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Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines (2018)

Chapter: Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
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Appendix III

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Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year

The following pages provide summaries of the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative (NAKFI) seed grants awarded during the calendar year following each Futures Conference. Award recipients (names and affiliations) and their grant topics are current as of the time the grants were awarded. The summaries were edited slightly for tense consistency and are otherwise presented as they appeared in the original press release. Awards are listed in alphabetical order by Principal Investigator last name.

2003 Futures Grantees, awarded 2004 Signals, Decision, and Meaning in Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Engineering Grantees

LEE BARDWELL, University of California, Irvine

Intracellular Signaling Specificity: Theoretical and Computational Explorations - $75,000

Bardwell’s Futures grant was for an interdisciplinary computational and mathematical investigation of the mechanisms that promote specificity in cell signaling, which complemented experimental work in his laboratory. Cells react to a wide variety of stimuli, such as chemical messages sent by other cells. Each different stimulus triggers a distinct cellular response; yet cells use a limited number of component proteins to transmit these numerous signals. Bardwell investigated how modular, adhesive protein-protein interactions and feedback circuits collaborate to provide specificity in such situations. Finally, Bardwell explored aspects of the evolution of signaling pathways.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

TOBY BERGER, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.

Directed Information in Neural Networks with Feedback - $75,000

Berger proposed to extend in several directions the discrete-time mathematical model of energy-efficient information signaling within and among regions of the sensory cortex. He endeavored to replace the current unrealistic assumption that all post-synaptic potentials (PSP) are quenched between successive time slots with a neuroscientifically more accurate one to the effect that a neuron’s PSP gets fully quenched only if it just generated an action potential; otherwise, it suffers only a leakage decay.

JAY DUNLAP, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, N.H.

Existence of Autocatalysis Based on FRQ Protein Proteolysis - $75,000

The fundamental question of circadian rhythms is, what is the mechanism that drives a biochemical oscillator of about 24 hours satisfying the following properties: endogenous rhythmicity in constant conditions; entrainment to external cues (i.e., light and temperature); resetting by environmental cues; and temperature and nutritional compensation. Dunlap’s project proposed to test an alternative model where autocatalysis plays a role equally as important as the existing negative feedback loop in generating a robust biochemical oscillator. This model incorporated a hysteresis driven by the positive feedback loop, along with a stable limit cycle due to both feedback loops. Dunlap and his colleagues tested this model in the genetically, biochemically, and molecularly tractable Neurospora system in which FRQ acts as the essential negative element in the circadian feedback loop.

JAMES FERRELL, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

Bistability as a Mechanism for Forming Domains Without Walls - $75,000

Signaling systems that include a positive feedback loop, or a double-negative feedback loop, can, under the proper circumstances, exhibit bistable behavior. A bistable system is one that can be made to toggle between two alternative, stable steady-states. Bistability can serve as the basis for all-or-none biochemical responses, for sustained “memories” of transitory stimuli, and for the temporal segregation of successive waves of a multiphase or oscillatory response. Farrell examined whether bistability may also allow the maintenance of discrete spatial domains within a continuously diffusing cytoplasm. He proposed to take experimental, computational, and mathematical approaches to this question.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

HEIDI HAMM and EMMANUELE DIBENEDETTO, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.

Mathematical Models in Signaling Systems - $75,000

The goal of this project was to understand signal integration of multiple G protein pathways. The thrombin receptor, PAR1, is known to mediate its complex actions in the endothelium via its ability to couple to multiple G proteins: Gi, Gq, and G12/13. Hamm and DiBenedetto introduced a mathematical model that incorporates the spatio-temporal aspects of signaling. By using a modular modeling approach, the team planned to iteratively build toward the goal of producing a validated computational model of the complex signaling processes used in cellular communication.

HOD LIPSON, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.

URI ALON, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

Evolutionary Computation Methods for Inference of Signal Transduction Networks - $75,000

Lipson and Alon aim to develop and apply new computational methods for inference of signaling networks within the cell using automated physical experimentation and hypothesis generation. The approach is based on new engineering topological system identification methods combined with a unique automated experimental system capable of accurately controlling and measuring nutrients in cultured systems over time. This approach actively studies the cellular system by generating hypotheses, and then planning and executing experiments to verify, refute, and elucidate these hypotheses in the most efficient way. The research was applied to the well-studied lactose and arabinose gene regulation systems in E. coli, paving the path toward automated reconstruction of more complex, unknown systems in the future.

TERENCE HWA, University of California, San Diego

Specificity, Cross Talk, and Evolvability in Two-Component Signaling - $75,000

Hwa proposed experiments to study molecular specificity vital to the fidelity of signal transduction in cells. He focused on the two-component signaling system in E. coli, and took an evolutionary approach to breed signaling proteins with different degrees of interaction specificity via a duplication/divergence process. Bioinformatic and computational studies were performed on the evolved protein sequences to determine how different degrees of specificity and cross talk can be achieved molecularly, and to

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

assess how evolvable two-component systems can be in the development of novel signaling pathways.

SHARAD RAMANATHAN, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, N.J.

A Study of MAP Kinase Pathways in Yeast - $75,000

A haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell decides on one of several developmental fates depending on its environmental conditions. A longstanding puzzle has been how the different MAP Kinase pathways that respond to pheromones, glucose starvation, or osmolar pressure in the environment manage to retain their fidelity to the respective inputs despite sharing some components. Ramanathan proposed to understand the role of the MAP Kinase module in the decision-making process of the cell through a combination of experimental and analytical approaches.

RAMA RANGANATHAN, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Md.

Robustness and Evolvability in Proteins - $75,000

Evolution builds proteins that, like finely tuned machines, are beautifully suited for mediating complex functions. Nevertheless, they somehow remain remarkably tolerant to random mutation, and are evolvable; that is, they can change to adapt to altered functional pressures. This grant proposed to develop new methods for studying the origin of these properties in proteins, and to test hypotheses through building artificial proteins. The ultimate goal was to understand the design principles in evolution that account for high performance function while maintaining stability to the process that created them (random variation) and adaptability to manage in an unpredictable and ever-changing world.

PAMELA SILVER, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Mass., and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Mass.

Biological Pattern Formation via the Design and Construction of Integrated Cell Signaling Systems - $75,000

Silver and Drew Endy of the Massachusetts Institutes of Technology studied biological pattern formation via the design and construction of integrated cell signaling systems. The goal of this research was to apply past lessons from design of computer chips to self-replicating molecular systems, such as biological cells. In 2003 this research was at the forefront of a new discipline termed Synthetic Biology, which focuses on large-scale synthesis of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

biological systems. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and sequencing make it possible to manufacture DNA at the genome scale. However, there is almost no accompanying set of design tools that allows researchers to make good use of DNA synthesis as a fabrication resource. This research allowed the creation of a bioengineering grammar for large-scale DNA synthesis and offers an opportunity for synergy between cell biology and engineering.

MICHAEL SIMPSON, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

The Processing of Stochastic Fluctuations in Gene Circuits and Networks - $75,000

The goal of Simpson’s project was to advance the understanding of stochastic fluctuation processing in biological systems. He focused on the development of hardware acceleration of stochastic simulation with a long term vision of continued simulation, speed increases as an automatic consequence of the Moore’s law advance of the semiconductor industry, and the extension of the frequency domain analysis approach to address fundamental issues in the processing of stochastic fluctuations within gene circuits and networks, including stochastic modulation of nonlinear biochemical processes, stochastically valid approximate relationships for gene expression control, and the processing of noise in cell-cell communication systems.

2004 Futures Grantees, awarded 2005 Designing Nanostructures at the Interface Between Biomedical and Physical Systems

ROBERT AUSTIN, ERIC WIESCHAUS, and DAVID TANK, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.

Up-Conversion Nanocrystals for Nano-Imaging in Tissue - $75,000

Up-conversion phosphors are an unusual class of ceramic rare-earth materials that can do “up-conversion’’ of infrared photons to visible emission with high efficiency. They offer powerful advantages for high-resolution biological imaging: (1) they do not bleach; (2) they provide two or three photon excitation intensity dependence, providing high spatial resolution; (3) they can be made at the nanometer scale for tissue and cell penetration; (4) the emission spectrum is spectrally rich and can be made from red to blue; (5) they can be excited by electron beams for optically detected scanning; and (6) they are background-free because the excitation is in the IR and the emission is delayed in time. Austin, Wieschaus, and Tank used these novel

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

nanocrystals to image morphogen gradients in embryonic development, and to detect tumors in human tissue.

NATHAN BAKER, Washington University, St. Louis

ENRICO DI CERA, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis

Molecular Engineering of Thrombin-Based Nanocatalysts - $75,000

While biology offers countless “machines” as potential nanoscale surrogates of macroscale chemical, electrical, and mechanical engineering components, these machines often require adaptation to address specific problems of relevance to biotechnology and medicine. Evolution provides some insight into the basic principles for designing diverse regulatory and catalytic functionality into similar protein structure scaffolds. However, despite the numerous biological examples, the physical principles required to engineer such functional adaptation remain elusive. Baker and Di Cera proposed to exploit the serine protease family to develop engineered biomolecules with flexible regulatory capabilities and a wide range of catalytic functionality. Efforts were made to identify the minimum set of structural determinants that ensure catalytic function and allosteric regulation, thereby identifying a “scaffold” for rational engineering. The researchers built on existing knowledge of Na+-regulated substrate specificity in thrombin to accomplish the following aims: (1) identify the physical determinants of Na+ specificity and allosteric activation; (2) engineer alternative metal ion specificity into thrombin; and (3) engineer metal ion activation into other members of the serine protease family.

PETER BURKE, University of California, Irvine

Initial Steps Towards a Carbon Nanotube Synthase - $75,000

The long-term goal of this project was to design or evolve an enzyme to synthesize a carbon nanotube. In the short term, Burke planned to use funds to hire a graduate student and purchase equipment to set up a directed evolution protocol and system in a lab to generate some preliminary results that could be used to justify larger-scale funding for the long-term goal of making a nanotube synthase. Burke also applied a portion of the funds to attend a workshop in molecular biology and cloning techniques, giving him the training to set up a basic molecular biology lab for studies of genetic expression and enzyme engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

MARY JANE CUNNINGHAM, Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, Texas

MARK BANASZAK HOLL, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Safety Assessment of Dendrimers by Toxicogenomics - $75,000

Dendrimers are engineered nanomaterials being developed for a variety of uses as agents in biomedical and electronic applications, and in coatings. Funds from this grant were used to observe dendrimers by using the cutting-edge “OMICs” technology (genomics) of gene expression microarrays, which contain tens of thousands of genes and make possible the evaluation of the activity of all these genes simultaneously. Cells were exposed to dendrimers and evaluated not only by atomic force microscopy but also for changes in their gene expression profiles. By comparing gene expression profiles of known toxic compounds to the profiles obtained with the dendrimers, the actions of specific genes and proteins associated with toxicity can be observed. The combination of physical and genetic information will provide a more comprehensive view of the dendrimer-cell interaction.

ANDREW ELLINGTON, The University of Texas at Austin

DAVID LAVAN, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

Nano-Biocomposites for Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity - $75,000

These researchers aimed to meld bio- and nanotechnologies to create a technology for solar capture that can be mass-produced and scaled to a variety of energy needs. Ultimately they would like to engineer organisms that can transfer energy directly from sunlight to electrodes. Much like tissue engineering for organ replacement, synthetic materials will be designed and synthesized to optimize cell attachment and growth, while also providing the necessary electrical connectivity and mechanical support, and providing for gas exchange.

DONALD INGBER, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Mass., and Children’s Hospital, Boston, Mass.

JEFFREY BYERS, Naval Research Lab, Washington, D.C.

MICHAEL SIMPSON, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

Multiplexed Dynamic Molecular Force Spectroscopy Array - $75,000

The project is designed to facilitate collaboration between three participants of the 2004 Keck Futures Initiative conference on nanotechnology to create a novel “multiplexed dynamic molecular force spectroscopy array” with combined sensing and response capabilities, as well as feedback behaviors

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

that mimic properties exhibited by biological networks of living cells. Through a series of complex experimental studies in the changing of mechanical properties of the target molecule, Ingber, Byers, and Simpson self-assembled biological regulatory networks, allowing them to analyze how mechanical and chemical signals may be integrated at the nanometer scale.

SHANA KELLEY, Boston College, Boston, Mass.

EDWARD SARGENT, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

Designer Biomolecular Templates for Inorganic Nanoparticle Growth: Bottom-Up Control Over Infrared Emitting Quantum Dot Synthesis and Properties - $75,000

The worlds of biology and semiconductor chips have traditionally been quite distinct. The spontaneous assembly of biological materials presents a stark contrast to the rational fabrication required for high-performance semiconductor chips. The merger of these diverse materials represents a tremendous opportunity for the next generation of materials in computing, communications, and energy. Kelley and Sargent explored the properties of PbS semiconductor quantum dots built using DNA molecules, a novel class of hybrid inorganic bionanostructures. The Sargent group made the remarkable discovery that compared with established synthesis methods, synthesis using DNA as templating material produces radically more efficient light-emitting PbS quantum dots. The light-emitters are stable inside blood plasma at body temperature over weeks. This discovery opens doors to applications of these materials, for example in cellular imaging and fundamental studies in tissue engineering. Together Kelley and Sargent investigated how DNA-templated PbS growth works and, with this new understanding, how to manipulate and control quantum dot growth using designer biomolecules.

PHILIP LEDUC, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa.

JOHN CHRISTOPHER LOVE, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Mass.

