National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

UNDERSTANDING THE ECONOMICS

OF MICROBIAL THREATS

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

V. Ayano Ogawa, T. Anh Tran, and Cecilia Mundaca Shah, Rapporteurs

Forum on Microbial Threats

Board on Global Health

Health and Medicine Division

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Agency for International Development; U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (10003469); U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (10003518); U.S. Department of Homeland Security (10003591); U.S. Department of Justice: Federal Bureau of Investigation (10003863): National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/National Institutes of Health (10003776), Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (10004290), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (10002125); and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (10003856), and by the American Society for Microbiology, EcoHealth Alliance, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Johnson & Johnson (10003710), Merck & Co., Inc., Sanofi Pasteur, and The University of Hong Kong. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48302-5
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48302-6
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25224

Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the economics of microbial threats: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25224.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON UNDERSTANDING THE ECONOMICS OF MICROBIAL THREATS1

PETER A. SANDS (Chair), Executive Director, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

TIMOTHY BURGESS, Director, Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

ELIZABETH CAMERON, Vice President, Global Biological Policy and Programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative

PETER DASZAK, President, EcoHealth Alliance

MARCOS A. ESPINAL, Director, Department of Communicable Diseases and Health Analysis, Pan American Health Organization

TIMOTHY G. EVANS, Senior Director, Health, Nutrition, and Population, World Bank

JENNIFER L. GARDY, Senior Scientist, BC Centre for Disease Control; Associate Professor, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Canada

THOMAS V. INGLESBY, Director, Center for Health Security, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

DEAN T. JAMISON, Professor Emeritus, Global Health, University of California, San Francisco; University of Washington

JONNA A. K. MAZET, Professor of Epidemiology and Disease Ecology; Executive Director, One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis

JOSHUA MICHAUD, Associate Director, Global Health Policy, Kaiser Family Foundation

JAMI TAYLOR, Board Advisor, Stanton Park Advisors

Health and Medicine Division Staff

CECILIA MUNDACA SHAH, Director, Forum on Microbial Threats, Board on Global Health

V. AYANO OGAWA, Program Officer, Board on Global Health

T. ANH TRAN, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Global Health

ALEXANDRA PRIOR, Intern (June–July 2018), Board on Global Health

JULIE PAVLIN, Director, Board on Global Health

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

FORUM ON MICROBIAL THREATS1

PETER DASZAK (Chair), President, EcoHealth Alliance

KENT E. KESTER (Vice Chair), Vice President and Head, Translational Science and Biomarkers, Sanofi Pasteur

MARY E. WILSON (Vice Chair), Clinical Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

KEVIN ANDERSON, Senior Program Manager, Science and Technology Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security

TIMOTHY BURGESS, Director, Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

DENNIS CARROLL, Director, Global Health Security and Development Unit, U.S. Agency for International Development

JEFFREY S. DUCHIN, Health Officer and Chief, Communicable Disease Epidemiology and Immunization Section for Public Health, Seattle and King County, Washington

EMILY ERBELDING, Deputy Director, Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health

MARCOS A. ESPINAL, Director, Department of Communicable Diseases and Health Analysis, Pan American Health Organization

KEIJI FUKUDA, School Director and Clinical Professor, The University of Hong Kong School of Public Health

JENNIFER L. GARDY, Senior Scientist, BC Centre for Disease Control; Associate Professor, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Canada

JESSE L. GOODMAN, Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases; Director, Center on Medical Product Access, Safety, and Stewardship, Georgetown University

KAREN GROSSER, Vice President, Development, Infectious Disease, and Vaccine Therapeutic Area, Johnson & Johnson

EVA HARRIS, Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, University of California, Berkeley

CAROLINE S. HARWOOD, Gerald and Lyn Grinstein Professor of Microbiology, University of Washington

ELIZABETH D. HERMSEN, Head, Global Antimicrobial Stewardship, Merck & Co., Inc.

