or combination of alternatives) at a time. Tool 2, for which a users guide is presented in Appendix B, can assess multiple alternatives (and combinations of alternatives) in a single analysis. Tool 1 can be applied as part of the planning process for 3R projects. If a specific project site has no observed crash patterns or no traffic operational needs that would justify a design improvement, then geometric design improvements are recommended for implementation as part of a 3R project only if it is anticipated that such improvements would be cost-effective. Tool 1 provides a capability to assess any particular improvement (or combination of alternatives) to determine if it is anticipated to be cost effective. Tool 1 addresses candidate 3R projects on rural two-lane highways, rural four-lane undivided and divided highways (nonfreeways), and rural and urban freeways. The tool does not address 3R projects on urban and suburban arterials (nonfreeways). The input data to Tool 1 include a description of the existing roadway conditions and selection of the improvement(s) to be assessed. The tool considers a single set of AADT, terrain, and cross- section geometrics for the roadway between intersections within the candidate project being assessed. Variations in cross-section geometrics at intersections or on intersection approaches do not need to be considered in using the tool. Where there are minor variations in AADT on the project or in cross-section geometrics on the roadway between intersections within the project, use the average AADT and the most common cross-section geometrics as input to the tool. Thus, the tool can be applied even where the cross section throughout the project is not entirely homogeneous. Where there are major changes in cross-section geometrics on the roadway between intersections (e.g., half the project has 6-ft paved shoulders and half has 2-ft unpaved shoulders), the project can be broken into separate sections and each section analyzed separately. Breaking the project into separate sections for analysis is only appropriate where the differences in cross-section geometrics are substantial. Tool 1 includes logic to estimate the implementation cost of the improvement alternatives evaluated. The project costs are estimated from default values of unit construction costs that are built into the tool. An option is available to change these default unit costs to match a particular agency’s experience or to replace the project cost estimated by the tool with the agency’s own site-specific estimate. An option is also available for any given analysis as to whether the cost of right-of-way acquisition is included in the project implementation cost estimate. Right-of-way costs can also be based on default values built into the tool, user-specific unit costs for right-of- way, or site-specific cost estimates made by the agency. The safety performance of the roadway being analyzed and the safety benefits of improvement alternatives estimated in Tool 1 are based on the crash prediction procedures presented in Part C of the AASHTO Highway Safety Manual (HSM) including HSM Chapters 10, 11, and 18 (2,3).

A-2 The tool analyzes roadway segment (i.e., nonintersection) crashes only. The HSM crash prediction procedures are applied first to predict the crash frequencies by severity level for the existing roadway based on safety performance functions (SPFs), crash modification factors (CMFs), and local calibration factors (if available). The crash reduction effectiveness of improvements is based on the CMFs presented in Section 4.3 of this guide. An option is available to replace the default SPFs from the HSM with an agency-specific SPFs for all roadway types other than freeways. The local calibration factor is set equal to 1.0 by default, but may optionally be replaced with an agency-specific value. An option is available to provide site- specific crash history data and apply the Empirical Bayes (EB) method for converting predicted crash frequencies to expected crash frequencies, using the procedures presented in the Appendix to HSM Part C (2). Crash costs by severity level are set by default to values built into the tool, but may be replaced with agency-specific values. The user of Tool 1 has the option to select which improvement alternative (or combination of alternatives) will be considered in the benefit- cost analysis. The improvement alternatives that may be considered include:  Lane widening  Shoulder widening (outside shoulder only on two-lane and four-lane nonfreeways; both outside and inside shoulders on freeways)  Shoulder paving  Roadside slope flattening (two-lane and four-lane nonfreeways only)  Centerline rumble strips (undivided highways only)  Shoulder rumble strips (outside shoulder only on undivided roads; both outside and inside shoulders on divided nonfreeways and freeways)  Enhanced striping/delineation (nonfreeways only)  Add or modify median barrier (freeways only)  Add or modify roadside barrier (freeways only)  Add passing lane(s) (rural two-lane highways only)  Improve/restore curve superelevation (nonfreeways only) The results provided by Tool 1 for the analysis of any improvement alternative (or combination of alternatives include:  Project implementation cost ($)  Annual safety benefit ($)  Present value of safety benefit ($)  Benefit-cost ratio (benefit divided by cost)  Net benefit (benefit minus cost) ($)  Fatal-and injury (FI) crashes per year in before period  Property-damage-only (PDO) crashes per year in before period  FI crashes per year in after period  PDO crashes per year after period  FI crashes per year reduced by project  PDO crashes per year reduced by project Tool 1 has been developed entirely in Microsoft Excel worksheets without any supplementary Visual Basic programming. This should make Tool 1 easily implementable on computers with nearly any operating system and nearly any version of Microsoft Excel. By contrast, Tool 2,

presented macros m The user four-lane considere A.1 Ru This sect highways modify), be consid A.1.1 S Before pe The purp projects o non-site- you can p you have your agen into the c supplied was initia The exam height on in Append ust be enab s guide for T highways, a d differ to s ral Two- ion presents . The guida data entry f ered, review etup Defau rforming an ose of the R n rural two specific data erform anal the option t cy’s policie ell in the Us value will a lly shown. ple in Figu level terrai Figure ix B, incorpo led on the u ool 1 is pre nd freeway ome extent lane Hig the applicat nce addresse or existing c ing analysi lts y benefit-co 2U_Setup w -lane highw elements n yses withou o modify an s, practices er Supplied ppear in the re A-1 show n. A-1. Decla rates suppl ser’s compu sented with s, because th for each roa hways ion of Tool s setup defa onditions on s results, an st analyses, orksheet is ays. The R2 eeded by To t changing a y of the def , and experie column and Values Used s a user-sup ring Values A-3 ementary pr ter for the to separate sec e input data dway type. 1 to candida ults (which a specific r d reviewing first visit th to establish U_Setup wo ol 1 to perfo ny values in ault values t nce. To cha click the op column as plied value Used in th ogramming ol to functi tions on rur and improv te 3R proje you can eith oadway, sp calculations e R2U_Setu default valu rksheet con rm the bene the R2U_S o other valu nge a defau tion button a replaceme of 1.5 ft for e R2U_Setu in Visual Ba on. al two-lane h ement alter cts on rural er accepted ecifying the . p workshee es for asses tains default fit-cost calc etup worksh es that are c lt value, ent in that cell. nt for the d the average p Workshe sic; therefo ighways, ru natives two-lane unchanged alternative( t. sment of 3R values for a ulations. Th eet. Howev onsistent wi er your valu This user- efault value embankmen et re, ral or s) to ll us, er, th e that t

Each of t A.1.1.1 Figure A below.  A ro  E w  M w  P T  A w A.1.1.2 Figures A element i he data elem Road Elem -2 shows a s Figure A- verage Em adway cros xisting Bas ay and shou illing Dept ill be milled avement De his applies o verage Deli here delinea Cost Elem -3 and A-4 s discussed ents on the ents creenshot o 2. Defaults bankment H s section in e Depth: De lder. h: Depth in as part of p pth: Depth nly to flexib neator Spa tors are to b ents show the co in detail bel R2U_Setup f the road el for Road E eight: Ave feet for leve pth in inche inches to w avement res in inches of le pavemen cing: Avera e added. st element d ow the figur A-4 worksheet i ement defau lements for rage represe l, rolling, an s of base m hich flexible urfacing. Th flexible pav t. ge spacing i efaults for r es. All costs s described lts. Each ite Rural Two ntation of th d mountain aterial in inc pavement o is applies o ement for t n feet betwe ural two-lan are in dolla in the follow m in the fig -Lane High e embankm ous terrain. hes underne f traveled-w nly to flexib raveled-way en roadside e highways rs. ing section ure is discus ways ent height o ath the trav ay and sho le pavemen and should delineators . Each cost s. sed f the eled- ulder t. er. ,

Figu  B  M  F cu  R y  U sq  E  R  C li  S fo  D p  D re A-3. De ase Unit Co illing Unit lexible Pave bic yard. igid Pavem ard. npaved Sho uare yard. mbankmen ight-of-way enterline R near foot. houlder Ru ot. urable Pav avement ma elineator C faults for C st: Cost of Cost: Cost ment Unit ent Unit Co ulder Unit t Unit Cost Unit Cost: umble Strip mble Strip ement Mar rking per lin ost: Materia ost Elemen base materia of pavement Cost: Mater st: Materia Cost: Mate : Cost of em Cost of acq Unit Cost Unit Cost: king Unit C ear foot. l and install A-5 ts for Rura l per cubic y milling per ial and insta l and installa rial and inst bankment m uiring right : Cost of ins Cost of insta ost: Materi ation cost o l Two-Lane ard. square yard llation cost tion cost of allation cost aterial per -of-way per talling a cen lling a shou al and instal f one roadsi Highways, . of flexible p rigid pavem of unpaved cubic yard. acre. terline rum lder rumble lation cost o de delineato Part 1 of 2 avement pe ent per squ shoulder pe ble strip per strip per lin f a durable r. r are r ear

