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Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations (2019)

Chapter: Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Species Common Name Hybrid of? Insect/Fungus/Pest/Other Trait Common Name/Taxonomy Biotech Approach Targeted Genes/Other Final Outcome Country of Report Reference
Poplars
Populus tomentosa Chinese white poplar Clostera anachoreta Moth Transformation Cry1Ac Resistance in field trial China Ren et al., 2018
Lymantria dispar Gypsy moth Transformation Resistance in field trial China Ren et al., 2018
Populus sp. hybrid 741 clone poplar Populus alba L. × (P. davidiana Dode + P. simonii Carr.) × P. tomentosa Carr. Lepidopterans Transformation Cry1Ac, Cry3A, nptII Resistance China Zuo et al., 2018
Populus sp. Hybrid poplar P. alba × P. grandidentata Melampsora aecidiodes Leaf rust fungus Transformation AtGolS3 (A. thaliana) Repressed resistance to leaf rust and enhanced ROS tolerance Canada La Mantia et al., 2018
Populus sp. Hybrid poplar P. alba × P. grandidentata Melampsora aecidiodes Leaf rust fungus Transformation CsRFS (Cucumber sativus) Repressed resistance to leaf rust and enhanced ROS tolerance Canada La Mantia et al., 2018
Populus sp. 84K poplar P. alba × P. glandulosa Drought tolerance Transformation PeCHYR1 (from P. euphratica) Increased WUE and drought tolerance China He et al., 2018
Salix mongolica Transformation—proof of concept GUS Proof-of-concept transformation China Guan et al., 2018
Populus sp. Haploid poplar P. simonii × P. nigra Early flowering Transformation with gene from Salix integra AP1 (Apetala 1) Early flowering transgenics China Yang et al., 2018
Populus tomentosa Poplar Melampsora sp. Leaf rust fungus Transformation PtrWRKY18 and PtrWRKY35 resistance to Melampsora fungus China Jiang et al., 2017
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Populus sp. hybrid Hybrid poplar P. alba × P. tremula 717 clone Mechanism of lignin biosynthesis CRISPR/Cas9 4CL1, 4CL2 Downregulation of genes through CRISPR mutagenesis USA Zhou et al., 2015
Populus tomentosa Poplar Gene knockout CRISPR/Cas9 PtoPDS Gene knocked out China Fan et al., 2015
Populus sp. Hybrid poplar P. alba × P. tremula var glandulosa Enhanced wood production Transformation with gene from Pinus densiflora Gibberellin 20-oxidase 1 Enhanced wood production with gelatinous wood fibers Republic of Korea, Canada Park et al., 2015
Populus sp. Poplars P. tremula × P. alba var glandula Heavy metal remediation Transformation ScYCF1 Heavy cadmium tolerance Republic of Korea Shim et al., 2013
Populus tomentosa Chinese white poplar Alternaria alternata Poplar leaf blight Transformation Bbchit1 and LJAMP2 Resistance to both diseases China Huang et al., 2012
Colletotrichum sp. Anthracnose disease Transformation Bbchit1 and LJAMP2 China Huang et al., 2012
Populus sp. Hybrid poplar P. nigra × P. maximowiczii Melampsora medusae Leaf rust Transformation ech42 (endocinitase gene from Trichoderma harzianum) Resistance to leaf rust Canada Noël et al., 2005
Populus sp. Anoplophora glabripennis Asian longhorned beetle Bt886 expression in E. coli Cry3Aa Expression of gene is toxic to the beetle in E. coli China Chen et al., 2005
Populus sp. Poplars [(Populus tomentosa × P. bolleana) × P. tomentosa] Malacosoma disstria, Lymantria dispar, Stilpnotia candida Moths Transformation CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) High resistance to moths China Zhang et al., 2004
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Species Common Name Hybrid of? Insect/Fungus/Pest/Other Trait Common Name/Taxonomy Biotech Approach Targeted Genes/Other Final Outcome Country of Report Reference
Populus sp. hybrid INRA 353-38 P. tremula × P. tremuloides Chrysomela tremulae Arthropod Transformation Cry3Aa Resistance France Génissel et al., 2003
Populus sp. Hybrid poplar P. tremula × P. tremuloides Chrysomela tremulae Arthropod Transformation Cry3Aa Resistance France Génissel et al., 2003
Populus sp. Hybrid poplar Ogy Populus × P. euamericana Septoria musiva Leaf spot disease Transformation OxO Resistance to Septoria USA Liang et al., 2001
Populus sp. Hybrid poplar N-106 P. deltoides × P. simonii Lymantria dispar Gypsy moth Transformation AaIT (scorpion neurotoxin) Resistance to gypsy moth China Wu et al., 2000
Chestnut
Castanea dentata American chestnut with Chinese chestnut Cryphonectria parasitica Chestnut blight fungus Transformation Oxalate oxidase (wheat) Resistance against chestnut blight fungus USA Newhouse et al., 2014