Biological Nanofactories - $75,000

Leduc and Love proposed to develop a “biological nanofactory,” an artificial nanostructure that will produce biologically relevant molecules from a source of raw materials; such a system could provide a new method for treatment or prevention of certain metabolic diseases.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

LUKE LEE, University of California, Berkeley

Quantum Nanoplasmonic Probes for In Vivo Molecular Imaging - $75,000

A quantum nanoplasmonic probe is created to maximize the enhancement of a local electromagnetic field at the sharp edge area of a nanocrescent structure for label-free proteomics and in vivo molecular-level cellular nanoscopy. The asymmetric, hollow nanoscale composite metal nanocrescent features a large surface area for better molecular adsorptions and a long edge for the maximized total integration of multiple tips for a surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectrum. Because of its hollowness, the inner and outer surfaces can be modified with different biomolecules for a wide variety of optical characteristics. Moreover, the sharp cusp of the nanocrescent structure results in an even higher degree of field enhancement ideal for single molecule detection. Lee proposed that the successful use of unconventional nanostructures will be key for the development of ultrasensitive label-free biomolecular diagnostics, functional proteomics, and systems biology.

DAN LUO, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.

TODD THORSEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Mesoscale Patterning and Delivery of DNA-Based Nanoscale Buckyballs Using Microfluidic Devices - $75,000

The long-term goal of Luo and Thorsen’s collaboration was to combine two approaches, top-down and bottom-up, to develop materials and devices that extend the nanoscale to the mesoscale and to interface nanomaterials with macro applications including drug delivery. The first purpose of their research was to use microfluidic emulsification devices—a top-down approach—to pattern DNA-based, nanoscale buckyballs that are created from the bottom-up approach. Because these buckyballs are hollow, in the size of 300 nm in diameter, and biodegradable and biocompatible, they are great for drug encapsulations, ideal for cell endocytosis, and suitable for intracellular release of drugs. Thus the second purpose was to develop addressable and scalable polyurethane microfluidic devices to deliver these drug-loaded—and especially gene-loaded—buckyballs to cultured cells. The research focused on solving the interfacing problems between high throughput format (macro scale) and cells, between cells and microfluidic devices, between microfluidic devices and nano buckyballs, and between nano buckyballs and DNA/gene drugs.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

NANCY MONTEIRO-RIVIERE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh ANDREW BARRON, Rice University, Houston, Texas

Nature of Fullerene Nanomaterial Interactions with Biological Systems - $75,000

One of the critical questions in the biology of nanomaterials is how such particles cross membranes to allow for their interaction with cells. Monteiro-Riviere and Barron proposed collaborative research to explore the transport nature of specific fullerenes with different substituted amino acids and their interactions with skin cells. The proposed studies were a direct extension of work conducted by the researchers defining the interaction of multi walled carbon nanotubes with human epidermal keratinocytes, and the synthesis on new nano-biohybrid materials by Barron. The research concerned the nature of a range of different fullerene amino acid sequences that would allow uptake into keratinocytes without producing an adverse effect. Physiochemical properties such as solubility and hydrophobicity, which are used to predict uptake and activity of traditional hydrocarbons, have not been extended to fullerenes. What properties correlate to cell uptake and what properties correlate to cellular activity? Standard cytotoxicity and ultrastructural techniques, extensively employed by the researchers to assess hydrocarbon effects on keratinocyte function, and recently to carbon nanotubes uptake by keratinocytes, will be applied to these experiments. Collaboration between groups was encouraged by specifically scheduling inter-group meetings between the two experimental phases of this project.

THOMAS PERKINS and ROBERT BATEY, University of Colorado Boulder

A Widely Applicable, Highly Sensitive RNA-Based Biosensor - $75,000

When applying biosensors in uses ranging from sequencing a single protein to homeland defense, one wants to rapidly distinguish chemicals and detect even trace quantities reliably. The central issues, therefore, are specificity and sensitivity while eliminating false-positive signals, or background. Perkins and Batey proposed a system based on engineered allosteric ribozymes coupled with a nano fluidic flow system and spectrally distinct, fluorescent nano particles that further improves sensitivity. The ribozyme detection module was designed using features of RNA-based bacterial genetic regulatory elements called riboswitches to overcome the poor performance of previous allosteric ribozymes, which have low sensitivities and a poor signal-to-background ratio. This ribozyme’s enhanced characteristics were to be demonstrated both biochemically and at the single molecule level using

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

fluorescence microscopy. By using in vitro selection, this RNA biosensor can be rapidly adapted to different chemical compounds. In its full implementation, the system is also scalable, allowing for real-time screening of many target compounds in parallel.

VINCENT ROTELLO and MARK TUOMINEN, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Integrated Nanoparticle-Protein Nanocomposite Systems - $50,000

Controlled assemblies of nanoparticles provide useful building blocks for pragmatic devices such as biosensors, switches, and high-density magnetic storage arrays. Rotello and Tuominen planned to integrate the knowledge and tools available from chemistry, biology, and physics to generate functional protein-nanoparticle nanocomposites. In their research, they intended to use the inherent properties of a well-characterized, stable redox protein, Cytochrome C, to dictate the collective electronic and magnetic behavior of nanoparticle-based ensembles. This will allow for the combination of biomolecular structure and function with tunable nanoparticle properties, and will provide a road map for the creation of new materials featuring novel functional properties.

HOLGER SCHMIDT, University of California, Santa Cruz

XING SU, Santa Clara, Calif.

Development of Integrated Biophotonic Raman Sensors using Composite Nanoparticles - $50,000

The past few years have seen a continuing development toward integrated systems—such as “Total analysis systems” and “lab-on-a-chip”—or medical and biological analysis. Two major trends along this path include miniaturization and increased sensitivity. Nanoparticles have been shown to enable the optical detection of molecule-specific signals with single molecule sensitivity via the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). At the same time, the optical detection apparatus remained bulky in the form of confocal microscopes or similar setups due to the lack of a way to guide light through picoliter volumes of liquid solution. Schmidt and Su proposed to explore the combination of a new type of nanoparticle with integrated liquid-core optical waveguides to form the basis of a new type of ultrasensitive biophotonic detection instrument with unique properties. Both components were developed by the participating principal investigators. The scope of this proposal encompassed the design of integrated optical waveguides optimized for use with nanoparticle Raman scatterers, the demonstration of Raman

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

spectrum detection from biologically functionalized nanoparticles, and the demonstration of simultaneous detection from parallel waveguide channels filled with different analyte solution on the same chip. The successful completion of these goals allows for a paradigm shift in optical studies of single biomolecules from 3D microscopy to fully planar integrated semiconductor devices that afford highest sensitivity in a low-cost, robust, and highly parallel platform that can be naturally interfaced with other elements in a microfluidic analysis system.

2005 Futures Grantees, awarded 2006 The Genomic Revolution: Implications for Treatment and Control of Infectious Disease

PHILIP AWADALLA, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

HONGYU ZHAO, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.

SARAH TISHKOFF, University of Maryland, College Park

The Co-evolution of Human and Plasmodium Genomic Interactions - $75,000

Mortality associated with malaria has been a major selective force shaping variation in the human and P. falciparum genomes resulting in a genetic “arms race.” Using an interdisciplinary approach, Awadalla, Zhao, and Tishkoff planned to incorporate novel molecular, genetic, statistical, evolutionary, and bioinformatics approaches to identify variants in genomes that play a role in host/pathogen interaction.

SALLY BLOWER, ROMULUS BREBAN, and RAFFAELE VARDAVAS, University of California, Los Angeles

Exploring the Emerging Role of Public Health in Integrating Genomics into the Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases - $75,000

Blower, Breban, and Vardavas collaborated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to investigate the “superbug” methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). These researchers explored how genetic data can be used to characterize outbreaks, and predict the size and frequency; and design effective control strategies for MRSA at the state and the national level.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

STEVEN BRENNER, University of California, Berkeley

MARIA ABREU and DANIEL PRESENT, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, N.Y.

Metagenomic Studies of Human Microbiota in Crohn’s Disease - $75,000

Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory disease of the digestive tract that affects a half-million patients in the United States. Microbial populations in the intestines affect the development of the disease and vice versa. These researchers used genomics to survey intestinal microbiata populations and understand their role in disease.

FREDERIC BUSHMAN, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia

ROB DOUGLAS KNIGHT, University of Colorado Boulder

Dynamics of the Human Intestinal Flora in Health and Disease - $75,000

The human gut contains vast numbers of mutualistic bacteria. Normally the human immune system regulates this population, but upon HIV infection, gut immune cells are rapidly destroyed and intestinal illness follows. Using genomic approaches, these researchers studied the effects of disease on the composition of the gut flora.

KAM LEONG and LINGCHONG YOU, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

Engineering “Microbial Swarmbots” for Medical Applications - $75,000

These researchers engineered microbial swarmbots as a platform technology for delivery of bioactive agents to combat infectious diseases. A microbial swarmbot is a small population of bacterial cells that are autonomously regulated by synthetic gene circuits and are encapsulated in microcapsules built from synthetic or natural polymers.

MICHAEL LORENZ, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston

GREGORY PETSKO, Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass.

Identification of Isocitrate Lyase Inhibitors as Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Drugs - $50,000

These researchers tested a new model of drug discovery that uses comparative genomics and computer simulation. Using a combination of structure-guided computer modeling and laboratory testing, they identified pharmaceutical inhibitors of the enzyme isocitrate lyase, which is required by several infectious agents to cause disease in humans.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

DEIRDRE MELDRUM, University of Washington, Seattle

DEBRA WEINER and CARLO BRUGNARA, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Mass.

Role of Nitric Oxide on White Blood Cell Function in Inflammation and Infection - $75,000

These researchers used state-of-the-art microscale technology to measure and compare cellular events and white blood cell genomic expression in in vitro human models of infection and inflammation. Nitric oxide is an important mediator of white blood cell function in the pathogenesis and host defense of infectious and inflammatory processes.

BABAK PARVIZ, University of Washington, Seattle

Direct Electronic Detection of Molecular Recognition and Binding Events with Engineered Nano-Scale Structures - $75,000

Two nano-scale sensing mechanisms based on tunneling current and surface dipole fields were investigated for direct conversion of molecular recognition and binding events to electronic signals. The new sensing mechanisms provide tools for furthering the understanding of biology at the small scale and extending the link between the genomic information and phenotype and the eventual disease.

CHRISTOPHER PLOWE and SHANNON TAKALA, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

Genetic Diversity and Efficacy of Malaria Drugs and Vaccines - $75,000

These researchers developed new genomic tools to assess how genetic differences in malaria parasites affect the ability of drugs to treat malaria and the ability of vaccines to prevent the disease in clinical trials in Africa.

DAVID RELMAN, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

ANNE RIMOIN, University of California, Los Angeles

Bringing Genomics to the Rainforest: The Study of Monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo - $75,000

Monkeypox is an emerging infectious disease in Africa, and it unexpectedly caused an outbreak in the United States in 2003. These researchers studied the responses of patients with monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo using powerful genomic tools in order to understand this poorly studied disease.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

DEBRA SCHWINN, NAN JOKERST, and RICHARD FAIR, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

MIHRI OZKAN, University of California, Riverside

Creating an Inexpensive Diagnostic for Malaria Using Combined Nanotechnology and Genomic Approaches - $75,000

These researchers planned to develop an inexpensive field diagnostic to detect active malaria infection in a remote field setting where little electricity or medical expertise is available. The diagnostic tool used microfluidics, nanotechnology, and genomics to diagnose the type and drug resistance of malaria parasites in humans.

VICTOR UGAZ, Texas A&M University, College Station

ROBIN LIU, CombiMatrix Corp., Mukilteo, Wash.

Enhancement of DNA Microarray Hybridization Using Thermal Gradient Induced Convective Flow - $75,000

These researchers proposed to develop a novel but simple and easy-to-implement technique, based on thermal gradient induced convection flow, to enhance DNA microarray hybridization and address the diffusion limitation and low throughput of current microarray technology. This technique would accelerate hybridization kinetics in virtually any microarray platform.

SHAN WANG, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

NADER POURMAND, Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford, Calif.

Low Cost and Rapid Microbe Diagnostics to Combat Drug Resistance Phenomenon in Infectious Diseases - $50,000

These researchers proposed to develop a magneto-nano biosensor for portable and rapid microbial diagnostics. Furthermore, they intended to investigate its feasibility to rapidly identify organisms in infected patients, thereby reducing the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens and saving numerous lives in hospitals.

JOHN WIKTOROWICZ, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston

CORINNE LENGSFELD, University of Denver, Denver, Colo.

Micro Incubator for Bacterial Infectious Agents - $75,000

Using microelectromechanical technology, these researchers planned to design and build a prototype microfluidic-based incubator with the potential to provide up to 100 environmental conditions within a small space. The

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

incubator will be used to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on bacterial strain evolution, propagation and death.

2006 Futures Grantees, awarded 2007 Smart Prosthetics: Exploring Assistive Devices for the Body and Mind

WILLIAM C. DEGROAT, JAMES R. ROPPOLO, BING SHEN, and CHANGFENG TAI, University of Pittsburgh, Pa.

Neuromodulation of the External Urethral Sphincter to Promote Voiding After Spinal Cord Injury - $75,000

Following spinal cord injury, in addition to loss of locomotion, normal bladder function is also lost. Although the bladder is able to contract, the external urethral sphincter (EUS) is hyperactive and rather than relaxing, as occurs during normal voiding, the EUS contracts and prevents voiding. These researchers proposed to use microstimulation of specific areas of the spinal cord to produce EUS inhibition and thereby restore normal bladder emptying.

