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D Acronyms 1D one dimensional 2D two dimensional 3D three dimensional 4D four dimensional ABINIT a computational software package AFRL Air Force Research Laboratory AHE anomalous Hall effect ALD atomic layer deposition AM additive manufacturing AMTIR a âglass-likeâ amorphous material that is able to transmit in the ANL Argonne National Laboratory appm atomics parts per million APS-U Advanced Photon Source Upgrade APT atom probe tomography ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPES angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy BCS Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory (named after John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer) BES Basic Energy Sciences (in DOE Office of Science) BESAC Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke 267
268 F r o n t i e r s o f M at e r i a l s R e s e a r c h BSRF Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility CAD computer-aided design CALPHAD Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry CARR China Advanced Research Reactor CAS Chinese Academy of Science CASTEP Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package (a DFT software package) CEA French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research CFM CFM International CFRP carbon-fiber reinforced polymer CFRP controlled free-radical polymerization cGLP Current Good Laboratory Practice cGMP Current Good Manufacturing Practice CIF Crystallographic Information File CIGS copper-indium-gallium-selenide CLP controlled, living polymerization CMC ceramic-matrix composite CMI Critical Materials Institute CMOS complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique CNY China Renminbi cQED circuit quantum electrodynamics CRL Collaborative Research Laboratory CSNS China Spallation Neutron Source CSTI Council for Science, Technology, and Innovation CVD chemical vapor deposition DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DESY Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DFT density functional theory DMC Diffusion Monte Carlo DMFT dynamical mean field theory DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DoD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DOI Department of Interior DREAM software package for 3D data DSA directed self-assembly DSM Dirac semimetal DURIP Defense University Research Instrumentation Program
Appendix D 269 EBC environmental barrier coating EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESF European Science Foundation ESS European Spallation Source EuMaT European Platform for Advanced Engineering Materials and Technologies EUV extreme ultraviolet EUVL extreme ultraviolet lithography FA formamidinium, a common component in some perovskites FAIR findable, accessible, interoperable, and reproducible FCC face-centered cubic crystal structure FET field-effect transistor FIB focused ion beam FS Fermi surface GBRI government-backed research institute GDP gross domestic product GHG greenhouse gas GRI Global Reporting Initiative HEA high-entropy alloy HFIR High Flux Isotope Reactor HPC high-performance computing/computer HTS high-temperature superconductivity/superconductor HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning IARPA Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity IBM International Business Machines Corporation IBS Institute for Basic Science ICME Integrated Computational Materials Engineering ICME International Council on Metals and the Environment ICMSE International Conference on Manufacturing Systems Engineering ICT information and communications technology IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IMPACT Impulsing Paradigm Change Through Disruptive Technologies Program IoT Internet of Things IP intellectual property IPO initial public offering
270 F r o n t i e r s o f M at e r i a l s R e s e a r c h ISI Institute of Scientific Information ISO International Organization for Standardization ISS International Space Station JUMP Joint University Microelectronics Program KBSI Korean Basic Science Institute KIMS Korean Institute of Materials Science KIST Korean Institute of Science and Technology LBL layer by layer LBNL Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LCA life cycle analysis LCD liquid crystal display LCLS Linac Coherent Light Source LEAP leading-edge aviation propulsion LED light-emitting diode LEGO line of plastic construction toys manufactured by The Lego Group (the name LEGO is an abbreviation of the two Danish words leg godt, meaning âplay wellâ) LLZO lithium lanthanum zirconium oxide MA methylammonium (a common component in some perovskites) MatSEEC Materials Science and Engineering Expert Committee MAX IV next-generation synchrotron radiation facility in Lund, Sweden MBE molecular beam epitaxy MDI Materials Data Infrastructure MEA medium entropy alloys MEMS microelectromechanical system METI Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry MEXT Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology MGI Materials Genome Initiative MOF metal organic framework MPEA multiprincipal element alloy MR materials research MRAM magnetic random-access memory MRI Major Research Instrumentation NAND negative-AND gate NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Appendix D 271 NCFET negative capacitance field-effect transistor NIH National Institutes of Health NIPA N-isopropylacrylamide NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NMOS n-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor NNI National Nanotechnology Initiative NNSA National Nuclear Security Administration NOR Boolean operator that gives the value one if and only if all oper- ands have a value of zero and otherwise has a value of zero NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory NRI Nanoelectronics Research Initiative NSF National Science Foundation NSRC Nanoscale Science Research Centers NSRL National Software Reference Library NV nitrogen vacancy OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development OIL open innovation laboratory OLED organic light-emitting diode ONR Office of Naval Research PCA principle component analysis PCRAM phase-change random-access memory PDMS polydimethylsiloxane PI principal investigator PMOS p-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor PV photovoltaic QIS quantum information science QMC Quantum Monte Carlo R&D research and development RAM random-access memory RC resistive-capacitive RF radio frequency RNA ribonucleic acid SEM scanning electron microscopy SESAME Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East SIP Strategic Innovation Promotion Program
272 F r o n t i e r s o f M at e r i a l s R e s e a r c h SLAC Stanford Linear Accelerator Center SME small and medium-size enterprise SNS Spallation Neutron Source SOC spin-orbit coupling SPM scanning probe microscopy SRC Semiconductor Research Corporation SSRF Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility STEM scanning transmission electron microscope STI science, technology, and innovation STM scanning tunneling microscope STT spin-transfer torque TBC thermal barrier coating TDDFT time-dependent density functional theory TEKES business, Finland TEM transmission electron microscope/microscopy TI topological insulator TMD transition metal dichalcogenide TPS thermal protection system TRL technology readiness level TSC theory, simulation, and computation USAF U.S. Air Force VASP Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package VLSI very-large-scale integration WSM Weyl semimetal YIG yttrium-iron-garnet