Report Series-Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics
Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics
Space Studies Board
Board on Physics and Astronomy
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
A Consensus Study Report of
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This activity was supported by Contract No. NNH11CD57B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Grant No. AST-1533814 with the National Science Foundation, and Contract No. DESC0014211 with the Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48238-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48238-0
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25212
Copies of this report are available free of charge from:
Space Studies Board
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Suggested Citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Report Series: Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics—Mission Concept Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25212.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.
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COMMITTEE ON ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS
MARCIA J. RIEKE, NAS,1 University of Arizona, Co-Chair
STEVEN M. RITZ, University of California, Santa Cruz, Co-Chair
JEREMIAH K. DARLING, University of Colorado, Boulder
MEGAN DONAHUE, Michigan State University
THOMAS GREENE, NASA Ames Research Center
LEE W. HARTMANN, University of Michigan
VASSILIKI KALOGERA, NAS, Northwestern University
BRUCE MACINTOSH, Stanford University
CHRISTOPHER F. MCKEE, NAS, University of California, Berkeley
ANGELA V. OLINTO, University of Chicago
MARK M. PHILLIPS, Carnegie Institution for Science
JAMES M. STONE, Princeton University
ALEXEY VIKHLININ, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
ERIC M. WILCOTS, University of Wisconsin
A. THOMAS YOUNG, NAE,2 Lockheed Martin, retired
Staff: DAVID LANG, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Study Director; MIA BROWN, Research Associate, Space Studies Board; DIONNA WISE, Senior Program Coordinator, Space Studies Board; RICHARD ROWBERG, Interim Acting Director, Space Studies Board and Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board; JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy
SPACE STUDIES BOARD
FIONA HARRISON, NAS, California Institute of Technology, Chair
ROBERT D. BRAUN, NAE,3 University of Colorado, Boulder, Vice Chair
DAVID N. SPERGEL, NAS, Princeton University and Center for Computational Astrophysics at the Simons Foundation, Vice Chair
JAMES G. ANDERSON, NAS, Harvard University
JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant
JAY C. BUCKEY, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College
MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Dittmar Associates
JOSEPH FULLER, JR., Futron Corporation
THOMAS R. GAVIN, California Institute of Technology
SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research
WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, Carnegie Institution of Washington
ANTHONY C. JANETOS, Boston University
CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, NAS, George Washington University
DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles
ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University
LARRY PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory
SAUL PERLMUTTER, NAS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley
BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto
HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire
MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego
MEENAKSHI WADHWA, Arizona State University
1 Member, National Academy of Sciences.
2 Member, National Academy of Engineering.
3 Member, National Academy of Engineering.
BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY
BARBARA V. JACAK, NAS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Chair
ABRAHAM LOEB, Harvard University, Vice Chair
LOUIS F. DIMAURO, The Ohio State University
FRANCIS J. DISALVO, NAS, Cornell University
TODD DITMIRE, University of Texas, Austin
NATHANIEL J. FISCH, Princeton University
DANIEL FISHER, NAS, Stanford University
WENDY FREEDMAN, NAS, University of Chicago
TIMOTHY M. HECKMAN, NAS, Johns Hopkins University
WENDELL T. HILL III, University of Maryland
ALAN J. HURD, Los Alamos National Laboratory
BARBARA A. JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center
ANDREW J. LANKFORD, University of California at Irvine
NERGIS MAVALVALA, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
LYMAN A. PAGE, JR., NAS, Princeton University
STEVEN M. RITZ, University of California Santa Cruz
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS
This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
CHARLES ALCOCK, NAS, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,
JON ARENBERG, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems,
ROGER BLANDFORD, NAS, Stanford University,
GLENN LIGHTSEY, Georgia Institute of Technology,
AMY MLINAR, Planetary Science Institute,
JOSEPH SILK, NAS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, and
GRANT STOKES, NAE, MIT Lincoln Laboratory.
Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Charles F. Kennel, NAS, University of California, San Diego. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.