MICHAEL F. DORMAN, Arizona State University, Tempe

PHILLIP M. GILLEY, University of Colorado Boulder

Brain Activity in Response to Sound: Cross-Validation of Source Localization Using Three Imaging Techniques - $50,000

These researchers aimed to compare the cortical localization of brain responses to speech using invasive and noninvasive techniques. The results of these comparisons would develop clinically useful, noninvasive techniques for studying brain function in children who wear a neural prosthesis for hearing.

JENNIFER ELISSEEFF, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

HUGH HERR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Novel Adhesive for the Prosthesis-Limb Interface - $75,000

These researchers explored a biomedical problem, the interface between prostheses and the body. From long-term integration between metal and skin or bone to short-term challenges such as avoiding slippage and resulting sores, achieving appropriate prosthesis integration is critical for optimal function.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

WILLIAM J. FOSTER, University of Houston, Texas

PAUL A. JANMEY, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Retinal Prosthetics: The Effect of the Elastic Modulus of the Extracellular Matrix on the Development of Differentiation of Specialized Neurons in the Retina - $75,000

How do the cells become organized in the retina and brain? These researchers proposed to utilize techniques from polymer chemistry, physics, and developmental biology to evaluate the effect of the elastic modulus or “softness” of the surrounding material on the development of retinal stem cells and organization of the retina.

JOSEPH T. FRANCIS, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York City, N.Y.

KAREN MOXON, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Penn.

JOSE M. CARMENA, University of California, Berkeley

Comparing and Contrasting Electrophysiological Properties of and Biological Response to Chronically Implanted Electrode Arrays - $75,000

These researchers aimed to replace the sense of touch with direct electrical stimulation to the sensory thalamus while testing a new electrode array with multiple contacts along each shaft, and comparing its recording ability and biocompatibility with the standard micro-wire array as well as the Cyberkinetics array.

ROBERT C. FROEMKE, University of California, San Francisco

PHILLIP LEVIS, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

A Wireless Device for Studying the Neural Circuitry of Social Behavior - $25,000

Social behaviors such as maternal care are important functions of the brain. However, because of technical limitations, little is known about the neural circuitry of social interactions. These researchers proposed to improve the design of a smart prosthetic brain stimulator, and test it by trying to enhance maternal behavior.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

R. BRENT GILLESPIE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

JOSE LUIS CONTRERAS-VIDAL, University of Maryland, College Park

MARCIA K. O’MALLEY, Rice University, Houston, Texas

PATRICIA A. SHEWOKIS, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Penn.

Feedback Control for Smart Prosthetics: An Integrated Electrophysiological and Near-Infrared Methodology - $75,000

This project proposed to produce insight into the neural mechanisms governing adaptation to sensory feedback from a prosthesis. The researchers planned to track brain activity while subjects perform simple object lifting tasks with a prosthesis that selectively provides tendon vibration (inducing joint motion percepts) and force feedback (unloading muscles in the upper arm).

ELIAS GREENBAUM, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

MARK S. HUMAYUN, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine/The Doheny Institute, Los Angeles

Metabolic Prosthesis - $75,000

Ischemia is a condition in which blood flow and oxygen is restricted in part of the body. Diabetic retinopathy is an example of an ischemic disease. These researchers proposed to develop a metabolic retinal prosthesis to deliver oxygen to the ischemic retina.

WARREN M. GRILL, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

DAVID C. MARTIN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

In Situ Polymerized Interfaces for Peripheral Nerve Recording and Stimulation - $75,000

This project proposed to determine the feasibility of polymer (rubber) electrodes to record electrical signals from and deliver electrical stimulation to peripheral nerves. The system used included liquid electrodes that harden after injection into the body to enable minimally invasive electrical interfaces with peripheral nerves for applications in prosthetic devices.

SARAH C. HEILSHORN, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

A Novel Biomaterial That Can Be Remodeled by the Nervous System - $75,000

The goal of this research was to develop a new biomaterial that can be used to promote regeneration of the central nervous system. Unlike traditional biomaterials, which biodegrade over time in an uncontrollable manner, this new biomaterial will be able to be remodeled and degraded directly by the regenerating nerves.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

JOERG LAHANN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

JENNIFER ELLISSEFF, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

Interfacing Embryonic Stem Cells with Synthetic Prosthesis - $75,000

Embryonic stem cells hold great promise in regenerative medicine and bio-prostheses. This will require completely defined cellular microenvironments. Based on novel biointerface technology, these researchers intended to will create a 3D scaffold that supports undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells and design biointerfaces that can regulate the cells’ differentiation into neurons.

CATO T. LAURENCIN, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

CHALLA S. S. R. KUMAR, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

APARNA GUPTA, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.

LAKSHMI S. NAIR, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

Universal Smart Coatings for Prosthetics - $75,000

Infection is a dangerous complication after surgery to place a prosthesis. These researchers plan to develop a method to make the prosthesis itself a controlled drug delivery system. By means of an alternating magnetic field, the controlled release of an antibiotic will be regulated to turn on and off as needed.

GERALD E. LOEB, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

Biomimetic Tactile Sensors and Grip Control Strategies - $75,000

Prosthetic and robotic hands need robust touch sensors and clever control strategies to help them interact with objects. This project planned to develop a new class of sensors that draws inspiration from the deformable shapes of real finger pads, nail beds, etc., and the dexterous hand behaviors that have been studied in human subjects.

RANDALL J. NELSON, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

Workshop on New Frontier in Research on Sensorimotor Transformations - $25,000

The workshop brought together NIH funded neuroscientists working on the neural basis of sensorimotor control, investigators developing cortical neuroprothesthics, and neurologists specializing in somatosensory disorders to identify scientific gaps and opportunities common to these research communities and to discuss strategies for developing close-looped sensorimotor integrated smart prosthetics.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

STEVE M. POTTER, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

JOSE M. CARMENA, University of California, Berkeley

Testbed for Developing Direct Cortical Feedback of Proprioception for Smart Limb Prostheses - $75,000

These researchers proposed to explore and solve problems in delivering artificial proprioception to improve the usefulness of limb prostheses. It is a synergy of in vitro and in vivo approaches, involving multielectrode array stimulation and recording of the cortex and cultured cortical tissue.

JEFFREY SCHWARTZ, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.

TREENA LIVINGSTON ARINZEH, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark

JENNIFER ELLISSEFF, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

BOYD M. EVANS III, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

SARAH C. HEILSHORN, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

JOERG LAHANN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

ROGER J. NARAYAN, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

VILUPANUR A. RAVI, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

JUDITH STEIN, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, N.Y.

Transduction of Metabolic to Electric Energy Through Vectorial Cell Growth - $75,000

Microprocessor-based prostheses might benefit from in situ power generated by transduction of normal metabolic processes. These researchers proposed to develop a program to create arrays of myoblast-like cells on a scaffold using the electric eel as a guide; cells would develop an electrical potential through normal metabolic processes and this potential would be discharged through an external circuit.

2007 Futures Grantees, awarded 2008 The Future of Human Healthspan: Demography, Evolution, Medicine, and Bioengineering

STEVEN AUSTAD, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio

DAVID J. WATERS, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind.

Workshop on the Development of Dogs as Animal Models for the Study of Extended Healthspan - $25,000

These researchers held a workshop with experts in basic aging research, canine genomics, epidemiology, pathology, and the assessment of canine

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

health to develop a research plan to study dogs and breed differences for animal models of extended healthspan.

LAZELLE BENEFIELD, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City

GEORGE DEMIRIS, University of Washington, Seattle

TAMARA HAYES, JEFFREY KAYE, and MISHA PAVEL, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland

MARGARET PERKINSON, St. Louis University, St. Louis, Mo.

ELAINE WITTENBERG-LYLES, University of North Texas, Denton

Technology-Enhanced Interventions for Distance Caregiving of Older Adults: An Interdisciplinary Approach - $50,000

This project intended to explore information and communication technology solutions to support long-distance caregiving. The researchers planned to develop the long term research agenda to assess human-technology interface within an aging-in-place model.

BAMBI BREWER, SUJATA PRADHAN, and ANTHONY DELITTO, University of Pittsburgh, Pa.

Robotic Assessment for Quantification of Preclinical Symptoms of Neurodegenerative Disease - $75,000

These researchers proposed to use robotic technology to develop methods to measure early symptoms of degenerative diseases like Parkinson’s disease. Such tools could increase the human healthspan by accelerating the development of drug treatment and allowing early diagnosis of these diseases once effective treatment is available.

EILEEN CRIMMINS, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

Human Lifespan and Healthspan Across Time and Space - $75,000

This project intended to estimate the healthspan or life without physiological dysregulation and impaired functioning in a number of populations that span time and space. The information gathered will be used in models that clarify the effects of changing physiological, social, and behavioral characteristics on future healthspan.

DIDDAHALLY GOVINDARAJU, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass.

STEVE N. AUSTAD, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

NIR BARZILAI, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York City, N.Y.

CHARLES LEE, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Mass.

Copy Number Variation and Exceptional Human Healthspan: The Ashkenazi Centenarians - $87,500

Human genomic length variation ranging from 500 bp to 5 Mb, also known as structural or copy number variation (CNV), has been shown to influence complex traits including longevity and diseases. These researchers proposed to investigate this influence by a genome-wide survey of CNVs in relation to longevity among the Ashkenazi centenarians.

CHRISTINE GRANT, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

ANATOLI I YASHIN, KEITH MEADOR, and ELIZABETH ANN

GERKEN HOOTEN, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

KHALED SALEH, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

SARA PECKHAM, Wellness Consultant, Cleveland, Ohio

Paradigm Shift Toward Positive Health and Healthspan Outcomes - $50,000

This project will brought together experts from many fields, including orthopedic clinicians, biomedical researchers, spirituality, and orthopedic wellness, to focus on how orthopedic events will enhance orthopedic medicine and foster health care personnel diversity, facilitating culturally competent care.

SCOTT HOFER, Oregon State University, Corvallis

JEFFREY KAYE, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland

ILENE C. SIEGLER, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

AVRON SPIRO, Boston University, Boston, Mass.

Health and Healthspan in Longitudinal Studies of Aging - $75,000

These researchers held a conference to better understand age-related health changes by evaluating measurement and modeling approaches. Using current longitudinal studies of aging, participants planned to compare the various models, measures, and methods of assessing health and provide an empirical basis for harmonizing existing measures, suggesting novel ones, and eventually integrating health information from new and ongoing longitudinal studies across disciplines.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

KENNETH MANTON, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

Plateaus in Human Mortality and Disability Dynamics at Advanced Ages - $87,500

This project proposed to examine data from National Long-Term Care Surveys from 1982 to 2004 with data for linked Medicare Part B files for the same dates to see if the age trajectory of human mortality and disability processes reaches a plateau or even declines above age 95.

MAJA MATARIĆ and CALEB FINCH, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

Socially Assistive Robotics for the Physical and Cognitive Health - $75,000

Socially assistive robotics (SAR)—autonomous, intelligent, and companionable technology—has the potential to positively impact the human healthspan. These researchers planned to develop and test SAR systems that provide individualized physical and cognitive exercises for improving motivation and function, in a socially engaging context, through social (not physical) human-machine interaction.

RICHARD MILLER, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

STEVEN AUSTAD, University of Texas, San Antonio

JUDITH CAMPISI, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.

CALEB FINCH, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

LINDA MILLER, Nature Publishing Group, New York, N.Y.

CHRISTOPHER K. PATIL, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.

WOODRING ERIK WRIGHT, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

Comparative Biogerontology Initiative - $75,000

These researchers proposed to hold two meetings with senior scholars to develop a plan to test hypotheses about biological factors that control lifespan and healthspan, and compare tissues from multiple species of animals. The scholars were pathologists, comparative physiologists, methodologists, statisticians, and experts in the biology of aging.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

STEVEN ORZACK, Fresh Pond Research Institute, Cambridge, Mass.

DIDDAHALLY R. GOVINDARAJU, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass.

SHRIPAD TULJAPURKAR, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

TIM COULSON, Imperial College, London

Signatures of Healthspan in Humans - $75,000

These researchers intended to study the causal basis for differences in human healthspan by using “signatures” and health trajectories, and assessing the dynamical nature of heterogeneity of healthspan.

CORINNA ROSS, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio

SARA ESPINOZA, University of Texas, San Antonio

Development of a Small Primate Model of Frailty - $25,000

Frailty has been defined as a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, fatigue, weakness, and vulnerability to stressors that predisposes them to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These researchers convened a group of experts to explore the development of a small primate model of frailty.

RICHARD SPROTT, The Ellison Medical Foundation, Bethesda, Md.

Creating a Center For Models For Healthspan Research - $75,000

There are currently no accepted models for healthspan research. A universally accessible center for model development and maintenance would make an enormous contribution to this essential research. This project aimed to convene a group of experts to develop guidelines for healthspan models.

WOODRING WRIGHT, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

The Comparative Cellular Biology of Aging - $100,000

Mammalian lifespan varies more than fiftyfold. This researcher proposed to establish a resource of normal and immortalized cultured cells from over 30 species to be shared between laboratories to study the comparative cellular biology of aging. The goal is to identify strategies to manipulate the process of limiting human healthspan.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

2008 Futures Grantees, awarded 2009 Complex Systems

JOHN M. BEGGS, THOMAS BUSEY, and JEAN-PHILIPPE THIVIERGE, Indiana University, Bloomington

CHRISTOPHER KELLO, University of California, Merced

Power Law Distributions and Fluctuations in Neural and Behavioral Activity - $50,000

These researchers aimed to bridge these distinct but related levels of analysis. Neurons must coordinate the flow of information between various brain areas and structures. The brain and body must coordinate to effect purposeful behavior. Distinct sources of evidence are converging on common principles to explain coordinated neural and behavioral activities.