Figu  In in -  M pr is  S - - - - - - re A-4. Def cidentals: cluding the Signing a ARR/disco oject invest also referre ervice Life: Slope Fla foreslope Lane Wid Shoulder way.  NOTE be ass Rumble S Striping/D Superelev superelev aults for C Each inciden right-of-way nd PM: Sign unt rate: M ments. Fede d to as disco Expected u ttening: Serv only. ening: Servi Widening: S : Slope Flat igned identi trip Installa elineation: ation Restor ation. ost Element tal cost is c cost. ing and pav inimum attr ral guidelin unt rate. seful life or ice life of s ce life for w ervice life f tening, Lane cal service l tion: Service Service life ation: Serv A-6 s for Rural alculated as ement mark active rate o es suggest a service life lope flatteni idening of t or widening Widening, ives. life of cent of roadway ice life of re Two-Lane a percentag ings. f return (M n MARR va in years for ng, includin he traveled- of the shou and Should erline and s striping and storing or ch Highways, e of the proj ARR) for an lue at 7 perc the roadway g flattening way. lder adjacen er Widening houlder rum roadside d anging hori Part 2 of 2 ect total cos alysis of 3R ent. The MA improveme the roadsid t to the trav should alw ble strips. elineators. zontal curve . t not RR nt. e eled- ays

 C le - - - - - A.1.1.3 Figure A discussed  R S S rash Cost b vels are def Fatal: Co Disabling Evident In Possible I Property D Safety Ele -5 shows the in detail be Figure A- ural 2-lane PF applicab PF for rural y Severity: ined in a ma st of a fatal Injury: Cos jury: Cost o njury: Cost amage On ments safety elem low. 5. Defaults safety perf le to rural tw two-lane hig Societal cra nner consist crash. t of a disabl f an eviden of a possibl ly: Cost of a ent defaults for Safety E ormance fu o-lane high hways used A-7 sh costs by ent with the ing injury cr t injury cras e injury cras property da for rural tw lements for nction (SPF ways from H in the HSM crash severi HSM. ash. h. h. mage only o-lane high Rural Tw ): The user SM Chapte is: 36 ty level. Cra crash. ways. Each o-Lane Hig has the opti r 10 or to m 5 10 sh severity element is hways on to retain odify it. Th . the e

Y ex I7 I7 ov  C th 1  C sh Y th ad co gr  C se th p ad co gr A.1.2 D After the perform b workshee ou can supp ample of ho 4 in the R2U 2, which re erdispersio Figure A-6. alibration F e safety pre .0 is built int rash Type own. Defau ou may also e sum of all just each in nsider user eater than 1 rash Severi verity level e tool. You ercent. If the just each in nsider user eater than 1 ata Entry setup defau enefit-cost t. ly your own w to enter a _Setup wo present AAD n parameter Specify an actor: This diction proc o the tool. Proportions lt values of enter agenc percentage dividual per -supplied pe 05 percent. ty Proporti . Default va may also en sum of all dividual per -supplied pe 05 percent. lts have bee analyses for SPF as a fu revised SP rksheet), typ T and road for the rura Agency-Sp is a factor edure to app : These are these percen y-specific v s is between centage pro rcentages if In this case, ons: These lues of these ter agency-s percentages centage pro rcentages if In this case, n either reta rural two-la A-8 nction of A F is shown i e in a formu way section l two-lane S ecific SPF f to adjust cra roximate yo the percenta tages from alues. All p 95 and 105 portionally t the sum of an error me are the perc percentage pecific valu is between 9 portionally t the sum of an error me ined or mod ne highway ADT and ro n Figure A- la that is a length, resp PF in cell I7 or Rural T sh frequenc ur local con ge of all cra HSM Chapt ercentages m percent, the o add to 10 all percentag ssage will b entage of all s from HSM es. All perc 5 and 105 p o add to 10 all percentag ssage will b ified, as you s. Proceed t adway secti 6. In the cel function of ectively. En 5. wo-lane Hig y estimates p ditions. A d shes for eac er 10 are bu ust add to n the tool w 0 percent. T es is less th e displayed crashes for Chapter 10 entages mus ercent, then 0 percent. T es is less th e displayed wish, the to o the R2U_P on length. A l provided ( cells I70 and ter the hways. roduced fro efault value h crash type ilt into the t 100 percent. ill automati he tool will an 95 perce . each crash are built in t add to 100 the tool wi he tool will an 95 perce . ol is ready roject n Cell m of ool. If cally not nt or to ll not nt or to

Use the R improvem The follo A.1.2.1 Roadway Figure A  S  A  T  P A.1.2.2 The align horizonta select eit option bu plan on c enter spe The follo specific c to the opt 2U_Project ents to con wing section Roadway D data for the -7. Figure ection Leng ADT: Annu errain: The avement Ty Alignment ment data ta l curvature her entry of tton you sel onsidering s cific curve d Figure A-8 wing two fi urve data (s ion that you worksheet sider in the s step throu ata candidate 3 A-7. Road th: Length al average d terrain in w pe: Type of Data ble shown i of the roadw average cur ect, differen uperelevatio ata. . Alignment gures show ee Figure A chose for e to enter all e benefit-cost gh each inp R project si way Data E in miles of t aily traffic hich the roa pavement o n Figure A- ay section o ve data or en t entry form n restoratio Data Entr the data entr -10). Note th ntering align A-9 xisting road analysis. ut table in th te to be asse ntry for Ru he roadway in vehicles p dway sectio f the roadw 8 addresses f interest. U try of speci s will appea n/improvem y Options fo y for averag at you will ment data. way attribu e R2U_Pro ssed are ent ral Two-L section. er day on th n is located ay section, the method se the optio fic curve da r on the wo ent as part o r Rural Tw e curve data only see the tes and selec ject worksh ered in the t ane Highwa e roadway . either flexib that will be n buttons in ta. Dependin rksheet. Not f your 3R p o-Lane Hi (see Figure entry form t specific eet. able shown ys section. le or rigid. used to desc Figure A-8 g on which e that if you roject, you ghways A-9) and correspondi in ribe to must ng

 % h  T se  N se  P cu  N ex cu  M ra  D Figure A of Section orizontal cur ypical Curv ction. umber of C ction. resence of S rves, use th Figure A- umber of C ist on the ro rve data for aximum Su te for horizo esign Speed -9. Average Length on ves. Include e Radius: E urves on S piral Tran e dropdown 10. Specific urves in Ro adway sect m. perelevatio ntal curves : Enter the Curve Dat Curves: En spiral trans nter the ave ection: Ente sitions: If sp in this cell Curve Dat adway Sec ion. A maxi n Rate (em on rural two design speed A-10 a Entry for ter the perce itions in the rage horizo r the numbe iral transiti to select “Y a Entry for tion: Enter mum of 10 c ax): Enter yo -lane highw of the road Rural Two nt of the ro percentage ntal curve r r of horizon ons are pres es”. Otherw Rural Two the number urves can b ur agency’s ays. way section -Lane High adway secti if present. adius of the tal curves o ent with the ise, select “N -Lane High of horizonta e entered in maximum in miles pe ways on that is on roadway n the roadw horizontal o.” ways l curves tha the specific superelevati r hour. ay t on

 Y se - - - - - - - A.1.2.3 Use the E features o Fi  L dr  S  S ou will need ction: Curve Len transition Transition horizonta Radius: E Spiral: Se Otherwise Existing e a percenta Consider f want to co 3R projec Improved Improved horizonta Existing Cr xisting Cro f the roadw gure A-11. ane Width: opdown me houlder Wi houlder Ty to enter the gth: Enter t s. Length: En l curve. If th nter the radi lect “Yes” f , select “No : Enter the e ge. or Improve nsider supe t. Otherwise e: If you se e cell will b l curve in pe oss Sectio ss Section d ay section: Existing Cr Select the e nu. dth: Select pe: Select th following d he length of ter the leng ere are no sp us of the ho rom the emb .” xisting supe ment: Selec relevation re , select “No lected “Yes” e shown. En rcent. n Data ata entry for oss Section xisting lane the existing e existing s A-11 ata for each horizontal th of spiral t iral transiti rizontal curv edded drop relevation r t “Yes” from storation/im .” in the Cons ter the impr m shown in Data Entry width on th shoulder wi houlder type horizontal curve in mil ransition in ons, enter “0 e in feet. down menu ate of the ho the embed provement ider for Imp oved supere Figure A-1 for Rural e traveled w dth in feet f from the dr curve on the es, not inclu miles for on ”. if spiral cur rizontal cur ded dropdow on this spec rovement c levation rat 1 to define t Two-Lane ay in feet fr rom the drop opdown me roadway ding spiral e end of the ves are pres ve expresse n menu if y ific curve in olumn, then e of the he following Highways om the down menu nu. ent. d as ou the the .