Castanea dentata American chestnut Cryphonectria parasitica Chestnut blight fungus Transformation—proof of concept gfp, bar, OxO Proof-of-concept transformation USA Polin et al., 2006
Castanea sativa European chestnut Transformation—proof of concept nptII, uidA Proof-of-concept transformation Spain Corredoira et al., 2004
Eucalypts
Eucalyptus sp. Realized pollen flow assessment GM eucalypt No pollen flow beyond 240 m in a stand that was established in 2009 Brazil da Silva et al., 2017
Eucalyptus sp. E. urophylla × E. grandis Ralstonia solanacearum Bacterial wilt, fungal infection, gray mold Transformation aiiA Bacterial wilt resistance China Ouyang and Li, 2016
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Eucalyptus globulus Salt tolerance Transformation codA Salt tolerance and no adverse effect on soil microbial communities in a 4-year trial Japan Oguchi et al., 2014
Mangrin Increase salt tolerance Japan, Pakistan Yu et al., 2013
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Red river gum Salt tolerance codA family Increase salt tolerance Japan Kikuchi et al., 2009
Eucalyptus sp. E. urophylla × E. grandis Frost tolerance Transformation CBF2 (A. thaliana) Increase freeze tolerance USA Hinchee et al., 2009
Ash
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Green ash Proof-of-concept transformation Transformation nptII, GUS USA Du and Pijut, 2009
Birch
Betula platyphylla Birch Salt/drought tolerance Transformation BpSPL9 Improved ROS scavenging leading to better salt/drought tolerance in transgenic lines China Ning et al., 2017
Betula platyphylla Birch Salt tolerance Transformation BplMYB46 Overexpression induces improved ROS scavenging China Guo et al., 2017
Betula platyphylla Birch Lymantria dispar Gypsy moth Transformation bgt Resistance to gypsy moth China Zeng et al., 2009
Betula pendula Silver birch Pyrenopeziza betulicola Fuckel leaf spot disease Transformation Chitinase 4 (sugar beet) Resistance to leaf spot disease Finland Pappinen et al., 2002
Spruce
Picea glauca White spruce Choristoneura fumiferana Spruce budworm Transformation PBgGlu1 Resistance to budworm Canada Mageroy et al., 2017
Picea abies Norway spruce Heterobasidion annosum Annosum root rot Transformation PaNACO3 Resistance to fungus Sweden Dalman et al., 2017
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Species Common Name Hybrid of? Insect/Fungus/Pest/Other Trait Common Name/Taxonomy Biotech Approach Targeted Genes/Other Final Outcome Country of Report Reference
Picea abies Norway spruce Cyratocystis polonica Bark beetle co-invading fungus Transformation Flavan-3-ols, LAR Resistance to fungus Canada Hammerbacher et al., 2014
Picea glauca White spruce Somatic embryogenesis CHAP3A and WUS Canada Klimaszewska et al., 2010
Picea mariana Black spruce Cylindrocladium floridanum Root pathogen Transformation ech42 (endocinitase gene from Trichoderma harzianum) Resistance to root disease Canada Noël et al., 2005
Picea glauca White spruce Functional characterization: CAD Post-transformation analysis CAD Validation of CAD transformation Canada, France Bedon et al., 2009
Picea glauca White spruce Choristoneura fumiferana Spruce budworm Transformation Cry1AB Resistant to spruce budworm Canada Lachance et al., 2007
Picea glauca White spruce Transformation to test effect on rhizosphere communities nptII, CryIA, uidA Rhizosphere communities significantly affected by transgenes Canada LeBlanc et al., 2007
Picea glauca White spruce Transformation–proof of concept nptII, uidA Canada Le et al., 2001
Picea abies Norway spruce Particle bombardment bar Resistant to Basta herbicide Sweden Brukhin et al., 2000
Picea mariana Black spruce Particle bombardment nptII, GUS Proof-of-concept transformation Canada Charest et al., 1996
Douglas Fir
Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir Proof of concept Transformation Kanamycin resistance Proof-of-concept transformation USA Dandekar et al., 1987
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir Proof of concept Particle bombardment GUS Proof of concept USA Goldfarb et al., 1991
Larch
Larix sp. Larch L. kaempferi × L. decidua Proof of concept Transformation Kanamycin resistance Proof-of-concept transformation France, Canada Levée et al., 1997
Larix decidua European larch Proof of concept Transformation Proof-of-concept transformation USA Huang et al., 1991
Pines