SALLY BLOWER, BRADLEY WAGNER, and JUSTIN OKANO, Semel Institute for Neuroscience, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles

ALESSANDRO VESPIGNANI and BRUNO GONÇALVES, Indiana University, Bloomington

RAFFAELE VARDAVAS, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif.

Designing an Effective HIV Prevention Plan for Botswana by Coupling an Information Network Model with a Meta-population Transmission Model - $75,000

These researchers planned to use an information network model linked with a transmission model to assess the impact of using antiretrovirals to prevent HIV in Botswana.

STEPHEN J. BONASERA, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha

I. S. MIAN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.

CHRISTOPHER ROSE, Rutgers University, Camden, N.J.

Agent-Based Modeling of Functional Behavior Selection in the Mouse - $50,000

A key function of the central nervous system (CNS) is maintaining organism homeostasis, a process that itself involves “action selection” or choosing behaviors in real time from a broad palette of repertoires according to ongoing internal and external sensory inputs. These researchers intended to develop a model of how the mouse brain chooses to perform given current internal and external conditions such as hunger, thirst, need for rest, and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

environment in order to improve our understanding of this important yet poorly understood problem.

JAMES P. CRUTCHFIELD, University of California, Davis

ANA V. DIEZ ROUX and GEORGE A. KAPLAN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

GRANT S. MCCALL, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.

JAMES N. GARDNER, Gardner & Gardner Attorneys, PC, Portland, Ore.

NIGEL GOLDENFELD, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

MURRAY GELL-MANN, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, N.M.

JESSICA J. HELLMAN, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind.

PAUL HUMPHREYS, University of Virginia, Charlottesville

JOHN H. MILLER, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, N.M.

JESSIKA TRANCIK, Santa Fe Institute and Earth Institute, Santa Fe, N.M.; Columbia University, New York City, N.Y.

Is Sustainability Possible?: Frontiers in Collective Modeling via Scientific Open Source - $50,000

These researchers proposed to adapt modern complex systems methods, both theoretical and computational, to the problem of global sustainability. The principle challenges of multiscale and multidomain modeling will be pursued on scientific and technological tracks: analyzing insect-driven deforestation and climate change and designing a network environment (SOSWorld) for collective modeling by interdisciplinary teams.

RAISSA M. D’SOUZA, University of California, Davis

TONY H. GRUBESIC, Indiana University, Bloomington

Design Principles for Resilient Critical Infrastructure - $50,000

These researchers planned to develop a mathematical framework for modeling interacting networks focused on enhancing resilience of critical infrastructure (e.g., transportation networks, electrical grids, water distribution systems and the Internet).

JENNIFER A. DUNNE, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, N.M.

ROSS HAMMOND, The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.

Humans as Explicit Players in Ecosystems: Using Bioenergetic Food-Web Dynamics and Agent-Based Modeling Approaches to Explore Persistence and Stability in Complex Ecological Networks - $25,000

Ecological networks called “food webs” characterize the feeding interactions

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

of species that co-occur in particular habitats. These researchers will try new approaches for modeling population and individual-level dynamics to assess the impacts of humans on the stability of ecosystems through their roles as predators and prey in complex socio-ecological systems.

THIERRY EMONET, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

DOUGLAS B. WEIBEL, University of Wisconsin–Madison

Phenotypic Heterogeneity as a Source of Robustness in Bacterial Sensing - $50,000

Using bacterial sensing as a model system, these researchers proposed to examine how the resulting cell-to-cell variability confers functional robustness to a community of cells. Since bacterial chemotaxis can be viewed as a strategy for searching and acquiring information, this investigation into how the distribution of searching capabilities of individuals can optimize the behavior of the population will be of great interest to many diverse fields, including ecology, traffic control, distributed power, financial markets, and load balancing in supercomputers.

JAMES A. GLAZIER and JOHN S. GENS, Indiana University, Bloomington

HERBERT M. SAURO, University of Washington, Seattle

Towards the Artificial Egg—First Steps Towards Custom Creatures - $37,500

These researchers planned to use complexity-based software tools and modern genetic engineering to create lines of living mammalian cells which will interact to generate simple, controllable, emergent structures resembling those in animal tissues, the first step toward building an Artificial Egg.

MARTA C. GONZÁLEZ, Center for Complex Network Research, Northeastern University, Boston, Mass.

NATHAN EAGLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, N.M.

The Search for Universal Laws of Human Movement: A Cross-Cultural Study - $62,500

The understanding of cultural differences and economic interdependencies underlying human motion has deep implications in fields ranging from urban planning to computational epidemiology. Using mobile phone records, these researchers intended to quantify the fundamental similarities and differences in the statistics of motion of people among two industrialized and three developing countries, involving approximately 30 million individuals.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

SARAH C. HEILSHORN, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

AMY L. BAUER, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M.

Theoretical and Experimental Approaches to Engineering Complex Vascular Networks - $50,000

The development of complex vascular networks is a critical process during embryonic development, adult tissue remodeling, cancer progression, and in potential regenerative medicine therapies. This project is to develop theoretical computational models and experimental laboratory models to predict the fundamental biophysics and biochemistry regulating vascular networks.

PRADEEP KUMAR, The Rockefeller University, New York City, N.Y.

Interaction of Complex Biomolecules with a Complex Liquid: Role of Water in Biology - $25,000

These researchers aim to improve our knowledge of possible mechanisms for physical and biological phenomena arising from interactions of biomolecules such as protein, DNA, RNA, and water. Progress in this field will contribute toward our understanding of the role of water in many biological processes.

DAVID LAZER and JUNKKA-PEKKA ONNELA, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

NATHAN EAGLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, N.M.

Behavioral Network Analysis - $37,500

This project aimed to link behavior-based ways of measuring relationships (such as a phone call between two people) and more traditional ways of measuring relationships (such as asking who someone’s friends are) to examine whether particular types of relationships are associated with particular types of behaviors.

NATHAN S. LEWIS, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

TUAN A. DUONG, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

Use of an Electronic Nose for Breath-Based Detection of Lung Cancer - $50,000

These researchers proposed to evaluate whether mixtures of volatile organic breath-based biomarkers that have been implicated as diagnostic signatures suitable for a screen for early stage lung cancer can be detected and identified by a low-power, portable, “electronic nose” array of vapor sensors.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

YING-CHENG LAI, Arizona State University, Tempe

FREDERICK I. MOXLEY, Network Science Center, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y.

JUAN M. OCAMPO, Trajectory Asset Management, New York City, N.Y.

MICHAEL J. NORTH, University of Chicago, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Ill.

Financial Liquidity and Network Theory - $50,000

Financial markets are highly complex networks of institutions and transactions through which liquidity, i.e., the flow of credit, enhances economic activity. These researchers planned to model these networks to provide understanding, prediction, and some degree of control of this important economic factor.

CATERINA SCOGLIO, Kansas State University, Manhattan

MICHAEL L. PARCHMAN, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio

Quality of Care and Network Properties of Outpatient Health Care Delivery in the Veterans Health Administration - $25,000

These researchers proposed to describe the network comprised of physicians (nodes) and patients (links) within a large health care system and its relationship to quality of care measures across three domains: access, clinical, and satisfaction.

JOSHUA B. PLOTKIN, ANTHONY KROCH, and ROBIN CLARK, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

The Population Dynamics of Language Evolution - $25,000

Languages evolve over time. Words that were once common later become rare, or go extinct. These researchers planned to investigate whether language change is driven by deterministic Darwinian forces, or by random stochastic events. Their analysis will use a database of 23,000 digitized English texts, ranging from Beowulf to Britney Spears.

SUZANNE SCARLATA, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, N.Y.

AMY E. HERR, University of California, Berkeley

Unraveling Complexity in Cell Signaling: Mapping Molecular Markers of Directed Differentiation of Nerve Cells - $50,000

Amazingly, stem cells differentiate into approximately 250 cell types in the human body. Cell signaling comprises complex interactions and feedback with dependence on time and location. These researchers proposed to

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

employ micro/nanotechnology to characterize cell signaling of neuronal differentiation to try to identify key signaling nodes relevant to neuronal regeneration.

STEVEN J. SCHIFF, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

BRIAN LITT, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

DANIEL P. LATHROP, University of Maryland, College Park

Model-Based Forecasting of Epileptic Seizures - $50,000

Epileptic seizures have similarities to brain storms, yet we have no systematic way that reliably detects impending seizures. This project aimed to blend models based from engineering control theory, and the physics of nonlinear dynamics of the atmosphere, to test whether a novel synergistic approach to detecting epileptic seizures can be developed.

H. EUGENE STANLEY, Center for Polymer Studies, Boston University, Boston, Mass.

Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding the Causes of Large Economic Fluctuations - $50,000

Can concepts from statistical physics of phase transitions provide insights into understanding “financial tsunamis”? This research plan involved comprehensive datasets covering the recent financial crisis to answer this question. The statistics of correlations will be used to conduct an analysis of the response of price fluctuations to market participants’ demand and collective behavior.

JEFFREY A. TORETSKY, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

LAJOS P. BALOGH, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, N.Y.

PETER SLOOT, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

MARTIN GRUEBELE, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

RIGOBERTO HERNANDEZ, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

PETER T. CUMMINGS, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.

MAIA MARTCHEVA, University of Florida, Gainesville

MUHAMMAD HAMID ZAMAN, The University of Texas at Austin

I. S. MIAN, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.

AMY L. BAUER, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M.

Dynamic Network Models of HIV Transmission and Cancer Metastasis - $25,000

These researchers will meet to develop “pre-modeling” concepts of transport in complex systems involving networked structures in general and dynamic

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

network models of HIV transmission and cancer metastasis in particular to slow or stop progression of these diseases.

JOHN P. WIKSWO, TODD R. GRAHAM, and PETER A. WEIL, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.

AMY L. BAUER and ILYA NEMENMAN, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M.

WOLFGANG LOSERT, University of Maryland, College Park

MINGJUN ZHANG, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Biology on Demand: External Control of a Complex Cellular System, S. cerevisiae - $50,000

These researchers proposed to demonstrate external, multivariable control of the budding yeast, a relatively well-characterized complex system. Their experimental studies will integrate both feedback and feed-forward control of a highly instrumented, computer-controlled microfabricated bioreactor, and enable on-demand selection of metabolic and signaling pathways and hence control of cell fate.

LARRY YAEGER and OLAF SPORNS, Indiana University, Bloomington

How Network Structure Gives Rise to Dynamical Complexity - $50,000

Developing formal methods of quantitatively assessing complexity and using them to understand the origins and mechanisms of that complexity are great challenges. These researchers seek to understand how a network’s structural characteristics relate to dynamical patterns of activity in that network—how function follows from form.

MUHAMMAD H. ZAMAN, The University of Texas at Austin

DAVID K. CAMPBELL and ADIL NAJAM, Boston University, Boston, Mass.

Complexity of Higher Education Systems in Developing Countries - $12,500

Secondary and higher education in the developing countries represents a highly dynamic and complex problem socially, politically, financially, and academically. Institutions of higher learning in the developing world are often created, but seldom successful. These researchers will convene a meeting of experts to create a roadmap for a quantitative model of education in developing countries.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

2009 Futures Grantees, awarded 2010 Synthetic Biology: Building on Nature’s Inspiration

JOHN CUMBERS, Brown University, Providence, R.I.

LYNN ROTHSCHILD, NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif.; Brown University, Providence, R.I.

What Are the Potential Roles for Synthetic Biology in NASA Missions?: A Workshop Proposal - $25,000

This project consists of an interdisciplinary workshop that brings together leaders in the field of synthetic biology with space scientists, engineers, and mission designers to discuss the potential role that synthetic biology could play in achieving NASA’s missions.

GAUTAM DANTAS, Washington University

ROB KNIGHT, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bethesda, Md.; University of Colorado Boulder

BIN WANT, Washington University

Functional Metagenomic Discovery of Novel Enzymatic Functions from Ultra Low-Volume Samples with Whole Metagenome Amplification - $75,000

These researchers aimed to develop and apply experimental methods for capturing diverse biological machinery from arbitrary environments using extremely small amounts of genetic material and computational methods to predict how these functions evolved. This research will improve the ability to define fitness landscapes to harness the chemical processing potential of biological systems.

KERWYN HUANG, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

Light-Driven Organization of Cellular Communities Using Photactic Motility - $100,000

Complex functions often require capabilities beyond the reach of single-celled organisms. The development of synthetic multicellular communities relies on technologies for spatial control. Cyanobacteria detect the direction of incident light with high sensitivity via self-organization into communities. This researcher sought to exploit this phototactic pattern formation for controlling community organization.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

MICHAEL JEWETT and LAURIE ZOLOTH, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.

ANTHONY FORSTER, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tenn.

Synthetic Ribosomes for Pharmaceutical Discovery And Synthesizing Life - $75,000

These researchers aimed to synthesize and engineer the ribosome—the cell’s factory for protein synthesis—to better understand life and to discover new drugs. The project will also contribute new ethical and social perspectives on making life.

JOSHUA LEONARD, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.

CYNTHIA COLLINS, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Washington, D.C.

Development of a Novel Platform for Engineering Synthetic Interkingdom Communication - $100,000

Bacteria are an essential component of the human body, wherein they detect and respond to changes in physiology. This project is intended to develop a technology allowing engineered symbiotic bacteria to communicate information directly to human cells, paving the way for biological sensors that detect and treat cancer and other gastrointestinal diseases.

WENDELL LIM and PAULA GOMES, University of California, San Francisco

NAKFI Grant iGEM Program: Harnessing the Power of Synthetic Biology to Expand the Reach of Biological Education - $25,000

Synthetic Biology provides a motivating and appealing investigative framework for young students to learn about biological mechanisms. This project proposed to harness this power to expand the excitement of biological inquiry and discovery to students from grades 6–14 by creating innovative curricula and providing exciting research experiences at UCSF.