 R  C st  S st A.1.2.4 At your o section to simply us options i history is Figur  C sp The Cras considera  C  T se - - - - oadside Slo enterline R rips are pres houlder Ru rips are pres Crash Hist ption, you c assist in ca e the estima s made in th that the ben e A-12. Cr onsider exi ecific crash h Data entr tion of exis Figur rash Histor otal Fatal-a gment that Fatal cras Disabling Evident in Possible i pe: Select t umble Strip ent on the r mble Strip: ent on the r ory Option an choose t lculating po te given by e form show efit estimat ash History sting crash history for y form show ting crash hi e A-13. Cra y Period: E nd-Injury fall into the h injury crash jury crash njury crash he existing r : Select “Y oadway sect Select “Ye oadway sect o use the ex tential crash the HSM cr n in Figure e may better Option Da history?: S the roadway n in Figure story. sh Data En nter the num Crashes: En following cr A-12 oadside fore es” from the ion. Otherw s” from the ion. Otherw isting site-sp savings wit ash predicti A-12. The a reflect loca ta Entry Fo elect the “Y section. Ot A-13 will ap try for Rur ber of year ter the total ash severity slope from dropdown ise, select “N dropdown m ise, select “N ecific crash h the 3R pro on method. dvantage of l conditions rm for Rur es” option if herwise, sel pear when al Two-La s of availab number of levels: the dropdow menu if cen o.” enu if shou o.” history of t ject. Otherw The choice b using site-s . al Two-Lan you want t ect “No.” “Yes” is sel ne Highway le crash data crashes on t n menu. terline rumb lder rumble he roadway ise, you ca etween the pecific crash e Highway o use the sit ected for the s . he roadway le n se s e-

 T ro A.1.3 A Near the alternativ appropria analysis. Each pot  L th th se  S th U se  S sh otal Proper adway segm lternatives bottom of th es should b te checkbox Figure A-14 ential impro ane Width: rough trave e User Sele lected, up to houlder Wi e shoulders ser Selectio lected, up to houlder Ty oulder type ty-Damage ent that fal to Consid e R2U_Proj e considered es to select . Data Ent vement alter If you have l lanes will b ction colum a maximum dth: If you will be wid n column. O a maximum pe: If you h from the dr -Only Cras l into the pro er ect workshe in the bene the appropr ry Form to Two-L native that c checked th e widened n. Only valu lane width have checke ened from th nly values g shoulder w ave checked opdown me A-13 hes: Enter t perty-dama et is a table fit-cost anal iate improve Select Alter ane Highwa an be selec e Lane Widt from the cho es greater th of 12 ft. d the Shoul e choices o reater than idth of 8 ft the Shoulde nu in the Us he total num ge-only cra in which to ysis (see Fig ment altern natives to C ys ted is descri h box, selec ices offered an the exist der Width b ffered on the the existing . r Type box er Selection ber of crash sh severity l specify whi ure A-14). atives to con onsider fo bed below in t the width t on the drop ing lane wid ox, select th dropdown shoulder wi , select the i menu. A pa es on the evel. ch improve Check the sider in the r Rural more detai o which the down menu th can be e width to w menu in the dth can be mproved ved shoulde ment l. in hich r is

th un  R ro th is  C fu le al h au  S d b ar h au  E b ed F  A ad in Figure  % w e only avail paved. oadside Slo adside slop an the exist 1V:6H. enterline R rther data e ngth of the ready prese ave no effec tomatically houlder Ru ata entry is n oth sides of e already pr ave no effec tomatically nhanced St ox, installati ge striping igure A-15 w dd New Pa dition of on Figure A-1 A-15. Enha of Section hich the cen able option, pe: If you h e from the d ing roadside umble Strip ntry is neces roadway sec nt on the roa t. In this cas be added in mble Strip: ecessary. In the roadway esent on the t. In this cas be added in riping/Delin on of durab as well as in ill appear i ssing Lane( e or more n 6 will appea nced Pavem with Dashe terline strip and this opt ave checked ropdown me slope can b : If you hav sary. Install tion will be dway sectio e, the cost o to the proje If you have stallation of section wil roadway se e, the cost o to the proje eation: If y le pavement stalling roa f you select s): If you ha ew passing r if you sele ent Mark Two-L d Centerlin ing is dashe A-14 ion is only a the Roadsi nu in the U e selected. T e checked t ation of a ce considered. n, checking f installing t ct cost of the checked th a shoulder l be conside ction, check f installing t ct cost of the ou have che markings w dside deline this option. ve checked lanes will be ct this optio ing and Del ane Highwa e: Enter the d only. pplicable if de Slope bo ser Selection he flattest s he Centerlin nterline rum Note that if the centerli he rumble s 3R project e Shoulder R rumble strip red. Note th ing the shou he rumble s 3R project cked the En ill be consid ators. The d the Add Ne considered n. ineation Da ys percentage the existing x, select the column. O lope that m e Rumble S ble strip alo centerline r ne rumble st trip after rep . umble Strip along the e at if shoulde lder rumble trips after re . hanced Stri ered for bo ata entry tab w Passing L . The data e ta Entry F of the road shoulder is improved nly slopes f ay be consid trip box, no ng the entir umble strips rip box will aving will box, no fu ntire length r rumble str strip box w paving will ping/Deline th centerline le shown in ane(s) box, ntry table sh orm for Ru way section latter ered e are rther of ips ill ation and own ral in

 % in  % se  T in se b F  N th co b  D  N p m o  N w  W A.1.4 A The resul R2U_Pro of Section which the c of Section ction in wh otal Length miles that w parately (i.e oth sides of igure A-16 umber of N at will be ad unted separ efore being esign Speed ew Length assing lanes easured from f the passing ew Length hich passing idth of New nalysis Re ts of the ben ject worksh with Solid- enterline str with Doub ich the cente of Section ill have roa . enter 2 mi the roadway . Passing L ew Passing ded to the r ately. Each considered i : Enter the of Passing L to be added the beginn lane. If mo of Overlapp lanes on bo Passing L sults efit-cost an eet (see Figu Dash Cent iping is a so le Solid Cen rline stripin with Deline dside deline if a 1-mi ro . ane Data E Lanes in R oadway sec passing lane n this tool. design speed anes in Ro to the roadw ing of the l re than one ing Passin th sides of anes: Enter alysis are sh re A-17). A-15 erline: Ente lid-dash co terline: En g is double- ator Posts: ator posts. I adway secti ntry Form f oadway Se tion. Passing should be d of the new ad Section ay section. ane addition passing lane g Lanes: En the roadway the lane wi own in the R r the percen mbination. ter the perce solid. Enter the le nclude both on will have or Rural T ction: Enter lanes in ea etermined t passing lan : Enter the to The length taper to the is added, su ter the total overlap. dth in feet o esults table tage of the r ntage of the ngth of the sides of the roadside de wo-Lane H the number ch direction o be operati es in miles p tal length in of each pass end of the l m the passi roadway le f the new pa at the top o oadway sect roadway roadway sec roadway lineators on ighways of passing of travel ar onally justif er hour. miles of ne ing lane is ane drop tap ng lane leng ngth in mile ssing lanes. f the ion tion lanes e ied w er ths. s in

F The Resu  P - -  A es m im  P ov  B b  N o The annu annualize igure A-17 lts table pre V Modified Calculate The modi resurfacin User Supp option bu value calc nnual Safet timated to r illing and re provement resent Valu er the servi enefit-Cost enefit divide et Benefit: f the modifie al number o d crash redu . Results of sents the fol Total Cost d: The prese fied total co g the existin lied: You c tton in this c ulated by th y Benefit: T esult from th surfacing w s are made). e of Safety ce life of the Ratio: The d by the pre The net ben d total cost f crashes pr ctions, are Benefit-Co lowing info : nt value of st is the tota g traveled w an supply yo ell for the to e tool. his is the c e selected 3 hich will be Benefit: Th roadway im benefit-cost sent value o efit is the pr . edicted befo shown to the A-16 st Analysis rmation: the modified l project cos ay. ur own tota ol to use th alculated an R project ro implemente is is the pres provement ratio is the f the modifi esent value re and after right of the for Rural T total proje t not includ l project co is user-supp nual crash s adway imp d whether o ent value o s. ratio of the ed total cost of safety ben the 3R proj Results tab wo-Lane H ct cost is sho ing the cost st in this cel lied total co avings in do rovements ( r not the oth f the annual present valu . efit minus t ect, along w le (see Figu ighways wn in this c of milling a l. Click the st in place o llars that is other than er crash saving e of safety he present v ith the re A-18). ell. nd f the s alue

Figu A.1.5 V You may calculate enables y A.2 Ru This sect undivide accepted specifyin calculatio A.2.1 S Before pe “R4UD_ The purp projects o workshee perform t values in default v re A-18. C iew Calcu access the R d in assessin ou to review ral Four ion presents d and divide unchanged g the alterna ns. etup Defau rforming an Setup” work ose of the R n rural four t contains d he benefit-c the R4UD_ alues to othe rash Frequ lations 2U_Calcul g the benefi the calcula -Lane Hig the applicat d highways or modify), tive(s) to be lts y benefit-co sheet. 4UD_Setup -lane undivi efault value ost calculati Setup works r values tha encies Befo H ations work ts and costs tions, but do hways ion of Tool . The guidan data entry fo considered st analyses worksheet i ded and div s for all non ons. Thus, y heet. Howe t are consist A-17 re and Afte ighways sheet to revi of the proje es not allow 1 to candida ce addresse r existing c , reviewing for rural fou s to establis ided highwa -site-specifi ou can perf ver, you hav ent with you r 3R Projec ew all of th ct. This is a you to cha te 3R proje s setup defa onditions on analysis res r-lane highw h default va ys (nonfree c data eleme orm analyse e the option r agency’s t for Rural e intermedia read-only w nge any resu cts on rural ults (which y a specific r ults, and rev ays, first v lues for asse ways). The nts needed s without ch to modify a policies, pra Two-Lane te values orksheet th lts. four-lane ou can eith oadway, iewing isit the ssment of 3 R4UD_Setu by Tool 1 to anging any ny of the ctices, and at er R p