Pinus massoniana Masson pine Transformation—proof of concept CslA2 Proof-of-concept transformation China Maleki et al., 2018
Pinus elliottii Hybrid pine P. elliottii var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis Somatic embryogenesis Proof of concept Portugal Nunes et al., 2018
Pinus pinea Stone pine Transformation—proof of concept GUS Proof-of-concept transformation Spain, Ecuador Blasco et al., 2016
Pinus radiata Radiata pine Transformation of micropropagated shoots nptII, GUS Proof-of-concept transformation New Zealand Grant et al., 2015
Pinus thunbergii Japanese black pine Somatic embryogenesis Proof of concept Japan Maruyama and Hosoi, 2016
Pinus radiata Radiata pine Syringil lignin production Transformation F5H, COMT Syringil lignin production in conifers USA, New Zealand Wagner et al., 2015
Pinus elliottii Slash pine Transformation—proof of concept hpt, uidA Proof-of-concept transformation China Tang et al., 2014
Pinus radiata Radiata pine Lignin composition changes RNAi suppression and transformation CCoA reductase Changes to cell wall composition New Zealand, USA, Belgium Wagner et al., 2013
Pinus radiata Radiata pine Lignin reduction Transformation PrCCoAOMT Modification of lignin composition New Zealand Wagner et al., 2011
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
×
Species Common Name Hybrid of? Insect/Fungus/Pest/Other Trait Common Name/Taxonomy Biotech Approach Targeted Genes/Other Final Outcome Country of Report Reference
Pinus radiata Radiata pine Transformation—proof of concept nptII, uidA, bar Proof-of-concept transformation New Zealand Charity et al., 2005
Pinus radiata Radiata pine Gene silencing Transformation CAD Silencing of CAD gene New Zealand, Australia Wagner et al., 2005
Pinus taeda Loblolly pine Dendrolimus punctatus and Cryphothelea formisicola Moth pests of pines Transformation Cry1Ac Resistance to moth pests USA Tang and Tian, 2003
Pinus strobus Eastern white pine Proof of concept Transformation GUS Proof-of-concept transformation Canada Levée et al., 1999
Elm
Ulmus americana American elm Ophiostoma novoulmi Dutch elm disease Transformation ESF39A Resistance to Dutch elm disease USA Newhouse et al., 2007
Ulmus procera English elm Ophiostoma novoulmi Dutch elm disease Transformation—proof of concept nptII, uidA Proof-of-concept transformation USA Gartland et al., 2000
Apple
Malus × domestica Apple Dwarf phenotype Transformation MdNAC1 Overexpression results in dwarf phenotype China Jia et al., 2018
Malus × domestica Apple Stress tolerance Transformation MdATG18a Tolerance to drought stress China, USA Sun et al., 2018
Malus × domestica Apple Stress tolerance Transformation MdcyMDH Tolerance to cold and salt stresses China Wang et al., 2016
Malus × domestica Apple Venturia inaequalis Scab Transformation Puroindoline-B (pinB) Reduction in scab susceptibility France Faize et al., 2004
Malus × domestica Apple Early flowering Transformation MdTFL Early onset of flowering (15 months) Japan Kotoda et al., 2002
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Cherry
Prunus avium Cherry Proof-of-concept regeneration Transformation gusA, vcFT Shoot regeneration/proof of concept USA, China, Egypt Zong et al., 2018
Prunus sp. Black cherry Flowering control and insect resistance Bark beetles Transformation PH3, MDL4, PsTFL1 Early flowering and pest resistance USA Wang and Pijut, 2014
Prunus sp. Cherry Gisela 6 and Glsela 7 Proof of concept Necrotic ring spot virus Transformation RNAi Resistance to Prunus necrotic ringspot virus USA Song et al., 2013
Prunus serotina Black cherry Proof of concept Transformation Agamous Proof-of-concept transformation USA Liu and Pijut, 2010
Prunus cerasus and hybrid Cherry P. cerasus × P. canescens Proof of concept Transformation nptII, gusA Proof-of-concept transformation USA Song and Sink, 2006
Prunus sp. Cherry P. avium × P. pseudocerasus Proof of concept Somatic embryogenesis Proof of concept Italy Gutièrrez-Pesce and Rugini, 2004
Prunus sp. Cherry P. avium × P. pseudocerasus Proof of concept Transformation Proof of concept Italy, USA Gutièrrez-Pesce et al., 1998
Peach
Prunus persica Peach Proof of concept Transformation GUS, GFP Proof-of-concept transformation USA, Poland, Italy, Spain Padilla et al., 2006
Prunus persica Peach Proof-of-concept regeneration Transformation and regeneration nptII, sGFP Regeneration of transformed plants Spain Pérez-Clemente et al., 2005
Papaya
Carica papaya Papaya Ring spot virus Transformation Coat protein gene CP Resistance to PRSV China, Taiwan Bau et al., 2003