QING LIN, State University of New York at Buffalo

MIGUEL FUENTES-CABRERA, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

Synthesis of Protein-Based Organelles for Biofuels Production - $100,000

The proposed study aimed to construct a robust yeast strain capable of producing renewable biofuels with greatly improved yields. This yeast strain is

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

engineered to genetically encode protein-based intracellular nano-reactors that segregate the fuel-producing enzymes from the endogenous enzymes and perform the dedicated task of biofuels production.

RICHARD MURRAY, California Institute of Technology

BARRY CANTON, Ginkgo BioWorks, Boston, Mass.

PETER CARR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

ERIC KLAVINS, University of Washington

DAVID SPRINZAK, California Institute of Technology

CAGEN: Competitive Assessment of Genetically Engineered Networks - $100,000

The Competitive Assessment for Genetically Engineered Networks (CAGEN) is a competition intended to drive new approaches to designing robust, synthetic biological circuits. The competition will involve teams of established researchers designing circuits that implement a given function and the assessment of their circuit’s performance across a set of multiple operating environments.

DEBOLEENA ROY and ICHIRO MATSUMURA, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga.

SARA GIORDANO, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.

ARRI EISEN, Center for Ethics, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga.

LAURA DRESS, B.R.I.D.G.E.™, LLC

Developing a Bench-Side Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research Training Program in Synthetic Biology - $75,000

This project proposed to develop a research and education training program that instructs graduate students in biomedicine, bioengineering, and bioethics on the ethical and social implications of synthetic biology research. The program also sought to develop participatory research practices in synthetic biology to address the need for critical engagement with nontraditional stakeholders.

ALANNA SCHEPARTZ, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

NOAH MALMSTADT, University of Southern California

Separate But Equal: Design of Orthogonal, Functional Environments Within Living Mammalian Cells - $100,000

This project includes the development of orthogonal compartments that function independently within a living cell. These researchers proposed to

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

synthesize a series of fluorolipids-fatty acid-like molecules with fluorocarbon chains and evaluate their ability to both self-organize into fluoro-lipid domains and liposomes and direct the localization of proteins modified with fluorocarbon lipid appendages.

DOUGLAS WEIBEL, University of Wisconsin–Madison

RATMIR DERDA, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

JULIE NORVILLE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

GEORGE WHITESIDES, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Using Layers of Paper to Create Synthetic Microbial Communities: A Simple Approach for Investigation of Cellular Communication, Fostering Collaboration in Basic Research and Bringing Science to the Classroom - $50,000

The maintenance of cells in polycultures is an unsolved problem with important applications in synthetic biology, biotechnology, and biomedicine. These researchers sought to use layers of ordinary paper to enable the engineering of polycultures of bacteria. The technology used in this project will play dual roles in research and in science outreach.

HANG (HUBERT) YIN and DEANNE SAMMOND, University of Colorado Boulder

JOSHUA FERREIRA and CLIFFORD WANG, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

Engineering Membrane Protein Inhibitors Through Rational Design and Directed Evolution - $100,000

These researchers planned to combine rational design and directed evolution to generate inhibitors of membrane proteins. They aim to develop (1) a new method to design membrane protein inhibitors for Bax and (2) a genetically engineered system where targeted mutagenesis and selection of activity are performed in a single cell line.

HUIMIN ZHAO and ZENGYI SHAO, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Genome Mining of Novel Natural Products via Synthetic Biology - $100,000

Microorganisms are a major source of new therapeutic agents. These researchers aimed to develop a new synthetic biology strategy to discover novel natural products from sequenced genomes and metagenomes. Such

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

studies may lead to the discovery and development of new drugs for treatment of infectious diseases and cancers.

2010 Futures Grantees, awarded 2011 Seeing the Future with Imaging Science

JASON FLEISCHER, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.

THOMAS BIFANO, Boston University, Boston, Mass.

SHELLEY BATTS, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

Using Adaptive Optics to Improve Imaging of the Inner Ear - $75,000 Adaptive optics (AO) improves imaging by adjusting the wavefront of light to compensate for aberrations in the optical path. This project sought to apply AO to functional, in vivo microendoscopy of the inner ear. The proposal generalizes AO to fluid environments and holds potential for better understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of hearing loss.

RICHARD FRAZIN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

PETER LAWSON, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

Advanced Statistical Methods for Exoplanet Detection - $50,000

These researchers planned to organize a multidisciplinary workshop of experts in order to study the application of state-of-the-art statistical decision theory to the detection of faint exoplanets. They anticipate enabling the detection of exoplanets at least an order of magnitude fainter than is currently possible.

THOMAS GRABOWSKI and JAMES BRINKELY, University of Washington

BRIAN WANDELL and ROBERT DOUGHERTY, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

RANDALL FRANK, Self-employed

Scalable Neuroimaging Initiative: Tools for Sharing and Analyzing Neuroimaging Data - $50,000

Scientific imaging data are being acquired at an enormous rate, but data sharing is typically limited to descriptions (metadata) and results selected by the original investigators. This study proposed a distributed computing framework to enable quantitative access to the experimental conditions and image data and thus accelerate multi-institutional scientific progress.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

DANIEL KEEFE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

KIMANI TOUSSAINT, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Intelligent Interactive Imaging: Coupling Smart Spatial Visualization Interfaces with Real-Time Second-Harmonic Generation Microscopy - $75,000

This project couples research in optics (second-harmonic generation microscopy) and computer science (3-D user interfaces and data visualization) to explore a new paradigm of intelligent interactive imaging. The research tightly integrates image acquisition and image analysis via a novel real-time interactive visualization environment that combines human and machine intelligence.

JOHN MACKENZIE and RAGA RAMACHANDRAN, University of California, San Francisco

DANNY CHEN, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ill.

FRANK CHUANG, National Science Foundation Center for Biophotonics, University of California, Davis

Multiscale Biomedical Imaging for Autoimmune Disease - $50,000

A multidisciplinary team aimed to develop and combine new biomedical imaging methods in order to better detect, analyze, and track autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The team proposed to focus on producing advanced imaging tools that can probe molecules and peer inside both living cells and humans.

RAFAEL PIESTUN, University of Colorado Boulder

LILIANA BORCEA, Rice University, Houston, Texas

Adaptive Approach for Imaging Through a Highly Scattering Volume Using Spatio-Temporal Waveform Shaping and Statistical Algorithms - $75,000

Efficient optical imaging through highly scattering volumetric media is arguably the next frontier in imaging science, with wide implications in microscopy, security, biomedical analysis, neuroscience, and more. The goal of this project was to investigate adaptive imaging concepts, synergistically combining optical and mathematical methodologies to tackle this demanding imaging problem.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

AMINA QUTUB, MICHAEL DIEHL, and TOMASZ TKACZYK, Rice University, Houston, Texas

Building Multiscale Models of Capillary Regeneration from Image-Based RNA Transcriptome Analyses - $75,000

This project proposed to establish an integrated approach to understand how capillaries form in tissues. Molecular-cell pathways will be interrogated via advanced hyperspectral imaging methods and a new class of erasable molecular imaging probes. Together, these tools will facilitate multiscale modeling efforts aimed at elucidating mechanisms governing capillary formation.

MARK SCHNITZER, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Bethesda, Md.; Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

TERI ODOM, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.

A Technology Platform for High-Resolution Biomedical Imaging in Live Animals Using Genetically Targeted Nanoparticles - $100,000

Recently, genetics and nanotechnology have each provided powerful techniques for biomedical imaging in animal models of human disease. This research sought to combine the virtues of each approach by creating hybrid technology permitting selective imaging of particular cell types in live animals at unprecedented levels of imaging sensitivity.

DEMETRI TERZOPOULOS and MANUELA ALEX O. VASILESCU, University of California, Los Angeles

A Multilinear (Tensor) Algebraic Framework for Multifactor Manifold Learning with Applications to Image Science - $100,000

This project proposed to develop a multilinear algebraic framework for computer vision and image science. By exploiting the nonlinear algebra of higher-order tensors, this new framework will yield powerful new computational methods and algorithms for detection and recognition with applications from biometrics and visual surveillance to medical imaging.

KIMANI TOUSSAINT, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

THOMAS BIFANO, Boston University, Boston, Mass.

RICHARD PAXMAN, General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems, Fairfax, Va.

Optical Propagation Through Impenetrable Materials Using MEMS (OPTIMUM) - $50,000

These researchers aimed to explore techniques for light transmission through dynamically changing, thin materials that normally appear opaque

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

using fast, segmented deformable mirrors. The technique will advance important imaging science applications ranging from biological microscopy through dense tissue for medical research to covert surveillance through opaque screens for defense and security.

TOM VOGT and PETER BINEV, University of South Carolina

WOLFGANG DAHMEN, Institute für Geometrie und Praktische Mathematik

Smart Data Acquisition for Nanoscale Imaging - $100,000

Imaging using high-energy electrons will become increasingly important in the future. Electrons damage biological and organic matter, leading to distorted images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. This project sought to explore new paradigms in data acquisition, nonlinear signal and image processing, more sophisticated data “de-noising” and image analysis in combination with extensive simulation techniques.

ANDREW WANG, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

ANDREW TSOURKAS, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Development of Nanoparticle-Based Multiplex Multimodality Imaging Agents for the Specific and Sensitive Detection of Cancer - $100,000

This research proposed the development of a new class of imaging agents that enable multiplex and multimodality imaging. Using cutting-edge nanotechnology, these agents will allow for the early detection of malignancies on multiple imaging platforms (MRI and SPECT) and will provide detailed biological information, which can improve tumor staging and treatment.

LIHONG WANG, KONSTANTIN MASLOV, and XIAO XU, Washington University, St. Louis

Time-Reversed Ultrasonically Encoded (TRUE) Optical Focusing for Biomedical Imaging - $100,000

Optical imaging of biological tissue has limited depth because of strong light scattering. It can dynamically focus light into scattering tissue. This proposal aimed to support further development of Time-Reversed Ultrasonically Encoded (TRUE) optical focusing to help realize its potential profound impact and broad application on optical imaging, sensing, manipulation, and therapy.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

2011 Futures Grantees, awarded 2012 Ecosystem Services: Charting a Path to Sustainability

BRIAN ALLAN, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JOEL COHEN, The Rockefeller University, New York City, N.Y.

RICARDO GÜRTLER, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina

New Molecular, Ecological, and Mathematical Analyses of the Domestic and Sylvatic Transmission Cycles of Chagas Disease in the Perspective of Ecosystem Services and Disservices - $50,000

This project aimed to combine ecological, molecular, and mathematical approaches to improve understanding and control of the complex transmission cycles of Chagas disease, a neglected major source of human morbidity and mortality. These three approaches will be united through an ecosystem perspective on the habitats where Chagas disease occurs.

KATE BRAUMAN, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

TAYLOR RICKETTS, University of Vermont, Burlington

Healthy Ecosystems and Healthy People: Bridging Disciplines to Understand Health Impacts of Environmental Change - $100,000

Changes in the environment, from wildlands to local parks, can both directly and indirectly affect human health. Understanding the linkages between ecosystems and health allow landscape, air, and water management to reduce the burden of disease. These researchers proposed to create a novel framework to incorporate existing research into a new analysis of these relationships.

ROBERT COSTANZA, Portland State University, Portland, Ore.

IDA KUBISZEWSKI, Portland State University, Portland, Ore.

AUSTIN TROY, University of Vermont, Burlington

LISA WAINGER, University of Maryland, College Park

Interactive Games to Value Ecosystem Services - $75,000

These researchers propose a prototype system to combine elements of choice modeling, ecosystem modeling, and interactive multiplayer games to better understand and value ecosystem services. Research results will enable an estimation of ecosystem service values by observing the informed trade-offs that individuals and groups are willing to make in a simulated environment.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

GAUTAM DANTAS, Washington University School of Medicine

MIKE BEMEN, University of California, Merced

FRANCIS DE LOS REYES, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

CATHERINE FEBRIA, University of Maryland, College Park

MARGARET PALMER, University of Maryland, College Park

Microbial Ecosystem Services: Identifying Global Solutions from Genes to Communities - $50,000

Experts from across the medical sciences, engineering, and ecology planned to synthesize the state of the knowledge on microbial ecosystem services that includes a framework of transferrable hypotheses, priority research questions, and opportunities for interdisciplinary innovation. The outputs from this workshop will include synthesis publications and communication resources needed to move this emerging field forward.

KIMBERLY GRAY, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.

GAYATHRI GOPALAKRISHNAN, Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, D.C.

The Energy Highway: Marginal Land and the Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination on Energy Crop Production - $100,000

This research sought to evaluate the feasibility of using an overlooked land resource—roadway buffer strips—to produce energy crops sustainably while simultaneously providing ecosystem services such as habitat establishment, water resource protection, and greenhouse gas mitigation. A specific aim of this research is to evaluate the unintended consequence of metal uptake on plant growth.

CAROLYN KOUSKY, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C.

The Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Ecosystem Services into Federal Policy: A Case Study of Flood Mitigation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - $100,000

There are economic, institutional, and biophysical barriers to using ecosystem services for flood risk reduction. This project aimed to identify these barriers and strategies for overcoming them in Corps of Engineers projects to better operationalize the concept of ecosystem services for policy and improve integration of ecosystem-based approaches into federal decision making.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

CLAIRE KREMEN, University of California, Berkeley

ELENA BENNETT, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada

KIMBERLY CARLSON, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

HOLLY GIBBS, University of Wisconsin–Madison

NATHALIE WALKER, National Wildlife Federation, Merrifield, Va.

