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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25253.
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PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Jordyn White and Laurie Geller, Rapporteurs Board on Environmental Change and Society Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Water Science and Technology Board Division on Earth and Life Studies and Academia Mexicana de Ciencias, Academia de Ingeniería de México y Academia Nacional de Medicina de México

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academies of S ­ciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the Mexican Academies, and the George and Cynthia Mitchell Endowment for Sustainability Sciences at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (unnumbered). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recom- mendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-48424-4 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-48424-3 Digital Object Identifier:  https://doi.org/10.17226/25253 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Acad- emies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624- 6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Spanish language copies of this publication will be available through the Academia ­ Mexicana de Ciencias, km 23.5 Carretera Federal México-Cuernavaca, Calle C ­ ipreses s/n, Col. San Andrés Totoltepec, Tlalpan, 14400 Ciudad de México, México, Tel. +(52 55) 5849-4905, e-mail: aic@unam.mx, http://www.amc.mx. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands: Pro- ceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25253.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institu- tion to advise the nation on issues related to science and ­ echnology. Members t are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of ­ ciences to S advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, E ­ ngineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and ­ edicine M at www.nationalacademies.org. Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opin- ions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

The Academia Mexicana de Ciencias (Mexican Academy of Sciences) was estab- lished in 1959 as a non-profit, nongovernmental organization to promote scientific culture in society and to advise the nation on issues related to science and tech- nology. Members are elected by their peers for their distinguished contributions to research. Dr. José-Luis Morán is president. Website: www.amc.mx The Academia de Ingeniería de México (Mexican Academy of Engineering) cre- ated in 1972, is a nonprofit organization that brings together experts with a great sense of social responsibility, who have excelled in practice, research, and teach- ing of engineering, and contributes to the sustainable development of Mexico. Members are elected by their peers for their contributions to engineering. Dr. José Francisco Albarrán is president. Website: www.ai.org.mx The Academia Nacional de Medicina de México (National Academy of Medicine of Mexico), established in 1864, is a nonprofit organization that promotes teaching and research in the field of medicine, and gives advice to professionals, health authorities, and the general public. Members are elected by their peers for their contributions to research and teaching in medicine and public health. Dr. Teresita Corona is president. Website: www.anmm.org.mx

STEERING COMMITTEE FOR ADVANCING SUSTAINABILITY OF U.S.-MEXICO TRANSBOUNDARY DRYLANDS: A WORKSHOP CHRISTOPHER SCOTT (Chair), Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy, University of Arizona ALFONSO CORTEZ LARA, Urban and Environmental Studies, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte HALLIE EAKIN, Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University ELISABETH HUBER-SANNWALD, Division of Environmental Studies, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica CONSTANTINO MACÍAS GARCIA, Institute of Ecology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México MARÍA AMPARO MARTÍNEZ ARROYO, Instituto Nacional de Ecología y Cambio Climático NATALIA MARTÍNEZ TAGÜEÑA, Division of Environmental Science, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica IGNACIO RODRIGUEZ-ITURBE, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University and Princeton University KELLY TWOMEY SANDERS, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California ROBERT WASHINGTON-ALLEN, Rangeland Ecology and Management, University of Nevada, Reno JORDYN WHITE, Project Director TOBY WARDEN, Board Director LAURIE GELLER, Senior Program Officer LETICIA GARCILAZO GREEN, Senior Program Assistant JOSÉ-LUIS MORÁN, President of the Mexican Academy of Sciences JOSÉ FRANCO, Project Consultant (Mexican Academies Representative and Chief Coordinator of the Foro Consultivo Científico y Tecnológico) RENATA VILLALBA, Program Associate (Mexican Academy of Sciences) v

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE AND SOCIETY KRISTIE L. EBI (Chair), Global Health, University of Washington JOSEPH ARVAI, Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan HALLIE EAKIN, Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University LORI HUNTER, Population Research Program, University of Colorado Boulder KATHARINE L. JACOBS, Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona MICHAEL A. MENDEZ, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies RICHARD G. NEWELL, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC MARY D. NICHOLS, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento JONATHAN T. OVERPECK, Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan ASEEM PRAKASH, Department of Political Science, University of Washington MAXINE L. SAVITZ, Technology/Partnerships Honeywell Inc. (retired), Los Angeles, CA MICHAEL VANDENBERGH, Vanderbilt University School of Law JALONNE WHITE-NEWSOME, The Kresge Foundation, Troy, MI ROBYN S. WILSON, Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio State University TOBY WARDEN, Director vi

BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE A.R. RAVISHANKARA (Chair), Chemistry and Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University SHUYI S. CHEN (Vice Chair), Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington CECILIA BITZ, Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington MARK A. CANE, Earth and Environmental Sciences; Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics (emeritus), Columbia University HEIDI CULLEN, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA ROBERT DUNBAR, Environmental Earth System Science, Stanford University PAMELA EMCH, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA ARLENE FIORE, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University PETER FRUMHOFF, Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA WILLIAM B. GAIL, Global Weather Corporation, Boulder, CO MARY GLACKIN, The Weather Company, an IBM Business, Washington, DC TERRI S. HOGUE, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines EVERETTE JOSEPH, Atmospheric Sciences, State University of New York at Albany RONALD “NICK” KEENER, JR., Duke Energy Corporation, Charlotte, NC ROBERT KOPP, Earth, Ocean & Atmospheric Sciences, Rutgers University L. RUBY LEUNG, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA JONATHAN MARTIN, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin–Madison JONATHAN T. OVERPECK, Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan ALLISON STEINER, Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor DAVID W. TITLEY, Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University DUANE WALISER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA AMANDA STAUDT, Director vii

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD CATHERINE L. KLING (Chair), Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future, Cornell University NEWSHA AJAMI, Urban Water Policy, Stanford University JONATHAN D. ARTHUR, State Geologist, Florida Department of Environmental Protection DAVID A. DZOMBAK, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University FRANCINA DOMINGUEZ, Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois WENDY D. GRAHAM, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville MARK W. LeCHEVALLIER, Vice President, American Water, Voorhees, NJ MARGARET A. PALMER, National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, University of Maryland DAVID L. SEDLAK, Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley DAVID WEGNER, Retired, Water, Energy and Transportation Committee, Tucson, Arizona P. KAY WHITLOCK, Vice President, Christopher B. Burke Engineering, Rosemont, IL ELIZABETH EIDE, Director viii

Acknowledgments This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by indi- viduals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical com- ments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceed- ings: Ana Elena Escalante, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico; Constantino Macías Garcia, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico; Meredith F. Muth, Interna- tional Program and Coordination, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska, Department of Geography and Environmental Sustainability, University of Oklahoma. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Aseem Prakash, Department of Political Science, University of Washington, Seattle. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. ix

Contents 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1 Motivation for the Workshop, 2 A Brief History of Binational Collaboration, 4 Importance of Sustainability Science to Binational Collaboration, 6 2 UNDERSTANDING THE TRANSBOUNDARY DRYLANDS REGION 9 Defining “Transboundary Region,” 9 Key Sustainability Challenges, 12 Available Research on Drylands Sustainability, 15 3 FOUR KEY TOPICS 19 Interaction and Flow of Resources, People, and Services, 20 Scarcity and Abundance of Resources, 24 Shocks and Stressors, 27 Governance and Innovation, 31 4 INNOVATIONS AND SOLUTIONS IN SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE FOR DRYLANDS AREAS 39 The Land-Potential Knowledge System, 39 The National Integrated Drought Information System, 40 The North American Development Bank, 43 xi

xii CONTENTS 5 KEY THEMES AND POSSIBLE NEXT STEP 45 Key Workshop Themes, 45 Using Primary Flows to Identify Sustainability Challenges, 45 Data and Intellectual Resources to Better Understand Sustainability Needs, 46 Improving Sustainability by Mitigating Anthropogenic Change, 47 Governance, 48 Funding, 48 Possible Next Step, 49 APPENDIXES A Agenda 51 B Participants 57 C Biographical Sketches of Steering Committee Members and Presenters 61

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The drylands region shared by the United States and Mexico currently faces multiple sustainability challenges at the intersection of the human and natural systems. Warming and drying conditions threaten surface water and groundwater availability, disrupt land- and marine-based livelihood systems, and challenge the sustainability of human settlements. These biophysical challenges are exacerbated by a highly mobile and dynamic population, volatile economic and policy conditions, increased exposure to extreme events, and urbanization on marginal, vulnerable lands.

The U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine collaborated with the Mexican Academy of Sciences, Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine to plan a 2-day binational workshop, Advancing Sustainability of U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Drylands. The workshop goals were to highlight the challenges facing the region, assess the scientific and technical capacity that each nation can bring to bear in addressing these challenges, and identify new opportunities for binational research collaboration and coordinated management approaches in the advancement of sustainability science and development. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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