Carica papaya Papaya Ring spot virus RNAi particle bombardment Coat protein gene CP Resistance to PRSV China, Taiwan Jia et al., 2017
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
×
Species Common Name Hybrid of? Insect/Fungus/Pest/Other Trait Common Name/Taxonomy Biotech Approach Targeted Genes/Other Final Outcome Country of Report Reference
Walnut
Juglans regia Persian walnut Transformation fld Increased tolerance to osmotic stress Iran Sheikh Beig Goharrizi et al., 2016
Juglans regia Walnut Transformation nptII, uidA Proof-of-concept transformation USA Walawage et al., 2014
Juglans sp. Walnut J. hindsii × J. regia Transformation rolABC Induce rooting in hybrids USA Vahdati et al., 2002
Juglans regia Walnut Cydia pomonella Codling moth Bt transformation CryIIA(c) Resistance to insects USA Dandekar et al., 1998
Juglans regia Walnut Proof of concept Transformation and regeneration APHII Transformation and regeneration of plants USA McGranahan et al., 1988
Plum
Prunus sp. Plum (P. pumila × P. salicina) × P. cerasifera Plum pox virus (PPV) Plum pox virus RNAi PPV-CV Resistance to PPV Russia Sidorova et al., 2018
Prunus sp. Plum Plum pox virus (PPV) Transformation PPV-CV Resistance to PPV France, USA Scorza et al., 1994
Avocado
Persea americana Avocado Proof of concept Transformation gfp, DsRed, gfp-gus Proof-of-concept transformation and plant recovery Spain Palomo-Rios et al., 2017
Black Locust
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust Proof of concept Transformation Kanamycin-resistant gene Proof-of-concept transformation USA Han et al., 1993
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust Herbicide tolerance Transformation with sonication bar, gusA Herbicide tolerance Spain Zaragoza et al., 2004
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust Proof of concept Transformation GUS Proof-of-concept transformation Japan Igasaki et al., 2000
Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust Proof of concept Transformation nptII, GUS Proof-of-concept transformation India Kanwar et al., 2003
Citrus
Citrus sp. Citrus (C. sinensis and C. paradisi) × Poncirus trifoliata Proof of concept Transformation nptII, GUS Proof of concept Brazil, USA de Oliveira et al., 2009
Citrus jambhiri Rough lemon Proof of concept Transformation (protoplasts) nptII and cat Proof of concept Israel Vardi et al., 1990
Citrus sinensis Citrus Disease resistance Xanthomonas axonopodis Transformation hrpN Resistance to citrus canker Brazil, USA Barbosa-Mendes et al., 2009
Sweetgum
Liquidambar styraciflua Proof of concept Transformation Kanamycin and GUS Proof of concept USA Sullivan and Lagrimini, 1993
Liquidambar formosana Chinese sweetgum Stress tolerance Transformation AtNHXI Tolerance to salt stress China Qiao et al., 2010
Liquidambar sp. Hybrid Sweetgum L. styraciflua × L. formosana Phytoremediation Transformation ECS and merA Mercury phytoremediation USA Dai et al., 2009
Liquidambar styraciflua Insect resistance Lymantria dispar Transformation Tobacco anionic peroxidase Gypsy moth resistance USA Dowd et al., 1998
Liquidambar formosana Chinese sweetgum Stress tolerance Transformation SOD and POD Tolerance to salt, drought, and cold China Renying et al., 2007
Cocoa
Theobroma cocoa Cocoa Proof of concept Transformation Kanamycin and nptII Proof of concept USA, Ghana Sain et al., 1994
Theobroma cocoa Cocoa Proof of concept Transformation uidA Proof of concept Brazil Silva et al., 2009
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
×
Species Common Name Hybrid of? Insect/Fungus/Pest/Other Trait Common Name/Taxonomy Biotech Approach Targeted Genes/Other Final Outcome Country of Report Reference
Theobroma cocoa Cocoa Proof of concept Transformation Chi, nptII, and EGFP Proof of concept USA Maximova et al., 2003
Theobroma cocoa Cocoa Fungal resistance Colletotrichum gloeosporoides Transformation TcChi1 Resistance to Colletotrichum USA Maximova et al., 2006
Theobroma cocoa Cocoa Proof of concept Somatic embryogenesis Proof of concept Colombia Ramírez et al., 2018
Theobroma cocoa Cocoa Proof of concept Transformation GFP Proof of concept USA Fister et al., 2016
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Huang, Y., H. Liu, Z. Jia, Q. Fang, and K. Luo. 2012. Combined expression of antimicrobial genes (Bbchit1 and LJAMP2) in transgenic poplar enhances resistance to fungal pathogens. Tree Physiology 32(10):1313–1320.