Assessing the Sustainability of Agricultural Commodity Chains: Contrasting Ecosystem Service Impacts of Small-Scale Agriculture and Large-Scale Agribusiness - $100,000

Creating sustainable food production systems requires mitigating environmental impacts of agriculture as food is produced, transformed, and distributed. By analyzing data on how smallholder agricultural production and large-scale agribusiness affect ecosystem services along commodity chains, this research intended to inform international policies to meet global food security needs without sacrificing the environment.

SHAHID NAEEM, Columbia University, New York City, N.Y.

JANE CARTER INGRAM, Wildlife Conservation Society, New York City, N.Y.

Establishing an Open Access Global Science Standards for Payment for Ecosystem Services Projects - $100,000

Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) projects are a promising new face of conservation and sustainable development, but they lack scientific coherency. This project sought to bring together NAKFI scientists and PES practitioners to develop global, science-based standards for PES programs that will aid in the design and success of programs worldwide.

LYDIA OLANDER, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

TODD BENDOR, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

WILLIAM MCDOWELL, University of New Hampshire, Durham

JAMES SALZMAN, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

LISA WAINGER, University of Maryland, College Park

Ecosystem Services as an Alternative Foundation for Development, Urban Planning, and Water Infrastructure in the U.S. - $100,000

Through a series of interconnected and multidisciplinary working groups, this project proposed to explore the new ideas, approaches, and applications involved in placing green infrastructure and ecosystem services at the foundation of urban and regional planning processes, and the potential for better environmental and social outcomes.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

JEAN RISTAINO, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

LINDA HANLEY-BOWDOIN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

LOUISE JACKSON, University of California, Davis

JAN LEACH, Colorado State University, Fort Collins

SALLY MILLER, The Ohio State University, Columbus

Ecosystem Services Modeling to Manage the Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases of Africa - $75,000

Emerging plant diseases plague African food crops. Introduction of pests and pathogens with trade between countries requires improved diagnostic capabilities and deployment of resistant varieties. These researchers aimed to develop a research network, hold a conference on “Ecosystem Services and Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases of Africa,” and educate African women in research.

DIEGO ROSE, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.

FABRICE DECLERK, Bioversity International, Rome, Italy

JESSICA FANZO, UN REACH, World Food Programme, Rome, Italy

BRIAN LUCKETT, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.

Econutrition Within REACH: Incorporating an Ecosystems Approach into the United Nations’ Partnership to End Child Hunger - $100,000

This project sought to develop a conceptual framework and produce a decision-making strategy integrating ecosystem services into the U.N. REACH’s program for ending child hunger and undernutrition. The strategy will address agrobiodiversity, dietary diversification, and other aspects of the multifaceted role that ecosystem services can play in improving nutrition.

OSVALDO SALA, Arizona State University, Tempe

ELENA BENNETT, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada

B. L. TURNER II, Arizona State University, Tempe

Woody-Plant Encroachment: Degradation or a Shift in the Portfolio of Ecosystem Services? - $75,000

Grasslands, shrublands, and savannas cover 50% of Earth’s land surface and are home to 30% of the human population. A large fraction of these ecosystems are shifting from grasses to woody-plant dominance. This project aimed to assess changes in the portfolio of ecosystem services (ES) that result from woody-plant encroachment.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

2011 Futures Grantees, awarded 2012 The Informed Brain in a Digital World

GIORGIO ASCOLI, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va.

MARYANN MARTONE, University of California, San Diego

RUCHI PAREKH and DIEK WHEELER, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va.

LAURA SYMONDS, Michigan State University, East Lansing

Crowdsourcing Extraction of Knowledge from Data: Pilot Designs in Neuroscience - $100,000

The ongoing/forthcoming deluge of digital scientific data poses the “interpretation challenge” of digesting raw data into information accessible to people and machines alike. These researchers envisioned leveraging the parallel opportunity to involve the entire human population in proactive sense-making with learning environments directly based on empirical data as opposed to textbooks.

JOHN-PAUL CLARKE, Georgia Institute of Technology

PATRICK WHEATLE, Northeast Regional Health Authority (Jamaica)

The Virtual Physician: An Application for Hand-Held Electronic Devices That Enables Time and Resource Optimal Diagnosis - $100,000

These researchers aimed to develop an application for optimally sequencing questions to patients and subsequent diagnostic tests, thereby minimizing the time and the resources that are required to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Their hope is that this will improve treatment in developing countries where there are limited diagnostic resources.

ADAM GAZZALEY, University of California, San Francisco

JOSE CARMENA, University of California, Berkeley

JYOTI MISHRA, University of California, San Francisco

Closing the Loop Between the Brain and the Digital World - $100,000

This project proposed to integrate recent advances in brain-computer interfaces (BCI) with neural findings from human multitasking in a digital environment to develop a novel BCI. It intended to explore how healthy and impaired humans can more effectively interact with the digital world using real-time neural signals to guide BCI control of interactive software.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

DAVID HACHEN, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ill.

JEFFREY LIEW, Texas A&M University, College Station

OMAR LIZARDO and AARON STRIEGEL, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ill.

Using Smart Devices to Capture the Emotionality of Offline Communication - $100,000

The increasing prevalence of online interactions may be inhibiting the development of strong, reciprocal, and emotionally significant offline social ties. These researchers proposed to develop an innovative system using smart devices that detects speech traits indicative of various emotional states and provides data on offline emotionality needed to understand changing social networks.

KENNETH LANGA, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

NICOLE ELLISON, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Expanding the Research Infrastructure to Study the Use and Outcomes of the Internet and Social Media in Middle-Age and Older Adults - $75,000

This project aimed to build on initial collaborations formed at the “Informed Brain” Keck Futures Conference to define and expand opportunities for future research on how middle-age and older adults are using the Internet and social media, as well as the positive and negative health outcomes of that use.

KALEV LEETARU, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ANTHONY OLCOTT, Artemus Associates, Houston, Texas

Your Brain on Dashboards: Data & Decisions - $50,000

The growth of “big data” has encouraged a companion growth in “dashboarding,” or presentations of data in ways that state conditions but imply actions. This project intended to lay the groundwork for ways to test whether dashboarding actually helps the decision-making process, especially in complex domains like government, security, and intelligence.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

TODD MCCALLUM, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

JEAN COPPOLA, Pace University, New York City, N.Y.

LEV GONICK and MARVIN SCHWARTZ, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

GEORGE KIKANO, University Hospitals, Cleveland, Ohio

Developing a Digital Assistant for the Third Age to Help Older Adults Age Healthfully - $75,000

The project sought to merge digital communication, behavioral health, social networking, and health monitoring technologies to create a prototype for a Digital Assistant for the Third Age to assist older adults in healthy aging and disease management.

ODED NOV, New York University-Polytechnic Institute, New York City, N.Y.

OFER ARAZY, Alberta University, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

NARAYAN MANDAYAM, Rutgers University, Camden, N.J.

From Informed Human Brains to Society-Scale Silicon Brains: Uncovering the DNA of Social Knowledge - $50,000

This project aimed to focus on the transformation from informed human brains to society-scale informed silicon-based “brains.” Inspired by efforts such as the Human Genome Project, these researchers sought to explore the basic patterns, or building blocks, of the process through which humans co-create silicon “brains”—large and accessible repositories of knowledge.

SHRIRAM RAMANATHAN, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

LAKSHMINARAYANAN MAHADEVAN, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

A.R.C.H.I.E.: Adaptive, Reconfigurable Cognition Through Hybrid Inorganic Electronics - $100,000

These researchers aimed to investigate decision making and cognition through proof-of-concept electronic circuits fabricated with correlated electron materials that display phase transitions. Vanadium dioxide undergoes metal-insulator transition at room temperature upon application of a voltage pulse. This sharp change in conductance may be exploited to fabricate neural circuits to study cognition.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

DAVID STRAYER, University of Utah, Salt Lake City

PAUL ATCHLEY and RUTH ANN ATCHLEY, University of Kansas, Lawrence

ADAM GAZZALEY, University of California, San Francisco

ARTHUR KRAMER, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Nature and Cognitive Restoration: How Does the Brain Behave in a Non-Digital World? - $50,000

This project was designed to develop a better understanding of the biological bases underlying cognitive restoration associated with immersion in natural settings by (1) supporting a workshop to explore new methods for measuring the influence of nature on neurocognitive systems and (2) supporting data collection testing these new methods.

JUN WANG, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y.

FELICE FRANKEL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Drawing-Based Social Learning for Massive Open Online Course Students - $100,000

Recent studies in multitasking suggest that heavy media multitaskers lack attention focus and in-depth learning. Growing evidence shows that drawing to learn can engage students in deep learning. These researchers aimed to develop and test a social learning tool for MOOC students to create and share online drawings of scientific concepts.

DEBRA WEINER, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Mass.; Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Mass.

KALEV LEETARU, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

WEI LU, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Lifelong Learning Locker, Life-Sciences Linker: Adaptive Learning, Content Management, Framework for Lifelong Learning and to Promote Innovation and Research Collaboration - $100,000

These researchers aimed to develop Lifelong Learning Locker, Life-Sciences Linker, an Internet-assisted, adaptive-information management, learning, and networking system for use throughout life. Human and algorithmically driven user profiles and adaptive interfaces will enable user-specific personalized content acquisition, organization, and sharing to optimize learning, maintain competency, and facilitate interdisciplinary research.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

2013 Futures Grantees, awarded 2014 The Future of Advanced Nuclear Technologies: Building a Healthier and Safer Planet

JULIA GREER, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

Developing Novel Materials Immune to Radiation Damage by Engineering Interfaces at Nanometer Level in High-Energy Materials - $100,000

The goal of this project was to design and create three-D architected nanolaminates with optimized materials and nanoscale thicknesses. It has been found that interfaces, i.e., boundaries between dissimilar materials or atomic structures, can serve as effective sinks for radiation-induced defects. These materials promise to provide an increase in radiation damage tolerance over an order of magnitude.

KATHRYN HIGLEY, Oregon State University, Corvallis

Enhancing Safety While Fostering Innovation: Can the Nuclear Industry Learn from Other Industries? - $75,000

New nuclear power designs are capital-intensive and require long lead times for design certification before deployment, which can render incorporation of rapidly advancing technologies problematic. This project sought to consider systematic approaches to enable incorporation of innovation into both present and future reactor designs.

JOHN HOLZRICHTER, Physical-Insights Associates

PER PETERSON and ELI YABLONOVICH, University of California, Berkeley

Optically Coupled Nuclear Reactor - $100,000

These researchers proposed to design an advanced high-temperature reactor concept utilizing opto-electric conversion and optical thermal regulation. Progress in materials for use near 1,500 C, efficient low-cost solar cells, and new uses for process heat at megawatt levels, together with modern engineering and risk management, enable us to design a conceptual system.

JACOB HOOKER, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge/Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston

JULIE STUCLIFFE, University of California, Davis

Pilot Program to Assess the Impact of Cross-Laboratory Training in Nuclear Medicine - $50,000

This project intended to develop a cross-laboratory training program in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

nuclear medicine. These researchers planned to define the logistics necessary to create an immersive training program to exchange methodological and conceptual expertise in nuclear medicine sub-specialties. They will then evaluate and report the efficacy of this method in expanding the nuclear specialist workforce.

PETER HOSEMANN, University of California, Berkeley

A Revolutionary Method to Study Radiation Damage in Novel Nano-structured Alloys - $75,000

In this work, researchers proposed to create novel 3-D-nanostructured materials via powder metallurgy and cold compacting techniques and evaluate the new alloys for their ability to accommodate radiation damage and implantation utilizing an unprecedented novel implantation and characterization tool.

JAE KWON, University of Missouri, Columbia

JOHN GAHL, University of Missouri Research Center

Nuclear Battery Based on Transmutation with Direct-Writing Cyclotron - $100,000

Advanced technologies for an integrated nuclear battery on a chip were studied with CMOS-compatible processes. The dimension and capacity of betavoltaics can be made programmable by employing particle beam bombardment, which will induce nuclear transmutations to produce radionuclides within selective areas. Beam optics will enable the controlled activation in microscale.

BRAD MARSTON, Brown University, Providence, R.I.

Understanding High-Level Nuclear Waste with Strong Electronic Correlations - $75,000

Safe storage and disposal of spent fuel rods from nuclear power plants calls for the ability to model actinide complexes and compounds in the environment. This project planned to develop an accurate new method to meet this challenge, enabling a predictive understanding of the behavior of high-level nuclear waste.

SHRIRAM RAMANATHAN, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

JIANZHON WU, University of California, Riverside

Design and Fabrication of a Supersensitive Nuclear “E-Nose” - $100,000

These researchers proposed a combined theory-experiment effort to realize

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

an ultra-sensitive nuclear e-nose that would detect radiation signatures from nuclear materials. The class of correlated oxide semiconductors interfaced with ionic liquids will be investigated for the first time that can function in radiation environments and sense radiation that can be read remotely.

ALEXANDER SLOCUM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Extraction of Uranium from Seawater: Design and Testing of a Symbiotic System - $100,000

This project sought to reduce the cost and environmental impact of nuclear power while improving the stability of the fuel supply. The proposed work will investigate a process in which a uranium extraction plant is paired with an offshore wind power tower to economically and sustainably harvest uranium from seawater.

KUMAR SRIDHARAN, University of Wisconsin–Madison

JEREMY BUSBY, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn.

Cold Spray Fabrication of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steel Fuel Claddings - $75,000

This project sought to investigate fabrication of fuel claddings of radiation-resistant oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel using a cold spray materials deposition process. Uniformity of the oxide nanoparticle dispersions and other radiation-tolerant nanostructures evolving from high strain rate deposition and subsequent thermal treatments will be evaluated using high resolution imaging techniques.