experienc and click column a Each of t A.2.1.1 Figure A below. Figur  A ro  E w  M w  P T  A w A.2.1.2 Figure A element i e. To chang the option b s a replacem he data elem Road Elem -19 shows a e A-19. En verage Em adway cros xisting Bas ay and shou illing Dept ill be milled avement De his applies o verage Deli here delinea Cost Elem -20 and Figu s discussed e a default v utton in tha ent for the ents on the ents screenshot try Form fo bankment H s section in e Depth: De lder. h: Depth in as part of p pth: Depth nly to flexib neator Spa tors are to b ents re A-21 sho in detail bel alue, enter t cell. This u default value R4UD_Setu of the road e r Road Ele eight: Ave feet for leve pth in inche inches to w avement res in inches of le pavemen cing: Avera e added. w the cost e ow the figur A-18 your value i ser-supplie that was in p workshee lement defa ment Defau rage represe l, rolling, an s of base m hich flexible urfacing. Th flexible pav t. ge spacing i lement defa es. All costs nto the cell d value will itially show t is describe ults. Each it lts for Rur ntation of th d mountain aterial in inc pavement o is applies o ement for t n feet betwe ults for rura are in dolla in the User S appear in th n. d in the foll em in the fi al Four-Lan e embankm ous terrain. hes underne f traveled-w nly to flexib raveled-way en roadside l multilane rs. upplied col e Values Us owing sectio gure is discu e Highway ent height o ath the trav ay and sho le pavemen and should delineators highways. E umn ed ns. ssed s f the eled- ulder t. er. , ach

Figur  B  M  F cu  R y  U sq  E  R  C li  S fo  D p  D e A-20. En ase Unit Co illing Unit lexible Pave bic yard. igid Pavem ard. npaved Sho uare yard. mbankmen ight-of-way enterline R near foot. houlder Ru ot. urable Pav avement ma elineator C try Form fo st: Cost of Cost: Cost ment Unit ent Unit Co ulder Unit t Unit Cost Unit Cost: umble Strip mble Strip ement Mar rking per lin ost: Materia r Cost Elem P base materia of pavement Cost: Mater st: Materia Cost: Mate : Cost of em Cost of acq Unit Cost Unit Cost: king Unit C ear foot. l and install A-19 ent Defau art 1 of 2 l per cubic y milling per ial and insta l and installa rial and inst bankment m uiring right : Cost of ins Cost of insta ost: Materi ation cost o lts for Rura ard. square yard llation cost tion cost of allation cost aterial per -of-way per talling a cen lling a shou al and instal f one roadsi l Four-Lan . of flexible p rigid pavem of unpaved cubic yard. acre. terline rum lder rumble lation cost o de delineato e Highway avement pe ent per squ shoulder pe ble strip per strip per lin f a durable r. s, r are r ear

Figur  In in -  M pr is  S - - - - - - e A-21. En cidentals: cluding the Signing a ARR/disco oject invest also referre ervice Life: Slope Fla foreslope Lane Wid Shoulder way.  NOTE be ass Rumble S Striping/D Superelev superelev try Form fo Each inciden right-of-way nd PM: Sign unt rate: M ments. Fede d to as disco Expected u ttening: Serv only. ening: Servi Widening: S : Slope Flat igned identi trip Installa elineation: ation Restor ation. r Cost Elem P tal cost is c cost. ing and pav inimum attr ral guidelin unt rate. seful life or ice life for ce life for w ervice life f tening, Lane cal service l tion: Service Service life ation: Serv A-20 ent Defau art 2 of 2 alculated as ement mark active rate o es suggest a service life slope flatten idening of t or widening Widening, ives. life of cent of roadway ice life of re lts for Rura a percentag ings. f return (M n MARR va in years for ing, includi he traveled- of the shou and Should erline and s striping and storing or ch l Four-Lan e of the proj ARR) for an lue at 7 perc the roadway ng flattening way. lder adjacen er Widening houlder rum roadside d anging hori e Highway ect total cos alysis of 3R ent. The MA improveme the roadsid t to the trav should alw ble strips. elineators. zontal curve s, t not RR nt. e eled- ays

 C le - - - - - A.2.1.3 Figures A highways Figure A  R ru T Y ex I7 I7 p  R fo S Y F I7 ov rash Cost b vels are def Fatal: Co Disabling Evident In Possible I Property D Safety Ele -22 through . Each elem -22. Entry ural 4-lane ral four-lan he SPF used ou can supp ample to ho 2 in the R4U 1, which ar arameter for ural 4-lane ur-lane divi PF used for ou can supp igure A-23) 8 and I79, w erdispersio y Severity: ined in a ma st of a fatal Injury: Cos jury: Cost o njury: Cost amage On ments A-25 show ent is discu Form for S Undivided e undivided for rural fo ly your own w to enter a D_Setup w e AADT and the rural fo Divided SP ded highwa rural four-la ly your own . In the cell p hich are AA n parameter Societal cra nner consist crash. t of a disabl f an eviden of a possibl ly: Cost of a screenshot ssed in detai afety Eleme SPF: The u highways (n ur-lane undi SPF as a fu revised SP orksheet), t roadway se ur-lane undi F: The user ys (nonfreew ne divided h SPF as a fu rovided (Ce DT and ro for your rur A-21 sh costs by ent with the ing injury cr t injury cras e injury cras property da s of the safe l below. nt Defaults 1 of 3 ser has the o onfreeways vided highw . nction of A F is shown i ype in a form ction length vided SPF i has the opt ays) from H ighways us . nction of A ll I80), type adway sectio al four-lane crash severi HSM. ash. h. h. mage only ty element d for Rural ption to ret ) from HSM ays used in . ADT and ro n Figure A- ula that is , respective n Cell I73. ion to retain SM Chapte ed in the HS . ADT and ro in a formu n length, re divided SPF ty level. Cra crash. efaults for r Four-Lane ain the SPF Chapter 11 the HSM is adway secti 23. In the ce a function o ly. Enter the the SPF app r 11 or to m M is: adway secti la that is a fu spectively. in Cell I81 sh severity ural four-lan Highways, applicable t or to modi : on length. A ll provided f cells I70 a overdisper licable to ru odify it. Th on length (s nction of ce Enter the . e Part o fy it. n (Cell nd sion ral e ee lls

 C th 1 Figur Figure alibration F e safety pre .0 is built int e A-24. Ent A-23. User actor: This diction proc o the tool. ry Form for Specified S is a factor edure to app Safety Ele P A-22 PFs for Ru to adjust cra roximate yo ment Defau art 2 of 3 ral Four-L sh frequenc ur local con lts for Rur ane Highwa y estimates p ditions. A d al Four-La ys roduced fro efault value ne Highway m of s,

 C sh Y th ad co gr Figur  C se th p ad co gr A.2.2 D After the perform b workshee Use the R improvem The follo rash Type own. Defau ou may also e sum of all just each in nsider user eater than 1 e A-25. Ent rash Severi verity level e tool. You ercent. If the just each in nsider user eater than 1 ata Entry setup defau enefit-cost t. 4UD_Proje ents to con wing section Proportions lt values of enter agenc percentage dividual per -supplied pe 05 percent. ry Form for ty Proporti . Default va may also en sum of all dividual per -supplied pe 05 percent. lts have bee analyses for ct workshee sider in the s step throu : These are these percen y-specific v s is between centage pro rcentages if In this case, Safety Ele P ons: These lues of these ter agency-s percentages centage pro rcentages if In this case, n either reta rural two-la t to enter al benefit-cost gh each inp A-23 the percenta tages from alues. All p 95 and 105 portionally t the sum of an error me ment Defau art 3 of 3 are the perc percentage pecific valu is between 9 portionally t the sum of an error me ined or mod ne highway l existing ro analysis. ut table in th ge of all cra HSM Chapt ercentages m percent, the o add to 10 all percentag ssage will b lts for Rur entage of all s from HSM es. All perc 5 and 105 p o add to 10 all percentag ssage will b ified, as you s. Proceed t adway attrib e “R4UD_P shes for eac er 11 are bu ust add to n the tool w 0 percent. T es is less th e displayed al Four-La crashes for Chapter 11 entages mus ercent, then 0 percent. T es is less th e displayed wish, the to o the R4UD utes and sel roject” wor h crash type ilt into the t 100 percent. ill automati he tool will an 95 perce . ne Highway each crash are built in t add to 100 the tool wi he tool will an 95 perce . ol is ready _Project ect roadway ksheet. ool. If cally not nt or s, to ll not nt or to

A.2.2.1  D dr  S  A  T  P A.2.2.2 Alignmen rural two four-lane assessme interest o project, t F Roadway D Figure A-2 ivided or U opdown me ection Leng ADT: Aver errain: The avement Ty Alignment t data repre -lane highw nonfreeway nt of supere r you do not hen enter “0 igure A-27. ata 6. Roadwa ndivided: S nu. th: Length age annual d terrain in w pe: Type of Data sent the hor ay procedur s. For rural levation imp wish to con ” for numbe Specific Cu y Data Entr elect either in miles of t aily traffic hich the roa pavement o izontal curv es, there is n four-lane no rovements. sider supere r of curves i rve Data E A-24 y Form for 4-lane Undi he roadway in vehicles p dway sectio f the roadw ature on the o need for a nfreeways, If there are levation im n roadway s ntry Form Rural Fou vided or 4-l section. er day on th n is located ay section, roadway se n average c alignment d no curves on provement a ection (see for Rural F r-Lane Hig ane Divided e roadway . either flexib ction of inte urve data op ata are used the roadwa s an option Figure A-27 our-Lane H hways from the section. le or rigid. rest. Unlike tion for rura only for the y section o for the 3R ). ighways the l f