Igasaki, T., T. Mohri, H. Ichikawa, and K. Shinohara. 2000. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Robinia pseudoacacia. Plant Cell Reports 19(5):448–453.

Jia, D., X. Gong, M. Li, C. Li, T. Sun, and F. Ma. 2018. Overexpression of a novel apple NAC transcription factor gene, MdNAC1, confers the dwarf phenotype in transgenic apple (Malus domestica). Genes 9(5):229–246.

Jia, R., H. Zhao, J. Huang, H. Kong, Y. Zhang, J. Guo, Q. Huang, Y. Guo, Q. Wei, J. Zuo, and Y.J. Zhu. 2017. Use of RNAi technology to develop a PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. Scientific Reports 7(1):12636.

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Kanwar, K., A. Bhardwaj, S. Agarwal, and D.R. Sharma. 2003. Genetic transformation of Robinia pseudoacacia by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 41:149–153.

Kikuchi, A., X. Yu, T. Shimazaki, A. Kawaoka, H. Ebinuma, and K.N. Watanabe. 2009. Allelopathy assessments for the environmental biosafety of the salt-tolerant transgenic Eucalyptus camaldulensis, genotypes codA12-5B, coda 12-5C, and coda 20C. Journal of Wood Science 55(2):149–153.

Klimaszewska, K., G. Pelletier, C. Overton, D. Stewart, and R.G. Rutledge. 2010. Hormonally regulated overexpression of Arabidopsis WUS and conifer LEC1 (CHAP3A) in transgenic white spruce: Implications for somatic embryo development and somatic seedling growth. Plant Cell Reports 29(7):723–734.

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La Mantia, J., F. Unda, C.J. Douglas, S.D. Mansfield, and R. Hamelin. 2018. Overexpression of AtGolS3 and CsRFS in poplar enhances ROS tolerance and represses defense response to leaf rust disease. Tree Physiology 38(3):457–470.

Lachance, D., L.P. Hamel, F. Pelletier, J. Valéro, M. Bernier-Cardou, K. Chapman, K. Van Frankenhuyzen, and A. Séguin. 2007. Expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ab gene in transgenic white spruce and its efficacy against the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana). Tree Genetics & Genomes 3(2):153–167.

Le, V.Q., J. Belles-Isles, M. Dusabenyagasani, and F.M. Tremblay. 2001. An improved procedure for production of white spruce (Picea glauca) transgenic plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Journal of Experimental Botany 52(364):2089–2095.

LeBlanc, P.M., R.C. Hamelin, and M. Filion. 2007. Alteration of soil rhizosphere communities following genetic transformation of white spruce. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73(13):4128–4134.

Levée, V., M.A. Lelu, L. Jouanin, D. Cornu, and G. Pilate. 1997. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of hybrid larch (Larix kaempferi × L. decidua) and transgenic plant regeneration. Plant Cell Reports 16(10):680–685.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
×

Levée, V., E. Garin, K. Klimaszewska, and A. Seguin. 1999. Stable genetic transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) after cocultivation of embryogenic tissues with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Molecular Breeding 5(5):429–440.

