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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25259.
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Page 409
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25259.
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Page 410
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25259.
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Page 411
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25259.
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Page 412

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Acronyms and Abbreviations A&E architecture and engineering ACR American Carbon Registry ADM Archer Daniels Midland AFRI Agriculture and Food Research Initiative APS American Physical Society ARPA-E Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy ARS Agricultural Research Service ASU air separation unit BECCS bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration BLM Bureau of Land Management CAP Coordinated Agricultural Project CAPEX capital expenditure CAR Climate Action Reserve CarbonSAFE Carbon Storage Assurance Facility Enterprise CAST Council on Agricultural Science and Technology C-CAP Coastal Change Analysis Program CCIWG Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group CCS carbon capture and sequestration CCUS carbon capture, utilization, and storage CDCL coal direct chemical looping CKD cement kiln dust CMS carbon monitoring system CO2 carbon dioxide CRI CRI Catalyst Company, Shell Group CRMS Coastwide Reference Monitoring System CRP Conservation Reserve Program CSP Conservation Stewardship Program CWPPRA Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act DEB Division of Environmental Biology DOE Department of Energy DOI Department of the Interior 409

N E G AT I V E E M I S S I O N S T E C H N O LO G I E S A N D R E L I A B L E S E Q U E S T R AT I O N EIA Energy Information Administration EJ exajoule ENSO El Niño–Southern Oscillation EOR enhanced oil recovery EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPRI Electric Power Research Institute FA fly ash FE fossil energy FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FIA Forest Inventory and Analysis FTE full-time equivalent GCEP Global Climate and Energy Project GDP gross domestic product GeoPRISMS Geodynamic Processes at Rifting and Subducting Margins GHG greenhouse gas GRI Gas Research Institute GTI Gas Technology Institute ha hectare IAM integrated assessment model IECM integrated environment control model IGCC integrated gasificaton combined cycle IL-ICCS Illnois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage INDC intended nationally determined contribution InSAR interferometric synthetic aperture radar IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ISBL inside battery limits ITM Inland Testing Manual JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory KIIT Korea Institute of Industrial Technology LCA life cycle assessment LCOE levelized cost of electricity 410

Acronyms and Abbreviations LHV lower heating value LTER Long-Term Ecological Research MEA monoethanolamine Mha million hectare MHHW mean higher high water MHHWS Mean Higher High Water Spring MLW mean low water MMT million metric tons MMW measuring, monitoring, and verification MSL mean sea level MTG methanol-to-gas MVA monitoring, verification, accounting N2O nitrous oxide NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASEM National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine NBBF natural and nature-based features NCPV National Center for Photovoltaics NEON National Ecological Observatory Network NEP net ecosystem productivity NERRA National Estuarine Research Reserve Association NET Negative Emissions Technology NETL National Energy Technology Laboratory NGCC natural gas combined cycle NGO nongovernmental organization NIFA National Institute of Food Agriculture NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPP net primary production NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory NRI Natural Resource Inventory NSF National Science Foundation NSF OCE National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Studies O&M operations and maintenance OC organic carbon OTM and ITM Ocean and Inland Testing Manuals 411

N E G AT I V E E M I S S I O N S T E C H N O LO G I E S A N D R E L I A B L E S E Q U E S T R AT I O N PAF perturbation atmospheric fraction PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory ppm parts per million ppmv parts per million by volume PSII photosystem II PV photovoltaics R&D research and Development RCP Representative Concentration Pathway Re respiration REDD+ Reduced Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus RIIHL Reliance Industrial Investments and Holdings Ltd. ROOTS Rhizosphere Observations Optimizing Terrestrial Sequestration RSLR relative sea level rise SCPC supercritical pulverized coal SCS soil carbon sequestration SE standard error SET surface elevation table SLR sea-level rise SOCCR-2 Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report SOM soil organic matter SubTER Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development, & Demonstration TRL technology readiness level TSA temperature swing adsorption UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USC ultra-supercritical USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USFS U.S. Forest Service USFWS U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service USGS U.S. Geological Survey VCS Verified Carbon Standard VSA vacuum swing adsorption 412

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Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda Get This Book
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To achieve goals for climate and economic growth, “negative emissions technologies” (NETs) that remove and sequester carbon dioxide from the air will need to play a significant role in mitigating climate change. Unlike carbon capture and storage technologies that remove carbon dioxide emissions directly from large point sources such as coal power plants, NETs remove carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere or enhance natural carbon sinks. Storing the carbon dioxide from NETs has the same impact on the atmosphere and climate as simultaneously preventing an equal amount of carbon dioxide from being emitted. Recent analyses found that deploying NETs may be less expensive and less disruptive than reducing some emissions, such as a substantial portion of agricultural and land-use emissions and some transportation emissions.

In 2015, the National Academies published Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration, which described and initially assessed NETs and sequestration technologies. This report acknowledged the relative paucity of research on NETs and recommended development of a research agenda that covers all aspects of NETs from fundamental science to full-scale deployment. To address this need, Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration: A Research Agenda assesses the benefits, risks, and “sustainable scale potential” for NETs and sequestration. This report also defines the essential components of a research and development program, including its estimated costs and potential impact.

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