 N ex cu im  M ra  D  Y se - - - - - - - A.2.2.3 Use the E of the roa Figur umber of C ist on the ro rve data for provement aximum Su te on rural m esign Speed ou will need ction: Curve Len transition Transition horizonta Radius: E Spiral: Se Otherwise Existing e a percenta Consider f want to co 3R projec Improved Improved horizonta Existing Cr xisting Cro dway sectio e A-28. Exi urves in Ro adway sect m. If there a as an option perelevatio ultilane hig : Enter the to enter the gth: Enter t s. Length: En l curve. If th nter the radi lect “Yes” f , select “No : Enter the e ge. or Improve nsider supe t. Otherwise e: If you se e cell will b l curve in pe oss Sectio ss Section e n: sting Cross adway Sec ion. A maxi re no curve for the 3R n Rate (em hways. design speed following d he length of ter the leng ere are no sp us of the ho rom the emb .” xisting supe ment: Selec relevation re , select “No lected “Yes” e shown. En rcent. n Data ntry form sh Section Da A-25 tion: Enter mum of 10 c s or you do project, then ax): Enter yo of the road ata for each horizontal th of spiral t iral transiti rizontal curv edded drop relevation r t “Yes” from storation/im .” in the Cons ter the impr own in Figu ta Entry Fo the number urves can b not wish to enter “0” f ur agency’s way section horizontal curve in mil ransition in ons, enter “0 e in feet. down menu ate of the ho the embed provement ider for Imp oved supere re A-28 to d rm for Rur of horizonta e entered in consider sup or number o maximum in miles pe curve on the es, not inclu miles for on ”. if spiral cur rizontal cur ded dropdow on this spec rovement c levation rat efine the fo al Four-La l curves tha the specific erelevation f curves. superelevati r hour. roadway ding spiral e end of the ves are pres ve expresse n menu if y ific curve in olumn, then e of the llowing feat ne Highwa t on ent. d as ou the the ures ys

 L dr  S  S  R  C st  S st A.2.2.4 At your o section to simply us options i history is Figur  C h The Cras considera  C  T se ane Width: opdown me houlder Wi houlder Ty oadside Slo enterline R rips are pres houlder Ru rips are pres Crash Hist ption, you c assist in ca e the estima s made in th that the ben e A-29. Cra onsider exi istory for the Figure A h Data entr tion of exis rash Histor otal Fatal-a gment that Select the e nu. dth: Select pe: Select th pe: Select t umble Strip ent on the r mble Strip: ent on the r ory Option an choose t lculating po te given by e form show efit estimat sh History sting crash roadway se -30. Crash y form show ting crash hi y Period: E nd-Injury fall into the xisting lane the existing e existing s he existing r : Select “Y oadway sect Select “Ye oadway sect o use the ex tential crash the HSM cr n in Figure e may better Option Dat history?: S ction. Othe Data Entry n in Figure story. nter the num Crashes: En following cr A-26 width on th shoulder wi houlder type oadside fore es” from the ion. Otherw s” from the ion. Otherw isting site-sp savings wit ash predicti A-29. The a reflect loca a Entry Fo elect the “Y rwise, select Form for R A-30 will ap ber of year ter the total ash severity e traveled w dth in feet f from the dr slope from dropdown ise, select “N dropdown m ise, select “N ecific crash h the 3R pro on method. dvantage of l conditions rm for Rur es” option if “No.” ural Four- pear when s of availab number of levels: ay in feet fr rom the drop opdown me the dropdow menu if cen o.” enu if shou o.” history of t ject. Otherw The choice b using site-s . al Four-La you want t Lane High “Yes” is sel le crash data crashes on t om the down menu nu. n menu. terline rumb lder rumble he roadway ise, you ca etween the pecific crash ne Highway o use the cra ways ected for the . he roadway . le n se s sh

- - - -  T ro A.2.3 A Near the should be checkbox Each pot  L th th se  S th U se Fatal cras Disabling Evident in Possible i otal Proper adway segm lternatives bottom of th considered es to select Figure A-31 ential impro ane Width: rough trave e User Sele lected, up to houlder Wi e shoulders ser Selectio lected, up to h injury crash jury crash njury crash ty-Damage ent that fal to Consid e R4UD_Pr in the bene the appropr . Data Ent vement alter If you have l lanes will b ction colum a maximum dth: If you will be wid n column. O a maximum -Only Cras l into the pro er oject works fit-cost analy iate improve ry Form to Four-L native is de checked th e widened n. Only valu lane width have checke ened from th nly values g shoulder w A-27 hes: Enter th perty-dama heet is a tab sis (see Fig ment altern Select Alter ane Highw scribed in m e Lane Widt from the cho es greater th of 12 ft. d the Shoul e choices o reater than idth of 8 ft e total num ge-only cra le in which ure A-31). C atives to con natives to C ays ore detail b h box, selec ices offered an the exist der Width b ffered on the the existing . ber of crash sh severity l to specify w heck the ap sider in the onsider fo elow. t the width t on the drop ing lane wid ox, select th dropdown shoulder wi es on the evel. hich alterna propriate analysis. r Rural o which the down menu th can be e width to w menu in the dth can be tives in hich

 S sh th un  R ro th is  C fu le al n au fo  S d th d on th in  E b ed F Figure  T in se si A.2.4 R The resul R4UD_P houlder Ty oulder type e only avail paved. oadside Slo adside slop an the exist 1V:6H. enterline R rther data e ngth of the ready exists o effect. In t tomatically r four-lane houlder Ru ata entry is n e outside sh ivided roadw the roadwa is case, the to the proje nhanced St ox, installati ge striping igure A-15 w A-32. Enh otal Length miles that w parately (i.e des of the ro esults ts of the eco roject work pe: If you h from the dr able option, pe: If you h e from the d ing roadside umble Strip ntry is neces roadway sec on the road his case, the be added in undivided h mble Strip: ecessary. In oulders on b ays) will be y section, c cost of insta ct cost of the riping/Delin on of durab as well as in ill appear i anced Pave of Section ill have roa . enter 2 mi adway. nomic analy sheet (see Fi ave checked opdown me and this opt ave checked ropdown me slope can b : If you hav sary. Install tion will be way section cost of inst to the proje ighways onl If you have stallation of oth sides of considered hecking the lling the rum 3R project eation: If y le pavement stalling roa f you select ment Mark H with Deline dside deline if a 1-mi ro sis are show gure A-33). A-28 the Shoulde nu in the Us ion is only a the Roadsi nu in the U e selected. T e checked t ation of a ce considered. , checking t alling the ru ct cost of the y. checked th a shoulder the roadwa . Note that i shoulder ru ble strip af . ou have che markings w dside deline this option. ing and De ighways ator Posts: ator posts. I adway secti n in the Re r Type box er Selection pplicable if de Slope bo ser Selection he flattest s he Centerlin nterline rum Note that if he centerline mble strip a 3R project e Shoulder R rumble strip y section (an f a shoulder mble strip b ter repaving cked the En ill be consid ators. The d lineation D Enter the le nclude both on has roads sults table a , select the i menu. A pa the existing x, select the column. O lope that m e Rumble S ble strip alo a centerline rumble str fter repavin . This option umble Strip along the e d the inside rumble strip ox will have will automa hanced Stri ered for bo ata entry tab ata for Rur ngth of the sides of the ide delineat t the top of mproved ved shoulde shoulder is improved nly slopes f ay be consid trip box, no ng the entir rumble stri ip box will h g will is consider box, no fu ntire length shoulders o already ex no effect. I tically be a ping/Deline th centerline le shown in al Four-La roadway sec roadway ors on both the r is latter ered e p ave ed rther of n ists n dded ation and ne tion

F The Resu  P - -  A es m im  P ov  B b  N o The annu annualize igure A-33. lts table pre V Modified Calculate The modi resurfacin User Supp option bu value calc nnual Safet timated to r illing and re provement resent Valu er the servi enefit-Cost enefit divide et Benefit: f the modifie al number o d crash redu Results of sents the fol Total Cost d: The prese fied total co g the existin lied: You c tton in this c ulated by th y Benefit: T esult from th surfacing w s are made). e of Safety ce life of the Ratio: The d by the pre The net ben d total cost f crashes pr ctions, are Benefit-Cos lowing info : nt value of st is the tota g traveled w an supply yo ell for the to e tool. his is the c e selected 3 hich will be Benefit: Th roadway im benefit-cost sent value o efit is the pr . edicted befo shown to the A-29 t Analysis rmation: the modified l project cos ay. ur own tota ol to use th alculated an R project ro implemente is is the pres provement ratio is the f the modifi esent value re and after right of the for Rural F total proje t not includ l project co is user-supp nual crash s adway imp d whether o ent value o s. ratio of the ed total cost of safety ben the 3R proj Results tab our-Lane H ct cost is sho ing the cost st in this cel lied total co avings in do rovements ( r not the oth f the annual present valu . efit minus t ect, along w le (see Figu ighways wn in this c of milling a l. Click the st in place o llars that is other than er crash saving e of safety he present v ith the re A-34). ell. nd f the s alue