Liang, H., C.A. Maynard, R.D. Allen, and W.A. Powell. 2001. Increased Septoria musiva resistance in transgenic hybrid poplar leaves expressing a wheat oxalate oxidase gene. Plant Molecular Biology 45(6):619–629.

Liu, X., and P.M. Pijut. 2010. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of transgenic shoots. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 101(1):49–57.

Mageroy, M.H., D. Lachance, S. Jancsik, G. Parent, A. Séguin, J. Mackay, and J. Bohlmann. 2017. In vivo function of Pgglu-1 in the release of acetophenones in white spruce. PeerJ 5:e3535.

Maleki, S.S., K. Mohammadi, and K. S. Ji. 2018. Study on factors influencing transformation efficiency in Pinus massoniana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 133(3):437–445.

Maruyama, T.E., and Y. Hosoi. 2016. Somatic embryogenesis in Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.). Pp. 27–39 in Somatic Embryogenesis in Ornamentals and Its Applications, A. Mujib, ed. New Delhi, India: Springer.

Maximova, S., C. Miller, G.A. De Mayolo, S. Pishak, A. Young, and M.J. Guiltinan. 2003. Stable transformation of Theobroma cacao L. and influence of matrix attachment regions on GFP expression. Plant Cell Reports 21(9):872–883.

Maximova, S.N., J.P. Marelli, A. Young, S. Pishak, J.A. Verica, and M.J. Guiltinan. 2006. Over-expression of a cacao class I chitinase gene in Theobroma cacao L. enhances resistance against the pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Planta 224(4):740–749.

McGranahan, G.H., C.A. Leslie, S.L. Uratsu, L.A. Martin, and A.M. Dandekar. 1988. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of walnut somatic embryos and regeneration of transgenic plants. Nature Biotechnology 6(7):800–804.

Newhouse, A.E., F. Schrodt, H. Liang, C.A. Maynard, and W.A. Powell. 2007. Transgenic American elm shows reduced Dutch elm disease symptoms and normal mycorrhizal colonization. Plant Cell Reports 26(7):977–987.

Newhouse, A.E., L.D. Polin-McGuigan, K.A. Baier, K.E. Valletta, W.H. Rottmann, T.J. Tschaplinski, C.A. Maynard, and W.A. Powell. 2014. Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny. Plant Science 228:88–97.

Ning, K., S. Chen, H. Huang, J. Jiang, H. Yuan, and H. Li. 2017. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the SPL gene family with BpSPL9 transgenic lines found to confer tolerance to abiotic stress in Betula platyphylla Suk. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 130(3):469–481.

Noël, A., C. Levasseur, and A. Séguin. 2005. Enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens in forest trees by genetic transformation of black spruce and hybrid poplar with a Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 67(2):92–99.

Nunes, S., L. Marum, N. Farinha, V.T. Pereira, T. Almeida, D. Sousa, N. Mano, J. Figueiredo, M.C. Dias, and C. Santos. 2018. Somatic embryogenesis of hybrid Pinus elliottii var. elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis and ploidy assessment of somatic plants. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 132(1):71–84.

Oguchi, T., Y. Kashimura, M. Mimura, X. Yu, E. Matsunaga, K. Nanto, T. Shimada, A. Kikuchi, and K.N. Watanabe. 2014. A multi-year assessment of the environmental impact of transgenic Eucalyptus trees harboring a bacterial choline oxidase gene on biomass, precinct vegetation and the microbial community. Transgenic Research 23(5):767–777.

Ouyang, L.J., and L.M. Li. 2016. Effects of an inducible aiiA gene on disease resistance in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis. Transgenic Research 25(4):441–452.

Padilla, I.M., A. Golis, A. Gentile, C. Damiano, and R. Scorza. 2006. Evaluation of transformation in peach Prunus persica explants using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter genes. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 84(3):309–314.

Palomo-Ríos, E., S. Cerezo, J.A. Mercado, and F. Pliego-Alfaro. 2017. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) somatic embryos with fluorescent marker genes and optimization of transgenic plant recovery. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 128(2):447–455.

Pappinen, A., Y. Degefu, L. Syrjälä, K. Keinonen, and K. von Weissenberg. 2002. Transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula) expressing sugarbeet chitinase 4 shows enhanced resistance to Pyrenopeziza betulicola. Plant Cell Reports 20(11):1046–1051.