NEAL STEWART and SCOTT LENAGHAN, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

“Fukusensor”: A Transgenic Plant for Reporting DNA Damage from Radiation - $50,000

A series of designer DNA-damage reporting plants, “Fukusensors,” have been developed. These plants will be characterized and then tested for sensitivity to a range of gamma radiation. A smart-phone based characterization system will be developed that would be a key component of a subsequently-developed unmanned sensor system.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
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YUAN-CHUAN TAI, Washington University, St. Louis

CHRISTOPHER TOPP, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Creve Coeur, Mo.

Improving Crop Yield and Sustainability Through Advanced Nuclear Imaging Technology - $75,000

This project proposed to apply advanced nuclear imaging technology to develop new research tools that will enable plant scientists to study the development of roots and resource allocation by plants in order to accelerate the breeding of next generation food crops that will adapt to the environment under global climate change.

WOLFGANG WEBER, Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, New York City, N.Y.

MARKUS SCHWAIGER, Technische Universität Müchen

Definition of a New Paradigm for the Validation and Dissemination of Radiopharmaceuticals: Unmet Clinical Needs and Opportunities for Nuclear Theranostics in Patients with Prostate Cancer - $50,000

Novel radiopharmaceuticals hold enormous promise for imaging and therapy of cancer, but enter very slowly into clinical practice. This workshop aimed to define a new paradigm for the validation and clinical dissemination of radiopharmaceuticals in prostate cancer, one of the most prevalent malignant diseases in industrialized countries.

2014 Futures Grantees, awarded 2015 Collective Behavior: From Cells to Societies

ANAMARIA BEREA, University of Maryland, College Park

Emergence of Communication in Socio-Biological Networks from Individual Subjective Signals and Responses - $75,000

This project aimed to model the emergence and evolution of communication in socio-biological groups. The model will be developed as a dynamic computer simulation to visually demonstrate the co-evolution of networks and languages. This computer simulation has the potential to be used by researchers in various fields to explore scenarios of subjective signals and responses.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

GUY BLOCH, Washington University

ERIK HERZOG and JR-SHIN LI, Washington University

Collective Behavior of Oscillators: From Cells to Societies - $100,000

Daily rhythms in individuals and societies depend on mechanisms that synchronize circadian oscillators to each other and to the local environment. Using experiments on mammalian cells in vitro, bees in the field, and computational modeling, these researchers planned to test whether similar mechanisms underlie circadian synchronization from cells to societies.

SARAH BROSNAN, Georgia State University, Atlanta

TYRONE GRANDISON, Proficiency Labs, Seattle, Wash.

KATHARINE JACK, Tulane University, New Orleans, La.

SEKOU REMY, Clemson University, Clemson, S.C.

MARK HAUBER, Hunter College, New York City, N.Y.; Graduate Center, City University of New York

Limits to Collective Behavior: Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of the Lower and Upper Limits of Group Size to Effect Cooperative Behaviors - $100,000

How does the number of individuals present affect whether collective behavior emerges and is maintained? This team sought to test how group size influences collective behavior, using simulations that will be the foundation of empirical tests to determine both the minimum group size required and the maximum beyond which collective behavior collapses.

TIM GERNAT, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

NINA FEFFERMAN, Rutgers University, Camden, N.J.

NOA PINTER-WOLLMAN, University of California, San Diego

MARTIN MIDDENDORF, University of Leipzig, Germany

GENE E. ROBINSON, Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Trade-offs Between Collective Function and Disease Spread in an Animal Society - $100,000

Collective behavior depends on interactions that coordinate individuals, yet these interactions also spread disease. This project proposed to incorporate state-of-the-art monitoring technology to examine how honey bees adjust colony interaction patterns in response to disease. Lessons learned may help to manage disease transmission in bees, humans, and other animals.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

MICHAEL GOODISMAN and DANIEL GOLDMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

The Role of Confined Environments on Social Life - $75,000

Collective behaviors rely on the interactions of individuals with both their biological and physical environment. This research team planned to study ant and robot societies to understand the importance of restricted space on collective actions. The proposed studies will lead to a greater understanding of the factors affecting sociality.

MARK HAUBER, Hunter College, New York City, N.Y.; City University of New York

FLORA MORA-KEPFER UY, University of Miami, Miami, Fla.

Tinkering or De Novo Evolution: The Neural Basis of Collective Defense Behaviors - $50,000

Do different types of collective behaviors share similar sensory cues and cognitive bases within and across distantly related organisms? This project proposed to assess the neural mechanisms of whether and how collective nest defense (mobbing of parasites) differs from cooperative responses to flock- and nest-mates of social insects and colonial birds.

DAVID HUGHES, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

TYLER MASSARO and KELLY ROOKER, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

CORRIE MOREAU, Field Museum, Chicago, Ill.

The Evolution of Microbes in a Social World - $25,000

One of the major transitions of life on Earth was the transition to species that obligately live as social groups (e.g., ants) This project proposed using both mathematical biology and life history studies to examine how this major transition affects the microbes living inside the ants themselves.

LILIANNE MUJICA-PARODI, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, N.Y.

CARLA KOEHLER, University of California, Los Angeles

SERGEI MASLOV, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, N.Y.

HAVA SIEGELMANN, University of Massachusetts Amherst

ALLEN TAYLOR, Tufts University, Medford, Mass.

Multiscale Modeling: Metabolic Constraints on Self-Organizing Brain Networks - $100,000

Neurological/psychiatric diseases are associated with connectivity abnor-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

malities, yet the mechanistic basis for connectivity, and the factors that constrain its development, are unknown. This team planned to model connectivity as a function of synapses, glia, and mitochondria to infer dynamic network self-organization under metabolic constraints, and their emergent properties at the neuroimaging scale.

ODED NOV and MAURIZIO PORFIRI, New York University

GUY BLOCH, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Toward an Integrative Science of Collective Behavior: A Cross-Species Model for the Interplay Between Individual Variation and Behavioral Plasticity and Its Influence on Group Performance - $100,000

Using humans and bees as model systems, combined with modeling tools from dynamical systems theory, these researchers sought to understand and model how individual variation and behavioral plasticity interact to shape group performance. The insights will contribute to the foundation of an integrative science of collective behavior transcending species boundaries.

NOA PINTER-WOLLMAN, University of California, San Diego

GUY THERAULAZ, Research Center on Animal Cognition, Toulouse, France

STEPHEN M. FIORE, University of Central Florida, Orlando

How Do Architectural Designs Affect Collective Behavior? - $100,000

Built environments influence how inhabitants interact and the collective outcomes that emerge from these interactions, yet we know little about them. This team will attempt to unite disparate disciplines and establish a new interdisciplinary research topic to better understand the link between architecture and collective behavior—from humans to insects.

WILLIAM RATCLIFF, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

GABOR BALAZSI, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, N.Y.

JEREMY VAN CLEVE, University of Kentucky, Lexington

DANIEL WELLS, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill.

Origin of Multicellular Development via the Capture of a Stochastic Process - $25,000

The evolution of multicellular development was critical for the origin of large, complex organisms, but early steps in the origin of this key trait remain unresolved. This interdisciplinary group plans to use cutting-edge techniques in experimental evolution, yeast genetics, and mathematical modeling to examine a novel hypothesis for its origin.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

BLANKA SHARMA and GLYN PALMER, University of Florida, Gainesville

MATTEO CAVALIERE, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland

Evolutionary Game Theory Models of Stem Cell Interactions in Tissue Engineering Systems: Achieving Control of Conflict - $100,000

The success of stem cell based therapies requires control of heterogeneous stem cell differentiation. This project proposed an interdisciplinary approach based on evolutionary game theory, experiments, and in silico models to understand how interactions/conflicts between stem cells that respond positively and negatively to exogenous cues impact the overall tissue repair process.

JEREMY VAN CLEVE, University of Kentucky, Lexington

EROL AKCAY and TIMOTHY LINKSVAYER, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Social Evolutionary Systems Biology: Studying Collective Behavior by Integrating Social Evolution Theory with Sociogenomics - $50,000

Studying animal collective behavior is important to understanding human societies. While evolutionary theory provides insights, it neglects the molecular mechanisms that regulate behavior. This project sought to leverage the explosion in genetic data from social species to generate and test new evolutionary theory that incorporates molecular mechanisms that shape collective behavior.

2015 Futures Grantees, awarded 2016 Art, Design and Science, Engineering and Medicine Frontier Collaborations: Ideation, Translation, Realization

BRANDON BALLENGÉE and PROSANTA CHAKRABARTY, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

SEAN MILLER, John Erickson Museum of Art; SOIL art collective and artist-run space; University of Florida, Gainesville

RACHEL MAYERI, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, Calif.

LISE M. FRANDSEN, Autogena, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom

JÖELLE BITTON, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

Crude Life: A Citizen Art and Science Investigation of Gulf Of Mexico Biodiversity After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill - $100,000

This interdisciplinary art and science project plans to gather data on endem-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

ic fishes affected by the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. The project will raise public awareness of local species, ecosystems, and regional environmental challenges through community “citizen science” surveys and a portable art-science museum of Gulf biodiversity.

BETH CARDIER, Sirius-Beta Inc.

NICCOLO CASAS, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence; The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College of London, London, United Kingdom

HAROLD GORANSON, Sirius-Beta Inc.

PATRIC LUNDBERG, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Va.

ALESSIO ERIOLI, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy

RICHARD CIAVARRA and LARRY SANFORD, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Va.

Design in Information Flow: Using Aesthetic Principles to Overcome Computational Barriers in the Analysis of Complex Systems - $50,000

Computer systems struggle with context, producing data silos instead of holistic understanding. This project sought to demonstrate how principles of emergent design can overcome barriers in computational logic by visualizing how information is optimized as it flows among biomedical reference frameworks. This new modeling approach will synthesize informatics, biomedicine, and art.

MARK COHEN, University of California, Los Angeles

PHILIP BEESLEY, Philip Beesley Architect Inc.

Sentient Architectural Systems: Transforming Architecture by Coupling Human Neurology to Interactive Responsive Building Environments - $100,000

This project proposed to explore possibilities for a built, inhabited environment to be sentient by examining the mutual influence between these interactive spaces and people’s well-being and consciousness. The team will study how a building’s communication and control systems can be developed in ways that actively respond and resonate with human consciousness.

JAMES CRUTCHFIELD, Art and Science Laboratory

ASA CALOW, Manchester Digital Laboratory (MadLab)

The Institute of Unknown Purpose - $100,000

This project aimed to create an unconventional bricks-and-mortar institution that embraces playful experimentation, a sense of mystery, and an

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
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exploration of the relationship between science fiction and cutting-edge science fact. The Institute of Unknown Purpose will engage audiences in new ways to make tangible the wonders of modern science.

GENEVIEVE DION, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa.

RANDALL KAMIEN and SHU YANG, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Diagnostic Design: Knitted Passive Probes - $100,000

Garment devices are complex wearable systems blending modes of communication and medical diagnostics. This team includes designers, materials scientists and engineers, and physicists who plan to create a garment device consisting of nanofibers that can conform to the skin and passively collect and examine sweat to reveal the wearer’s health.

PETR JANATA, University of California, Davis

JONATHAN BERGER, Stanford University, Stanford, Mass.

KIU LEE, Case Western Reserve University, Washington, D.C.

SCOTT AUERBACH, University of Massachusetts Amherst

ANDRÉ THOMAS, Texas A&M University, College Station

Fostering Empathy and Improving Focus Through the Groove Enhancement Machine: Facilitating Sensorimotor Coordination and Cooperation Among Groups of Individuals - $100,000

Rhythmic ensemble performance (clapping or drumming) is a popular form of musical interaction that can improve individual and group behavior. This team intended to build an assistive device to facilitate access to group music-making by reducing the initial frustration of finding a “common ground” in following a pulse.

BRIAN KORGEL, The University of Texas at Austin

RIEKO YAJIMA, Center for Design Research, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

YOUNGMOO KIM, Expressive & Creative Interaction Technologies (ExCITe) Center of Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa.

JEFFREY BLUM, Shared Reality Lab, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada

RACHEL FIELD, Vapor Communications Inc.

Empathy Mirror - $100,000

Can technology be used to foster understanding for another’s point of view? This team proposed to create the Empathy Mirror to immerse users into the

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

mind and body of another, using a combination of touch, smell, sight, and sound. The experience will be designed to counteract the “echo chamber” effect linked to most digital technologies and increase empathy.

KENTARO TOYAMA, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

SOPHIA BRUECKNER, Stamps School of Art and Design, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Global Heartbeat: Toward a Planet-Wide Shared Experience - $100,000

Digital networks connect people physically but alienate people emotionally. Even as individuals plug into a single communication platform, they fracture into virtual communities. Global Heartbeat aimed to be an intermittent mobile phone signal that plants a small seed of global unity through a synchronous common experience.

CLEA WAITE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

LISE M. FRANDSEN AUTOGENA, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom

Ice-Time/Nuclear-Time: Micro-Global Perspectives of the Arctic - $75,000

Ice-Time/Nuclear-Time examines altering perceptions of geologic deep time, using Greenland as a unique window into issues of climate change. The project proposed to explore ecological, scientific, and socio-cultural interconnections between the rapidly melting ice sheet and the long-term implications of uranium mining in Greenland.

TIMOTHY WEAVER, University of Denver, Denver, Colo.

