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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 186 2018 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviationâ â¢â AdministrationâandâManagementâ â¢â EducationâandâTraining Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity ICF Fairfax, VA i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Steer Davies Gleave (North America Division) Washington, DC
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 186 Project 06-04 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-39061-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2018908657 Â© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 186 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Anthony P. Avery, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 06-04 PANEL Field of Human Resources Laurie Cullen, Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc./VHB, Providence, RI (Chair) Charles A. Brewer, Elizabethtown, PA Shane Harbinson, City of Austin Department of Aviation, Austin, TX Tara L. Harl, Kansas State Polytechnic, Salina, KS Akiya Simms, Dallas Fort Worth International Airport, Dallas, TX Sharon M. Stone, St. Louis Lambert International Airport, St Louis, MO Randy Moseng, FAA Liaison Melissa Swearingen, U.S. Government Accountability Office Liaison
ACRP Research Report 186 is the final product of a two-phase study to identify and evalu- ate workforce requirements for airports. Phase I, previously published as ACRP Web-Only Document 28, gathered information to analyze current and future airport job requirements and identify mission-critical airport occupations; assess the potential of current airport education, training, and resources to address workforce gaps; and project airport workforce capacity needs over the next 5 to 10 years. ACRP Research Report 186, which is the product of Phase II, builds on that preliminary analysis to identify optimal workforce planning and development strategies and best practices designed to help airports prepare their workforce for emerging industry changes. This report covers critical issues in (1) attracting new talent, (2) building internal staff capacity, (3) planning for future workforce needs, (4) identifying additional practices for future consideration, and (5) recommendations for implementing a workforce capacity building program over time. Airports require a well-trained and skilled workforce to provide necessary services. Yet, many of the most experienced workers are now, or are about to become, eligible to retire. The trend toward increasing retirement of key personnel coupled with a growing preva- lence of new technologies, regulations, and other emerging institutional frameworks is compounding a situation where it may already be difficult to attract, hire, train, and retain a workforce with the skills required to meet the needs of an ever-evolving industry. At best, airport workforce development is often performed primarily on an ad-hoc basis with a narrow focus that may only concentrate on a single human resource practice (e.g., training). What is often lacking is a comprehensive, sustainable workforce strategy that aligns existing and emerging business models with workforce development initiatives. The ACRP Project 06-04 research team, led by ICF with assistance from Steer Davies Gleave, was contracted to address these concerns through a two-phase study. Phase I involved identifying industry demands that will affect key work requirements for airport personnel. Further, that phase of the study identified eight general occupations and five executive occupations that will be mission critical within the next 5 to 10 years. The study included an industry-wide review of airport training and education programs to determine how sufficient those programs are at addressing the skill requirements of what are defined as airport mission-critical occupations. This review and evaluation resulted in the identi- fication of seven workforce capacity needs the industry will face within this decade. The Phase I report is published as ACRP Web-Only Document 28. Following publication of the Phase I report, the ICF team conducted Phase II, an in-depth study of the seven workforce capacity needs, identifying best practices and effective strate- gies to help airports build and sustain a talent pipeline equipped to meet emerging capacity F O R E W O R D ByâLawrenceâD.âGoldstein StaffâOfficer TransportationâResearchâBoard
and technology concerns. ACRP Research Report 186 is the product of Phase II and is pre- sented in the form of a practical guidebook on sharing these best practices and long-term workforce development strategies with industry stakeholdersâairport leaders, academics, consultants, and industry associations. This comprehensive guidebook includes 12 detailed action plans, an additional 9 supplemental practices, real-world case studies of airports using workforce strategies, and tools and resources to support implementation of the strategies within the action plans.
1-1 Chapter 1 IntroductionâtoâtheâGuidebook 1-1 Contents of This Chapter 1-2 Recap of Phase I: Emerging Industry Challenges and Workforce Capacity Needs 1-5 Framework for Workforce Capacity Building Strategies 1-9 How to Use the Guidebook 2-1 Chapter 2 AttractingâNewâTalent 2-1 Chapter Overview 2-2 Description of the Workforce Capacity Challenge 2-5 Action Plans for Attracting New Talent 2-24 Practical Tools and Resources for Attracting New Talent 2-40 Case Studies Related to Attracting New Talent 3-1 Chapter 3 BuildingâInternalâStaffâCapacity 3-1 Chapter Overview 3-2 Description of the Workforce Capacity Challenge 3-5 Action Plans for Building Internal Staff Capacity 3-33 Practical Tools and Resources for Building Internal Staff Capacity 3-59 Case Studies Related to Building Internal Staff Capacity 4-1 Chapter 4 PlanningâforâFutureâWorkforceâNeeds 4-1 Chapter Overview 4-2 Description of the Workforce Capacity Challenge 4-5 Action Plans for Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-29 Practical Tools and Resources for Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-50 Case Studies Related to Planning for Future Workforce Needs 5-1 Chapter 5 AdditionalâPracticesâandâStrategiesâ forâConsideration 6-1 Chapter 6 RecommendationsâforâContinuousâAirportâ WorkforceâCapacityâBuilding 6-1 Chapter Overview 6-1 Guidebook in Review 6-2 Change Management Framework 6-14 Final Thoughts R-1 ReferenceâListâ A-1 Appendixâ Acronyms,âAbbreviations,âandâInitialisms C O N T E N T S