Park, E.J., H.T. Kim, Y.I. Choi, C. Lee, V.P. Nguyen, H.W. Jeon, J.S. Cho, R. Funada, R.P. Pharis, L.V. Kurepin, and J.H. Ko. 2015. Overexpression of gibberellin 20-oxidase1 from Pinus densiflora results in enhanced wood formation with gelatinous fiber development in a transgenic hybrid poplar. Tree Physiology 35(11):1264–1277.

Pérez-Clemente, R.M., A. Pérez-Sanjuán, L. García-Férriz, J.P. Beltrán, and L.A. Cañas. 2005. Transgenic peach plants (Prunus persica L.) produced by genetic transformation of embryo sections using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an in vivo marker. Molecular Breeding 14(4):419–427.

Polin, L.D., H. Liang, R.E. Rothrock, M. Nishii, D.L. Diehl, A.E. Newhouse, C.J. Nairn, W.A. Powell, and C.A. Maynard. 2006. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) somatic embryos. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 84(1):69–79.

Qiao, G., J. Zhou, J. Jiang, Y. Sun, L. Pan, H. Song, J. Jiang, R. Zhuo, X. Wang, and Z. Sun. 2010. Transformation of Liquidambar formosana L. via Agrobacterium tumefaciens using a mannose selection system and recovery of salt tolerant lines. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 102(2):163–170.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
×

Ramírez, A.M.H., T. de la Hoz Vasquez, T.M.O. Osorio, L.A. Garces, and A.I.U. Trujillo. 2018. Evaluation of the potential of regeneration of different Colombian and commercial genotypes of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) via somatic embryogenesis. Scientia Horticulturae 229:148–156.

Ren, Y., J. Zhang, G. Wang, X. Liu, L. Li, J. Wang, and M. Yang. 2018. The relationship between insect resistance and tree age of transgenic triploid Populus tomentosa plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 9:53.

Renying, Z., Q. Guirong, and S. Zongxiu. 2007. Transgene expression in Chinese sweetgum driven by the salt induced expressed promoter. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 88(1):101–107.

Sain, S.L., K.K. Oduro, and D.B. Furtek. 1994. Genetic transformation of cocoa leaf cells using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 37(3):243–251.

Scorza, R., M. Ravelonandro, A.M. Callahan, J.M. Cordts, M. Fuchs, J. Dunez, and D. Gonsalves. 1994. Transgenic plums (Prunus domestica L.) express the plum pox virus coat protein gene. Plant Cell Reports 14(1):18–22.

Sheikh Beig Goharrizi, M.A., A. Dejahang, M. Tohidfar, A. Izadi Darbandi, N. Carillo, M.R. Hajirezaei, and K. Vahdati. 2016. Agrobacterium mediated transformation of somatic embryos of Persian walnut using fld gene for osmotic stress tolerance. Journal on Agricultural Science and Technology 18(2):423–435.

Shim, D., S. Kim, Y.I. Choi, W.Y. Song, J. Park, E.S. Youk, S.C. Jeong, E. Martinoia, E.W. Noh, and Y. Lee. 2013. Transgenic poplar trees expressing yeast cadmium factor 1 exhibit the characteristics necessary for the phytoremediation of mine tailing soil. Chemosphere 90(4):1478–1486.

Sidorova, T., A. Pushin, D. Miroshnichenko, and S. Dolgov. 2018. Generation of transgenic rootstock plum (Prunus pumila L. × P. salicina Lindl.) × (P. cerasifera Ehrh.) using hairpin-RNA construct for resistance to the plum pox virus. Agronomy 8(1):2.

Silva, T.E., L.C. Cidade, F.C. Alvim, J.C. Cascardo, and M.G. Costa. 2009. Studies on genetic transformation of Theobroma cacao L.: Evaluation of different polyamines and antibiotics on somatic embryogenesis and the efficiency of uidA gene transfer by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 99(3):287–298.

Song, G.Q., and K.C. Sink. 2006. Transformation of Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens) cherry rootstock mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Reports 25(2):117–123.

Song, G.Q., K.C. Sink, A.E. Walworth, M.A. Cook, R.F. Allison, and G.A. Lang. 2013. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing. Plant Biotechnology Journal 11(6):702–708.

Sullivan, J., and L.M. Lagrimini. 1993. Transformation of Liquidambar styraciflua using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Reports 12(6):303–306.