Figu A.2.5 V You may calculate enables y A.3 Fr This sect freeways lanes, an setup def existing c reviewin A.3.1 S Before pe The purp projects o data elem analyses option to policies, re A-34. C iew Calcu access the R d in assessin ou to review eeways ion presents . These proc d to urban fr aults (which onditions o g analysis re etup Defau rforming an ose of the F n freeways ents needed without cha modify any practices, an rash Frequ lations 4UD_Calc g the benefi the calcula the applicat edures can b eeways with can be eith n a specific sults, and re lts y benefit-co WY_Setup w . The FWY_ by Tool 1 t nging any v of the defau d experienc encies Befo H ulations wor ts and costs tions, but do ion of Tool e applied to four, six, e er accepted roadway, sp viewing cal st analyses, orksheet is Setup work o perform th alues in the lt values to e. To chang A-30 re and Afte ighways ksheet to re of the proje es not allow 1 to candida rural freew ight, and ten unchanged o ecifying the culations. first visit th to establish sheet contai e benefit-co FWY_Setup other values e a default v r 3R Projec view all of t ct. This is a you to cha te 3R proje ays with fou through lan r modified alternative( e FWY_Set default valu ns default va st calculatio worksheet. that are co alue, enter y t for Rural he intermed read-only w nge any resu cts on rural r, six, and e es. The gui by the user) s) to be con up workshe es for asses lues for all ns. Thus, y However, y nsistent with our value in Four-Lane iate values orksheet th lts. and urban ight throug dance addre , data entry sidered, et. sment of 3R non-site-spe ou can perfo ou have the your agenc to the cell i at h sses for cific rm y’s n the

User Sup appear in Each of t A.3.1.1 Figure A below.  A ro  E w  M w  P T A.3.1.2 Figure A discussed plied colum the Values he data elem Road Elem -35 shows a Figure A- verage Em adway cros xisting Bas ay and shou illing Dept ill be milled avement De his applies o Cost Elem -36 through in detail be n and click Used colum ents on the ents screenshot 35. Data En bankment H s section in e Depth: De lder. h: Depth in as part of p pth: Depth nly to flexib ents Figure A-40 low the figu the option b n as a replac FWY_Setup of the road e try Form f eight: Ave feet for leve pth in inche inches to w avement res in inches of le pavemen show the c res. All cos A-31 utton in that ement for th worksheet lement defa or Road Ele rage represe l, rolling, an s of base m hich flexible urfacing. Th flexible pav t. ost element ts are in dol cell. This u e default va is described ults. Each it ment Defa ntation of th d mountain aterial in inc pavement o is applies o ement for t defaults for lars. ser-supplied lue that wa in the follo em in the fi ults for Fre e embankm ous terrain. hes underne f traveled-w nly to flexib raveled-way freeways. E value will s initially sh wing section gure is discu eways ent height o ath the trav ay and sho le pavemen and should ach elemen own. s. ssed f the eled- ulder t. er. t is

Figu  B  M  F cu  R y  U sq  E  R Figu re A-36. Da ase Unit Co illing Unit lexible Pave bic yard. igid Pavem ard. npaved Sho uare yard. mbankmen ight-of-way re A-37. Da ta Entry F st: Cost of Cost: Cost ment Unit ent Unit Co ulder Unit t Unit Cost Unit Cost: ta Entry F orm for Co base materia of pavement Cost: Mater st: Materia Cost: Mate : Cost of em Cost of acq orm for Co A-32 st Element l per cubic y milling per ial and insta l and installa rial and inst bankment m uiring right st Element Defaults fo ard. square yard llation cost tion cost of allation cost aterial per -of-way per Defaults fo r Freeways . of flexible p rigid pavem of unpaved cubic yard. acre for eac r Freeways , Part 1 of 5 avement pe ent per squ shoulder pe h freeway ty , Part 2 of 5 r are r pe.

 S st  G  C  C  G  C  C b Figu houlder Ru rip. uardrail U able Barrie oncrete Ba uardrail R able Barrie oncrete Ba arrier. re A-38. Da mble Strip nit Cost: Co r Unit Cost rrier Unit C emoval Uni r Removal rrier Remo ta Entry F Unit Cost: st per linear : Cost per li ost: Cost p t Cost: Cos Unit Cost: val Unit Co orm for Co A-33 Cost per line foot of inst near foot of er linear foo t per linear f Cost per lin st: Cost per st Element ar foot of in alling a w-s installing a t of installin oot of remo ear foot of r linear foot o Defaults fo stalling a sh hape guardr cable barrie g a concrete ving a guard emoving a c f removing r Freeways oulder rum ail. r. barrier. rail. able barrier a concrete , Part 3 of 5 ble .

Figu  In in - re A-39. Da cidentals: cluding the Signing a ta Entry F Each inciden right-of-way nd PM: Sign orm for Co tal cost is c cost for ea ing and pav A-34 st Element alculated as ch freeway ement mark Defaults fo a percentag type. ings. r Freeways e of the proj , Part 4 of 5 ect total cos t not

Figu  M pr v  S - - - - - -  C le - - - - - re A-40. Da ARR/disco oject invest alue is also r ervice Life: Lane Wid Shoulder way.  NOTE identi Rumble S Guardrai Cable Bar Concrete rash Cost b vels are def Fatal: Co Disabling Evident In Possible I Property D ta Entry F unt rate: M ments. Fede eferred to a Expected u ening: Servi Widening: S : Lane Wid cal service l trip Installa l Installation rier Installa Barrier Inst y Severity: ined in a ma st of a fatal Injury: Cos jury: Cost o njury: Cost amage On orm for Co inimum attr ral guidelin s discount ra seful life or ce life for w ervice life f ening and Sh ives. tion: Service : Service li tion: Servic allation: Se Societal cra nner consist crash. t of a disabl f an eviden of a possibl ly: Cost of a A-35 st Element active rate o es suggest a te. service life idening of t or widening oulder Wid life of cent fe of guardra e life of cab rvice life of sh costs by ent with the ing injury cr t injury cras e injury cras property da Defaults fo f return (M n MARR va in years for he traveled- of the shou ening shoul erline and s ils. le barriers. concrete ba crash severi HSM. ash. h. h. mage only r Freeways ARR) for an lue at 7 perc the roadway way. lder adjacen d always be houlder rum rriers. ty level. Cra crash. , Part 5 of 5 alysis of 3R ent. The MA improveme t to the trav assigned ble strips. sh severity RR nt. eled-

A.3.1.3 Figure A discussed The only Figure A  C th 1 A.3.2 D After the perform b Use the “ improvem The follo Safety Ele -41 shows a in detail be safety defau -41). Figure A-4 alibration F e safety pre .0 is built int ata Entry setup defau enefit-cost FWY_Proje ents to con wing section ments screenshot low. lts that can 1. Data En actor: This diction proc o the tool. lts have bee analyses for ct” workshe sider in the s step throu of the safety be modified try Form fo is a factor edure to app n either reta freeways. P et to enter a benefit-cost gh each inp A-36 element de for freeway r Safety El to adjust cra roximate yo ined or mod roceed to th ll existing r analysis. ut table in th faults for fre s are the ca ement Defa sh frequenc ur local con ified, as you e FWY_Pro oadway attri e FWY_Pr eways. Eac libration fac ults for Fre y estimates p ditions. A d wish, the to ject worksh butes and se oject worksh h element is tors (see eways roduced fro efault value ol is ready eet. lect roadwa eet. m of to y

A.3.2.1  A th  S  A  T  P ri A.3.2.2 The align describe Figure A Dependin workshee The follo specific c to the opt Roadway D F rea Type: S e freeway r ection Leng ADT: Enter errain: The avement Ty gid. Alignment ment data ta horizontal c -43 to select g on which t. Fig wing two fi urve data (s ion that you ata igure A-42 elect either esides. th: Length the average terrain in w pe: Type of Data ble shown i urvature of t either entry option butto ure A-43. A gures show ee Figure A chose for e . Roadway D urban or rur in miles of t annual dail hich the roa pavement o n Figure A- he roadway of average n you selec lignment D the data entr -45). Note th ntering align A-37 ata Entry al from the he roadway y traffic in v dway sectio f the roadw 43 addresse section of i curve data o t, different e ata Entry y for averag at you will ment data. Form for F dropdown m section in m ehicles per n is located ay section, w s the method nterest. Use r entry of sp ntry forms w Option for e curve data only see the reeways enu for the iles. day on the r . hich is eith that will b the option b ecific curve ill appear o Freeways (see Figure entry form area in whi oadway sec er flexible o e used to uttons in data. n the A-44) and correspondi ch tion. r ng

 % h  T se  N se h  P cu  N th th m  Y se - - Figu of Section orizontal cur ypical Curv ction. umber of C ction for bo orizontal cur resence of S rves, use th Figu umber of C e roadway s at has two h aximum of ou will need ction: Curve Len spiral tran Curve Ra re A-44. Av Length on ves. Include e Radius: E urves on S th roadways ves in each piral Tran e dropdown re A-45. Sp urves in Ro ection for b orizontal cu 10 curves ca to enter the gth in Segm sitions. dius: Enter t erage Cur Curves: En spiral trans nter the ave ection: Ente of the freew direction of sitions: If sp in this cell ecific Curv adway Sec oth roadway rves in each n be entered following d ent: Enter t he radius in A-38 ve Data Ent ter the perce itions in the rage horizo r the numbe ay. For exa travel, then iral transiti to select “Y e Data Ent tion: Enter s of the free direction o in the spec ata for each he length in feet of the h ry Form fo nt of the ro percentage ntal curve r r of horizon mple, if a fr enter four i ons are pres es”. Otherw ry Form fo the total num way. For ex f travel, then ific curve d horizontal miles of the orizontal cu r Freeways adway secti if present. adius of the tal curves o eeway secti n this cell. ent with the ise, select “N r Freeways ber of hori ample, if a enter four ata form. curve on the horizontal rve. on that is on roadway n the roadw on that has horizontal o.” zontal curve freeway sec in this cell. A roadway curve includ ay two s on tion ing