JONATHAN BERGER, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

ECAT: EcoAcoustic Toolkit for Research and the Advancement of Scientific and Creative Literacy in Ecology - $75,000

Ecoacoustics—an interdisciplinary science that investigates natural and man-made sounds and their relationship with the environment—has deepened our understanding of ecological issues and established profound visceral connections to ecological data. The EcoAcousticToolkit (ECAT) proposed to expand the scope of this research. New software and hardware tools integrating sonification and auralization of endangered environments will be developed to enhance awareness and preservation of acoustic ecologies.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

PAUL WEISS, University of California, Los Angeles

RUTH WEST, University of North Texas, Denton

ANDREA POLLI, University of New Mexico, Albequerque

BETH CARDIER, Sirius-Beta Inc.

NICCOLO CASSAS, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence; The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College of London, London, United Kingdom

ALLISON KUDLA, Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Wa.

Towards the “InnerNet”: An Integrated Sensor Analysis of Biome/Microbiome Systems, Employing Novel Interactivity Through Acoustics and Design for Personalized Health Monitoring - $100,000

The InnerNet project considered the whole biophysical system of the body with the goal of understanding how bodily systems “talk” to one another by tapping into communications between the body and the microbiome. This team proposed to explore the development of wearable external and internal sensor arrays for this purpose.

2016 Futures Grantees, awarded 2017 Discovering the Deep Blue Sea: Research, Innovation, Social Engagement

BRANDON BALLENGÉE, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge/Ballengée Studio LLC

* Fiscal agent for grant, Ballengée Studio LLC

BENJAMIN DUBANSKY, University of North Texas, Denton

DIEGO FIGUEROA, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

CHRISTOPHER HAYES, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg

DAVID MURPHY, University of South Florida, Tampa

ADAM SKARKE, Mississippi State University, Starkville

Creating Resilience: Building a Gulf of Mexico NAKFI Alumni Working Group - $25,000

Composed of alumni from an interdisciplinary art, science, and outreach meeting of NAKFI, this group’s goal was to become a resilient regional network of specialists from diverse backgrounds collaborating creatively to address complex socio-ecological issues facing Gulf communities and ecosystems.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

MARK BALLORA, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

HEATHER SPENCE, Michelle’s Earth Foundation

Layers of Meaning: How the Ocean’s Natural Acoustics and the Music of Its Datasets Can Reveal Hidden Connections - $50,000

This audio product seeks to present multiple layers of the ocean’s dynamics through sound constructed through underwater acoustic recordings, electroacoustic sound graphs, and music composed from non-acoustic datasets. Science education personnel will also be employed to provide educational opportunities and assessment.

KELSEY BISSON, ALYSON SANTORO, and DAVID SIEGEL, University of California, Santa Barbara

Project ROAM: Rendering Oceanography in Artistic Mediums - $50,000

This collaborative, student-led effort was targeted at bringing oceanography to the public eye through the mediums of art, music, photography, writing, and film. Artists and scientists will work in tandem at sea to produce materials for a cruise magazine and an art-science installation in Santa Barbara, California.

TIMOTHY BRODERICK, Wright State Research Institute, Beavercreek, Ohio

* Fiscal agent for grant, Djerassi Resident Artists Program

DANIEL KOHN, Kohnworkshop

ALYSON SANTORO, University of California, Santa Barbara

MARGOT KNIGHT, Djerassi Resident Artists Program

JODY DEMING, University of Washington

The Deep Sea Memory Project - $100,000

This project proposed to explore the largely unknown world of the deep sea in the context of memory. Transdisciplinary workshops will spur innovative science and art projects that help us understand and communicate how changes in our global environment are recorded by the deep ocean and its inhabitants.

MARGARET BYRON, University of California, Irvine

* Fiscal agent for grant, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

DAVID MURPHY, University of South Florida, Tampa

Swimming Across Scales: Metachronal Rowing in the Deep Blue Sea - $50,000

Many marine organisms propel themselves by sequentially stroking multiple appendages, a visually striking technique known as metachronal row-

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

ing. These animals are of dramatically different sizes and swim at different speeds. This project sought to investigate how and why metachronal rowing is successful by examining two model species, ctenophores and mantis shrimp.

C. ANELA CHOY, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, Calif.

Suspended and Sinking: First Steps Toward Unraveling the Mysteries of Plastic Debris Fingerprints in the Deep Blue Sea - $50,000

Plastic debris is now widespread within nearly all marine ecosystems. Inherently, plastic doesn’t degrade but breaks into smaller pieces, concentrating toxins when they are ingested by marine organisms. This effort aimed to develop tools to characterize plastic distributions in the deep blue sea and their effects on marine organisms.

DIEGO FIGUEROA, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

ELIZABETH NYMAN, Maritime Studies, Texas A&M University, Galveston

MARK DION, Conceptual Artist Studio

NUNO NUNES, Tecnico U., Lisbon, Portugal

JANET HWANG, ArtCenter College of Design

Promoting Public Stewardship of the Deep Blue Sea Through Real-Time Interaction with a Mesophotic Reef - $100,000

This project consisted of interactive lessons and a travelling exhibit to be used across K–12 classrooms, community centers, and museums. The team posed to collect real-time data from a mesophotic reef through an Internet connection that allowed for control of a high-definition pan/tilt camera and several environmental sensors.

DAVID GRUBER, Baruch College, City University of New York

LIZ TAYLOR, DOER Marine

ROBERT WOOD, Harvard Global Research & Support Services, Inc.

Handle with Care: Soft Robots for Delicate Midwater Investigations of Soft-Bodied Gelatinous Zooplankton - $100,000

This project proposed a new paradigm in delicate midwater sampling for collection and characterization of gelatinous zooplankton organisms based on novel soft robotic devices. It will enable unprecedented collection—either via Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), submersibles, or by SCUBA divers—throughout the water column.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
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CHRISTOPHER HAYES, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg LISA-ANN GERSHWIN, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Oceans and Atmosphere (Australia)

MICHAEL SIERACKI, National Science Foundation, Alexandria, Va.

REBECCA GREEN, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

ALLIE KOLLIAS, ArtCenter College of Design, Pasadena, Calif.

Dive in: An Immersive and Wonder-Filled Virtual Reality Experience of Life in the Ocean’s Mesopelagic Zone - $100,000

This project plans to develop a prototype cell-phone-based virtual reality experience that focuses on life in the dark, mysterious depths of the ocean. It will feature ocean footage, animation, and a charismatic expert guide to convey the captivating life histories of deep ocean organisms and the conditions in which they live.

DANIEL KOHN, Ligo Project/Kohnworkshop

* Fiscal agent for grant, Djerassi Resident Artists Program

JULIE HUBER, Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole and Woods

Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.

HEATHER SPENCE, Michelle’s Earth Foundation, Arlington, Va.

EMILY ZIFF GRIFFIN, The Mixed Use Company Inc.

TIMOTHY BRODERICK, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio

The Ocean Memory Art Project: A Live, Immersive Work of Art Explores Deep Ocean Research and the Idea of Ocean Memory - $50,000

In this project, a playwright, a writer, and sound and visual artists intended to join scientific partners to gather experiential material and scientific data during laboratory visits, research cruises, and a creative residency. Their work will culminate in a live immersive artwork at the intersection of ocean, memory, and human experience.

ELIZABETH KUJAWINSKI, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.

CHRIS SCHOLIN, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, Calif.

Exploring Microbial Metabolism in the Ocean Through Autonomous Collection of Dissolved Metabolites: A Proof-of-Concept Study - $100,000

Dissolved metabolites are important in structuring marine ecosystems. Currently, collection of samples for metabolite analyses requires collecting

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

samples by hand from ships. This project sought to automate that process by adapting laboratory-based methods for use with the third generation Environmental Sample Processor, an instrument capable of operating on an autonomous underwater vehicle.

AMY MAAS, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

DAVID MURPHY, University of South Florida, Tampa

SAMANTHA NEWTON, Oregon State University, Corvallis

Swimming in Sea-Butterflies: Physics, Physiology, Ecology, Art, and Design Inspiration for an Aquatic Micro-Aerial Vehicle - $75,000

Sea-butterflies, a type of open ocean snail, swim with a flapping motion that is reminiscent of terrestrial insects. This study proposed to examine the physics and ecology of this motion to inspire midwater ocean conservation and to design a micro-aerial/aquatic vehicle.

CHRISTOPHER MARTENS, HOWARD MENDLOVITZ, and HARVEY SEIM, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Fuel Cell Energy for Sustained Hydrocarbon Time-Series Measurements in the Deep Blue Sea - $100,000

Understanding the impacts of oil and gas releases in the deep sea requires sustained time-series measurements using fast-response sensors and advanced power systems. New fuel cell technology will be coupled with underwater membrane inlet mass spectrometers (MIMS) to investigate subsurface methane plumes from oil and gas seeps along continental margins.

ANNA MICHEL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.

BRANDON BALLENGÉE, Museum of Natural Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

A Sea of Plastic: Detecting and Picturing Microplastic Debris Found in Marine Environments - $100,000

This effort will proposed to advance understanding of microplastics—or pieces less than five millimeters—in the ocean by developing new optical technologies for their identification. A series of engaging artworks will be created from collected microplastics.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

MELISSA OMAND, University of Rhode Island, Providence

KEN O. BUESSELER and ANNA P. M. MICHEL, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.

TEMPEST VAN SCHAIK, Science Practice Ltd., London, United Kingdom

SnowClops: Putting Eyes in the Twilight Zone - $100,000

Gravitational sinking of marine snow nourishes deep-sea organisms and sequesters significant atmospheric carbon dioxide annually, but little is understood about the rate at which these particles descend. This project proposes to develop small, low-cost platforms to image marine snow in water and quantify its fate.

LARRY PRATT, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.

IMPeL: The Immersive Mesopelagic Performance Lab - $25,000

Artists and scientists plan to research and develop a “performance lab” designed to allow humans to inhabit the perspective of deep sea organisms and embody different processes and patterns key to the daily life and health of the ocean’s Mesopelagic zone.

LARRY PRATT, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass.

* Fiscal agent for grant, ArtCenter College of Design, Pasadena, Calif.

MAGGIE HENDRIE, ArtCenter College of Design, Pasadena, Calif.

Seeing the Unseen: Visualizing Flow Patterns of Mesopelagic Ocean Eddies - $75,000

Complex patterns of underwater movement known as eddies are vital to the ocean’s health and ultimately affect the Earth’s climate. Using emerging data visualization techniques, oceanographers proposed to partner with designers in bringing these elusive structures to light so they can be better understood by scientists and the public.

ALYSON SANTORO, University of California, Santa Barbara

EMILY FROST and NANCY KNOWLTON, Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C.

Small Wonder: Inside the World of Marine Microbes on the Smithsonian’s Ocean Portal - $75,000

An interdisciplinary team proposed to develop interactive content and activities on marine microbes for the Smithsonian’s Ocean Portal website.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

Microbes are vital to every ocean process; this project seeks to put microbes in the spotlight and test new ways of engaging with the public.

MADHVI VENKATESH, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Mass.

* Fiscal agent for grant, Prakriti Dance, Bethesda, Md.

KASI AYSOLA, Prakriti Dance, Bethesda, Md.

LISA-ANN GERSHWIN, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra, Australia

ANJNA SWAMINATHAN

RAMYA KAPADIA, Natyarpana School of Music and Dance, Durham, N.C.

Through Fish Eyes - $100,000

This thematic dance production aims to portray the struggles of deep ocean ecosystems to cope with anthropogenic impacts. The project will involve audiences in discussions and presentations to raise awareness about the effects of human activities on the Mesopelagic zone and how these impacts can be mitigated.

TIMOTHY WEAVER, University of Denver, Denver, Colo.

JENNIFER BIDDLE, University of Delaware, Wilmington

JODY DEMING, University of Washington

JONATHAN BERGER, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif.

A Data Transcoding Toolkit and Spatiotemporal Listening Environment for the Creative and Scientific Exploration of Emerging Sonification Interactions with Deep Ocean Microbial Ecology (soniDOME) - $100,000

The soniDome Project sought to collaboratively develop data transformation software tools and methods to expand the creative and scientific understanding of deep ocean microbial ecologies. The goal is to create novel listening environments for presentation of data or expressive and informative purposes.

KAREN WISHNER and CHRISTOPHER ROMAN, University of Rhode Island, Providence

MARK BALLORA, Pennsylvania State University, University Park

Sonifications of Oxygen and Temperature Data in the Ocean: Creating a “Data Stethoscope” to Detect the Ocean’s Vital Signs - $50,000

This team aimed to create a “data stethoscope” to translate measurements of temperature, oxygen, and biomass collected from the ocean’s depths

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
×

into sound. The sonifications may reveal interactions between biological and physical properties of the ocean’s oxygen-minimum zones that are not evident through visual graphs alone.

PATRICIA YAGER and JULIE SPIVEY, University of Georgia, Atlanta

CURTIS DEUTSCH and HARTMUT FRENZEL, School of Oceanography, University of Washington

Mapping Deep Blue Habitat in a Changing Climate - $100,000

This project proposed to create an interactive data visualization platform that maps projected changes in deep ocean habitat. This platform will be useful to scientists, educators, conservationists, ocean resource managers, and policymakers, and will also be modified for use in aquariums, science museum exhibits, and online.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix III: Summaries of Futures Grant Projects by Year." National Research Council. 2018. Collaborations of Consequence: NAKFI’s 15 Years Igniting Innovation at the Intersections of Disciplines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25239.
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Next: Appendix IV: Communication Awards Selection Committees and Winners by Year »
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This publication represents the culmination of the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative (NAKFI), a program of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine supported by a 15-year, $40 million grant from the W. M. Keck Foundation to advance the future of science through interdisciplinary research. From 2003 to 2017, more than 2,000 researchers and other professionals across disciplines and sectors attended an annual “think-tank” style conference to contemplate real-world challenges. Seed grants awarded to conference participants enabled further pursuit of bold, new research and ideas generated at the conference.

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