Sun, X., P. Wang, X. Jia, L. Huo, R. Che, and F. Ma. 2018. Improvement of drought tolerance by overexpressing MdATG18a is mediated by modified antioxidant system and activated autophagy in transgenic apple. Plant Biotechnology Journal 16(2):545–557.

Tang, W., and Y. Tian. 2003. Transgenic loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plants expressing a modified δ-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis with enhanced resistance to Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and Crypyothelea formosicola Staud. Journal of Experimental Botany 54(383):835–844.

Tang, W., B. Xiao, and Y. Fei. 2014. Slash pine genetic transformation through embryo cocultivation with A. tumefaciens and transgenic plant regeneration. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant 50(2):199–209.

Vahdati, K., J.R. MeKenna, A.M. Dandekar, C.A. Leslie, S.L. Uratsu, W.P. Hackett, P. Negri, and G.H. McGranahan. 2002. Rooting and other characteristics of a transgenic walnut hybrid (Juglans hindsii × J. regia) rootstock expressing rolABC. Journal of the American Horticultural Society 127(5):724–728.

Vardi, A., S. Bleichman, and D. Aviv. 1990. Genetic transformation of Citrus protoplasts and regeneration of transgenic plants. Plant Science 69(2):199–206.

Wagner, A., L. Phillips, R.D. Narayan, J.M. Moody, and B. Geddes. 2005. Gene silencing studies in the gymnosperm species Pinus radiata. Plant Cell Reports 24(2):95–102.

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Wagner, A., Y. Tobimatsu, G. Goeminne, L. Phillips, H. Flint, D. Steward, K. Torr, L. Donaldson, W. Boerjan, and J. Ralph. 2013. Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements. Plant Molecular Biology 81(1–2):105–117.

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
×

Wang, Y., and P.M. Pijut. 2014. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of black cherry for flowering control and insect resistance. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 119(1):107–116.

Wu, N.F., Q. Sun, B. Yao, Y.L. Fan, H.Y. Rao, M.R. Huang, and M.X. Wang. 2000. Insect-resistant transgenic poplar expressing AaIT gene. Chinese Journal of Biotechnology 16(2):129–133.

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Zhang, Q., S. Lin, Y. Lin, Z. Zhang, H. Liu, Y. Zou, and Z. Wang. 2004. Identification of CpTI gene integration for 2-year-old transgenic poplars at DNA level. Forestry Studies in China 6(3):15–19.

Zhou, X., T.B. Jacobs, L.J. Xue, S.A. Harding, and C.J. Tsai. 2015. Exploiting SNP s for biallelic CRISPR mutations in the outcrossing woody perennial Populus reveals 4-coumarate: CoA ligase specificity and redundancy. New Phytologist 208(2):298–301.

Zong, X., Q. Chen, M.A. Nagaty, Y. Kang, G. Lang, and G.Q. Song. 2018. Adventitious shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of leaf explants of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 1–8.

Zuo, L., R. Yang, Z. Zhen, J. Liu, L. Huang, and M. Yang. 2018. A 5-year field study showed no apparent effect of the Bt transgenic 741 poplar on the arthropod community and soil bacterial diversity. Scientific Reports 8(1):1956.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Biotech Tree Research and Development, 19872018." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25221.
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Next: Appendix D: Chronological Summary of Studies Empirically Examining Public and Other Stakeholder Responses to the Use of Biotechnology in Trees and Forests »
Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations Get This Book
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The American chestnut, whitebark pine, and several species of ash in the eastern United States are just a few of the North American tree species that have been functionally lost or are in jeopardy of being lost due to outbreaks of pathogens and insect pests. New pressures in this century are putting even more trees at risk. Expanded human mobility and global trade are providing pathways for the introduction of nonnative pests for which native tree species may lack resistance. At the same time, climate change is extending the geographic range of both native and nonnative pest species.

Biotechnology has the potential to help mitigate threats to North American forests from insects and pathogens through the introduction of pest-resistant traits to forest trees. However, challenges remain: the genetic mechanisms that underlie trees’ resistance to pests are poorly understood; the complexity of tree genomes makes incorporating genetic changes a slow and difficult task; and there is a lack of information on the effects of releasing new genotypes into the environment.

Forest Health and Biotechnology examines the potential use of biotechnology for mitigating threats to forest tree health and identifies the ecological, economic, and social implications of deploying biotechnology in forests. This report also develops a research agenda to address knowledge gaps about the application of the technology.

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