A.3.2.3 Use the E features o  N se  L dr  O dr  In dr  O m  M ed d  M th Existing Cr xisting Cro f the roadw Figure A umber of T gment (incl ane Width: opdown me utside Shou opdown me side Shoul opdown me utside Roa enu. edian Wid ge of the tr irection. edian Slop ere is not a oss Sectio ss Section d ay section: -46. Existi hrough La uding both d Select the e nu. lder Width nu. der Width: nu. dside Slope th: Enter the aveled way e: Select the depressed m n Data ata entry for ng Cross Se nes: Select t irections of xisting lane : Select the Select the e : Select the median wi to the leftmo median cro edian. A-39 m shown in ction Data he total num travel). width of th existing ou xisting insid existing road dth in feet, w st edge of t ss slope fro Figure A-4 Entry Form ber of throu e traveled w tside should e shoulder w side foreslo hich is mea he traveled- m the dropd 6 to define t for Freew gh lanes on ay in feet fr er width in f idth in feet pe from the sured from way in the o own menu. he following ays the freeway om the eet from the from the dropdown the leftmost pposite Select “Flat ” if

 M m - - - -  O al b  C fr  In ex  O st  % th A.3.2.4 If you se Median B Barrier d about the  N (s v edian Barr edian (for m No Media Continuou the entire Continuou but is not Discontin continuou utside Barr ong the outs arriers, selec lear Zone W eeway secti side Shoul ist on the in utside Shou rips exist on of AADT e traffic vol Median Ba lected “Cont arrier dropd ata entry for median bar Figu umber of d tand-alone) alue. Do not ier: Select t ore detailed n Barrier: A s, Centered length of th s, Offset: A centered in uous: Media s. ier: Select ide or right t “No.” idth: Ente on in feet. der Rumble side should lder Rumb the outside during high ume exceed rriers inuous, Cen own menu m will appe rier, as expl re A-47. M iscontinuou median barr count a con he situation discussion bsolutely n : A median e freeway se median bar the median. n barriers d “Yes” from side of the f r the width o Strip: Sele ers of the ro le Strip: Se shoulders o volume pe s 1,000 veh/ tered”, “Co in the Existi ar (shown in ained below edian Barri s median b ier segment tinuous barr A-40 that best de of these opt o barriers ex barrier exist gment. rier runs the o exist on th the dropdow reeway segm f the clear z ct “Yes” fro adway secti lect “Yes” f f the roadwa riods: prop h/lane. ntinuous, Of ng Cross Se Figure A-4 : er Data En arriers: En s on the free ier in this nu scribes the p ions, see HS ist in the m s in the cen entire leng e freeway s n menu if t ent. Otherw one on the m the dropd on. Otherwi rom the dro y section. O ortion of AA fset” or “Di ction form ( 7). Use this try Form fo ter the total way segme mber. resence of b M Chapter edian. ter of the me th of the free egment, but here are traf ise, if there outside or ri own menu se, select “N pdown men therwise, s DT during scontinuous see Figure A entry form r Freeway number of d nt. Ten (10) arriers in th 18): dian and ru way segme are not fic barriers are no outs ght side of t if rumble str o.” u if rumble elect “No.” hours in wh ” from the -46), a Me to enter data s iscontinuou is the maxim e ns nt, ide he ips ich dian s um

 In op  W o  C dr m If discon appear (s barriers, F  L  H tr  B A.3.2.5 If “Yes” appear (s  N fr side Barrie tion only ap (near): En ffset barrier ont. Media opdown me edian barrie tinuous med ee Figure A as explained igure A-48 ength of Ins orizontal Cl aveled-way arrier Type: Outside Ba was selected ee Figure A Figu umber of O eeway segm r Width: E pears for co ter the distan to the barrie n Barrier T nu. This opt rs. ian barriers -48). Use th below: . Discontin ide Barrier: earance: En and the disc Select the d rriers for the pre -49 and Figu re A-49. Ou utside Bar ent. nter the wid ntinuous, c ce in feet fr r face. ype: Select ion only app are present is data entry uous Media Enter the le ter the dista ontinuous m iscontinuou sence of out re A-50). tside Barri riers: Enter A-41 th in feet of entered and om the insid the continuo ears for con on the freew form to ent n Barrier D ngth in mile nce in feet b edian barrie s median ba side barriers er Data En the number the continu continuous, e traveled-w us median tinuous, ce ay segment er data abou ata Entry s of the disc etween the r face. rrier type fr , the follow try Form fo of outside b ous median offset medi ay edge clo barrier type ntered and c , then a data t the discon Form for F ontinuous m leftmost edg om the drop ing data entr r Freeway arriers pres barrier. This an barriers. sest to the from the ontinuous, o entry form tinuous med reeways edian barri e of the down menu y forms wil s ent on the ffset will ian er. . l

 L  H tr  B A.3.2.6 At your o section to simply us options i history is  C sp The Cras considera Figure A ength of Ou orizontal Cl aveled-way arrier Type: Crash Hist ption, you c assist in ca e the estima s made in th that the ben Figure onsider exi ecific crash h Data entr tion of exis -50. Outsid tside Barrier earance: En and the barr Select the b ory Option an choose t lculating po te given by e form show efit estimat A-51. Crash sting crash history for y form show ting crash hi e Barrier D : Enter the ter the dista ier face. arrier type o use the ex tential crash the HSM cr n in Figure e may better History O history?: S the roadway n in Figure story. A-42 etailed Dat length in mi nce in feet b from the em isting site-sp savings wit ash predicti A-51. The a reflect loca ption Data elect the “Y section. Ot A-52 will ap a Entry For les of the ou etween the bedded drop ecific crash h the 3R pro on method. dvantage of l conditions Entry Form es” option if herwise, sel pear when m for Free tside barrie right-most e down menu history of t ject. Otherw The choice b using site-s . for Freew you want t ect “No.” “Yes” is sel ways r. dge of the . he roadway ise, you ca etween the pecific crash ays o use the sit ected for the n se e-

 C  T ro - - - -  T ro  T se - - - -  T se A.3.3 A Near the improvem Check th rash Histor otal MV-FI adway segm Fatal cras Disabling Evident in Possible i otal MV-PD adway segm otal SV-FI gment that Fatal cras Disabling Evident in Possible i otal SV-PD gment that lternatives bottom of th ent alterna e checkboxe Figure A-5 y Period: E Crashes: E ent that fal h injury crash jury crash njury crash O Crashes ent that fal Crashes: En fall into the h injury crash jury crash njury crash O Crashes: fall into the to Consid e FWY_Pro tives should s for alterna 2. Crash D nter the num nter the tota l into the fol : Enter the t l into the pro ter the total following cr Enter the to property-da er ject worksh be consider tives to incl A-43 ata Entry F ber of year l number of lowing cras otal number perty-dama number of ash severity tal number mage-only c eet is a tabl ed in the ben ude in the a orm for Fr s of availab multiple ve h severity le of multiple ge-only cra single vehic levels: of single ve rash severit e in which to efit-cost an nalysis. eeways le crash data hicle crashe vels: vehicle cra sh severity l le crashes o hicle crashe y level. specify wh alysis (see T . s on the shes on the evel. n the roadw s on the road ich able A-53) ay way .

Fi Each alte  L th in se  O th th ou  In w dr ou  M m d an  O b b  In en in al ef b gure A-53. rnative is de ane Width: rough trave the User Se lected, up to utside Shou e width to w e dropdown tside shoul side Shoul idth to whic opdown me tside shoul edian Barr edian barrie iscontinuous d modificat utside Barr arrier you w arriers) will side Rumb try is neces side should ready exists fect. In this e added into Data Entry scribed in m If you have l lanes shou lection colu a maximum lder Width hich the ou menu in th der width ca der Width: h the inside nu in the Us der width ca ier: If you h r you want t median bar ions for furt ier: If you h ant to consid be specified le Strip: If sary. Install ers on both r on the road case, the co the project Form to Se ore detail b checked th ld be widene mn. Only v lane width : If you hav tside should e User Selec n be selecte If you have shoulders sh er Selection n be selecte ave checke o consider a riers). See t her explana ave checke er adding ( in a later sc you have ch ation of a sh oadways wi way section st of installi cost of the 3 A-44 lect Altern elow. e Lane Widt d from the alues greate of 12 ft. e checked t ers should b tion column d, up to a m checked the ould be wid column. O d, up to a m d the Media dding (or m he following tion. d the Outsid or modifying reen (see Se ecked the In oulder rumb ll be consid , checking t ng the rumb R project. atives to Co h box, selec choices offe r than the ex he Outside S e widened f . Only valu aximum lan Inside Sho ened from nly values g aximum lan n Barrier bo odifying, in subsection e Barrier bo , in the cas ction A.3.3 side Rumbl le strip alon ered. Note t he inside rum le strip after nsider for t the width t red on the d isting lane w houlder Wi rom the cho es greater th e width of 1 ulder Width the choices reater than t e width of 1 x, select the the case of on median x, the detail e of existing .2). e Strip box, g the entire hat if an ins ble strip bo repaving w Freeways o which the ropdown me idth can be dth box, sel ices offered an the existi 2 ft. box, select offered on th he existing 2 ft. details of th existing barrier addit s of the outs outside no further d length of th ide rumble s x will have ill automati nu ect on ng the e e ions ide ata e trip no cally