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

RIMA F. KHABBAZ, Director, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MICHAEL MAIR, Acting Director, Office of Counterterrorism and Emerging Threats, U.S. Food and Drug Administration

JONNA A. K. MAZET, Professor of Epidemiology and Disease Ecology; Executive Director, One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis

SALLY A. MILLER, Professor of Plant Pathology and State Extension Specialist for Vegetable Pathology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University

SUERIE MOON, Director of Research, Global Health Centre, The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva

DAVID NABARRO, Advisor, Health and Sustainability, 4SD–Skills, Systems, and Synergies for Sustainable Development

KUMANAN RASANATHAN, Coordinator, Health Systems, Office of the World Health Organization Representative in Cambodia, World Health Organization

GARY A. ROSELLE, Chief of Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Director, National Infectious Disease Services, Veterans Health Administration

PETER A. SANDS, Executive Director, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

THOMAS W. SCOTT, Distinguished Professor, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis

JAY P. SIEGEL, Retired Chief Biotechnology Officer, Head of Scientific Strategy and Policy, Johnson & Johnson

PAIGE E. WATERMAN, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army; Director, Translational Medicine Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

EDWARD H. YOU, Supervisory Special Agent, Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate, Federal Bureau of Investigation

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff

CECILIA MUNDACA SHAH, Director, Forum on Microbial Threats, Board on Global Health

V. AYANO OGAWA, Program Officer, Board on Global Health

T. ANH TRAN, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Global Health

ALEXANDRA PRIOR, Intern (June–July 2018)

JULIE PAVLIN, Director, Board on Global Health

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

THOMAS CUENI, International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations

HELLEN GELBAND, Independent Consultant

EDUARDO GONZALEZ-PIER, Center for Global Development

PETER A. SANDS, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by DAVID R. CHALLONER, University of Florida. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

Acknowledgments

The Forum on Microbial Threats staff and planning committee deeply appreciate the many valuable contributions from individuals who assisted us with this project. The workshop and this proceedings would not be possible without the presenters and discussants at the workshop, who gave so generously of their time and expertise. A full list of the speakers and moderators and their biographical information may be found in Appendix C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AMR

antimicrobial resistance

ART

antiretroviral therapy

ARV

antiretroviral

BARDA

Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority

BRICS

Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa

CARB-X

Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator

CDC

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

DRG

diagnosis related group

EID

emerging infectious disease

EPR

emergency preparedness and response

FDA

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

G20

Group of Twenty

GCBR

global catastrophic biological risk

GDP

gross domestic product

GPEI

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
IFPMA

International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations

IHR

International Health Regulations

IMI

Innovative Medicines Initiative

IPV

inactivated polio vaccine

JEE

Joint External Evaluation

LPAD

Limited Population Pathway for Antibacterial and Antifungal Drugs

MDG

Millennium Development Goal

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OIE

World Organisation for Animal Health

OPV

oral poliovirus vaccine

PEF

Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility

PPR

peste des petits ruminants

PVS

Performance of Veterinary Services

R&D

research and development

SARS

severe acute respiratory syndrome

SDG

Sustainable Development Goal

SIR

susceptible-infected-recovered

TB

tuberculosis

TME

transferable market exclusivity

VAPP

vaccine-associated paralytic polio

VDPV

vaccine-derived poliovirus

WHO

World Health Organization

WPV

wild poliovirus

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R18
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R19
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25224.
×
Page R20
Next: 1 Introduction »
Understanding the Economics of Microbial Threats: Proceedings of a Workshop Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $60.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Microbial threats, including endemic and emerging infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance, can cause not only substantial health consequences but also enormous disruption to economic activity worldwide. While scientific advances have undoubtedly strengthened our ability to respond to and mitigate the mortality of infectious disease threats, events over the past two decades have illustrated our continued vulnerability to economic consequences from these threats.

To assess the current understanding of the interaction of infectious disease threats with economic activity and suggest potential new areas of research, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine planned a 1.5-day public workshop on understanding the economics of microbial threats. This workshop built on prior work of the Forum on Microbial Threats and aimed to help transform current knowledge into immediate action. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!