A-45  Outside Rumble Strip: If you have checked the Outside Rumble Strip box, no further data entry is necessary. Installation of a shoulder rumble strip along the entire length of the outside shoulders on both roadways will be considered. Note that if an outside rumble strip already exists on the roadway section, checking the outside rumble strip box will have no effect. In this case, the cost of installing the rumble strip after repaving will automatically be added into the project cost of the 3R project. A.3.3.1 Adding and Modifying Median Barriers If you check the Median Barrier box on the data entry form in Figure A-53, select the option from the dropdown menu that best suits your project. Note that not all these options may be available, based on existing median barriers present on the freeway section.  Install Continuous Centered Barrier: Select this option to install a continuous centered median barrier. This option will only appear when there is no existing continuous median barrier along the freeway.  Replace Offset with Centered Continuous Barrier: Select this option to replace an existing continuous offset median barrier with a continuous centered median barrier. This option will only appear when there is an existing continuous offset median barrier along the freeway.  Install Continuous Offset Barrier: Select this option to install a continuous offset median barrier. This option will only appear when there is no existing continuous median barrier along the freeway.  Only Add/Edit Discontinuous Barriers: Select this option to add and/or modify existing discontinuous median barriers. This option will only appear if no existing continuous median barrier along the freeway.  Keep Continuous Barrier and Add/Edit Discontinuous Barriers: Select this option to keep the existing continuous median barrier and add and/or modify existing discontinuous median barriers. This option will only appear if there is an existing continuous median barrier. When the Median Barrier box is selected on the data entry form in Figure A-53, one or more data entry forms will appear below the entry form. First, go to the Median Barrier Changes data entry form (see Figure A-54). Depending on the option selected from the median barrier improvement/modification dropdown menu in the data entry form in Figure A-53, enter all necessary data in the Median Barrier Changes data entry form.

 N d T  In T  W o  C dr m If discon improvem make mo appear (s Fi If you wa dropdow Enter the discontin “Yes” wi project co If you ind Figure A Figure A- umber of d iscontinuous en (10) is th side Barrie his option o (near): En ffset barrier ont. Media opdown me edian barrie tinuous med ent/modifi difications t ee Figure A gure A-55. nt to modify n menu in th modified ba uous median ll appear in st estimate. icate that d -56 will ope 54. Median iscontinuou (stand-alon e maximum r Width: E nly appears ter the distan to the barrie n Barrier T nu. This opt rs. ian barriers cation check o the existin -55). Existing Di the length e Edit Leng rrier length barrier had the Auto M iscontinuous n. Enter all Barrier Ad s median b e) median b value. Do n nter the wid for continuo ce in feet fr r face. ype: Select ion only app currently ex box is chec g discontinu scontinuous Form of the disco th of Media in the New to be move oved column median bar necessary da A-46 ditions Da arriers to a arriers that w ot count a c th in feet of us, centered om the insid the continuo ears for con ist on the fr ked in Figu ous median Median B for Freewa ntinuous me n Barrier co Length of M d due to lan . The cost o riers will be ta in the for ta Entry Fo dd: Enter th ill be adde ontinuous b the new con and continu e traveled-w us median tinuous, ce eeway sectio re A-53, you lengths in t arrier Mod ys dian barrier lumn of the edian Barri e and/or ins f moving ba added, a da m. rm for Fre e total num d on the free arrier in this tinuous me ous, offset ay edge clo barrier type ntered and c n, and the m have the op he data entr ifications D , select “Ye table shown er column. ide shoulder rriers is inc ta entry for eways ber of way segme number. dian barrier median barr sest to the from the ontinuous, o edian barri portunity to y form that ata Entry s” from the in Figure A If the widening, orporated in m shown in nt. . iers. ffset er will -55. the

Fig  L  H tr  B dr A.3.3.2 When the appear be Indicate t 10). You onto the n If outside improvem make mo the outsid Outside B Length o outside s barriers w Figu ure A-56. N ength of Me orizontal Cl aveled way arrier Type: opdown me Adding and Outside Ba low the form he number o may only w ext entry fo Figure A- barriers cu ent/modifi difications t e barrier, se arrier colum f Outside Ba houlder wid ill be incor re A-58. Ex ew Discont dian Barrier earance: En and the face Select the t nu. Modifying rrier checkb . First, go f outside ba ant to modi rm below. 57. Outside rrently exist cation check o the existin lect “Yes” f n of the tab rrier colum ening, “Yes porated in th isting Outsi inuous Med : Enter the ter the dista of the disco ype of disco Outside B ox is select to the Outsid rriers that w fy existing o Barrier Ad on the freew box is selec g outside ba rom the em le shown in n. If the outs ” will appea e project co de Barrier A-47 ian Barrie length in mi nce in feet b ntinuous m ntinuous m arriers ed in Figure e Barrier d ill be added utside barri ditions Da ay section, ted in Figur rrier length bedded drop Figure A-5 ide barrier h r in the Auto st estimate. Modificatio r Data Entr les of the di etween the edian barrie edian barrier A-53, one ata entry for to the freew ers, so enter ta Entry Fo and the out e A-53, you s. If you wa down menu 8. Enter the ad to be mo Moved colu ns Data En y Form for scontinuous leftmost edg r. to be instal or more data m (see Figu ay section “0” for this rm for Fre side barrier have the op nt to modify in the Edit modified le ved due to mn. The co try Form f Freeways median bar e of the led from the forms will re A-57). (maximum entry and m eways portunity to the length o Length of ngth in the N lane and/or st of movin or Freeway rier. of ove f ew g s

If you ind in Figure  L  H tr  B A.3.4 R The resul FWY_Pr The Resu  P - - icate that o A-59. Figure ength of Ou orizontal Cl aveled way arrier Type: esults ts of the ben oject worksh Fig lts table pre V Modified Calculate The modi resurfacin User Supp option bu value calc utside barrie A-59. New tside Barrier earance: En and the face Select the b efit-cost an eet (see Fig ure A-60. R sents the fol Total Cost d: The prese fied total co g the existin lied: You c tton in this c ulated by th rs will be ad Outside Ba : Enter the ter the dista of the barri arrier type alysis are sh ure A-60). esults of Be lowing: : nt value of st is the tota g traveled w an supply yo ell for the to e tool. A-48 ded, enter a rrier Data E length in mi nce in feet b er. from the dro own in the R nefit-Cost the modified l project cos ay. ur own tota ol to use th ll necessary ntry Form les of the ou etween the pdown men esults table Analysis fo total proje t not includ l project co is user-supp data in the for Freew tside barrie rightmost e u. at the top o r Freeways ct cost is sho ing the cost st in this cel lied total co user form sh ays r. dge of the f the wn in this c of milling a l. Click the st in place o own ell. nd f the

 A 3R im  P ov  B b  N o The annu annualize A.3.5 V You may calculate enables y nnual Safet project ro plemented resent Valu er the servi enefit-Cost enefit divide et Benefit: f the modifie al number o d crash redu Figure A-6 iew Calcu access the F d in assessin ou to review y Benefit: T adway impro whether or n e of Safety ce life of the Ratio: The d by the pre The net ben d total cost f crashes pr ctions, are 1. Crash Fr lations WY_Calcu g the benefi the calcula his is the c vements (o ot the other Benefit: Th roadway im benefit-cost sent value o efit is the pr . edicted befo shown to the equencies B lations work ts and costs tions, but do A-49 alculated an ther than mi improveme is is the pres provement ratio is the f the modifi esent value re and after right of the efore and A sheet to rev of the proje es not allow nual crash s lling and re nts are mad ent value o s. ratio of the ed total cost of safety ben the 3R proj Results tab fter 3R Pr iew all of th ct. This is a you to cha avings due t surfacing wh e). f the annual present valu . efit minus t ect, along w le (see Figu oject for Fr e intermedi read-only w nge any resu o the selecte ich will be crash saving e of safety he present v ith the re A-61). eeways ate values orksheet th lts. d s alue at

Next: Appendix B. Users Guide for Spreadsheet Tool 2 »
Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released a pre-publication, non-edited version of Research Report 876: Guidelines for Integrating Safety and Cost-Effectiveness into Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) Projects. The report presents an approach for estimating the cost-effectiveness of including safety and operational improvements in a resurfacing, restoration, or rehabilitation (3R) project. The approach uses the performance of the existing road in estimating the benefits of a proposed design improvement and in determining if it is worthwhile. These guidelines are intended to replace TRB Special Report 214: Designing Safer Roads: Practices for Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation. The guidelines are accompanied by two spreadsheet tools available for download through a .zip file: one for analyzing a single design alternative and one for comparing several alternatives or combinations of alternatives.

Disclaimer: This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!