National Academies Press: OpenBook

Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity (2018)

Chapter: Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25263.
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2-1 Chapter 2: Attracting New Talent Attracting new talent is vital to the long-term success and sustainability of airports as they face a high volume of potential retirements, evolving requirements in mission-critical occupations, and competition from other industries. By promoting greater awareness of airport job opportunities, building a diverse talent pipeline, and casting a wider net for talent, airports can help cultivate the future skilled workforce that it will need to confront technological, demographic, operational, and regulatory changes. Chapter Overview This chapter addresses the airport industry’s need to build a robust talent pipeline that is sufficiently educated and prepared for airport careers in a variety of mission-critical occupations. The specific workforce capacity needs related to this challenge include the following: A. Increasing awareness of airport career opportunities B. Investing in early development of the talent pipeline C. Embracing a far-reaching strategy for new talent The research conducted to identify these workforce capacity needs is further detailed in ACRP Web-Only Document 28. Within this chapter, four detailed action plans are included to address these specific workforce capacity needs. The strategies featured in these action plans include the following: Develop an Employer Brand Develop Internships and Apprenticeships Recruit Nontraditional Candidates Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries Following the action plans, there are three separate tools that can guide airports through strategy implementation related to attracting new talent. They include the following: Employer Branding Discussion Guide Internship Program Development Checklist Guide to Public Resources to Recruit Employees from Other Industries

2-2 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Finally, the chapter concludes with three case studies that demonstrate how airports have successfully implemented strategies to address the challenge of attracting new talent. Description of the Workforce Capacity Challenge Airports are challenged in attracting new talent due to a range of labor market forces that are seemingly stacked against them. For example, local labor markets for mission-critical occupations (e.g., maintenance, engineering, and IT) can be quite competitive due to high demand for those skills and/or a lack of qualified applicants in the community. At the same time, airports require specialized skill sets and airport-specific knowledge that is typically very difficult to find locally. Most cities only have one major airport, and, in smaller cities and rural areas, finding locally- based candidates with airport experience may not be possible. As difficult as it can be to find this experience locally, competing for local talent in occupations popular across industries (e.g., IT, engineering) can be just as challenging due to more competitive wages at other employers, inflexible municipal hiring systems, and a lack of exposure to career opportunities within airports. Furthermore, many new entrants into the labor market lack awareness of the career opportunities available at airports, due to a lack of programs that build interest in airport careers during various stages of the educational pipeline. For some, an airport career is seen as a fallback for those who find pilot training to be more rigorous than they anticipated. These challenges ultimately limit the number of qualified applicants, increase recruitment and training costs, and have the potential to impact airport performance. This chapter addresses three ways that airports can mitigate these challenges and strengthen their ability to attract new talent: 1. Increase awareness of airport career opportunities. While marketing budgets for airports are often limited, increasing marketing efforts can encourage individuals who are new to the workforce, such as recent college graduates, to consider airports as a viable place to work. 2. Invest in early and full-spectrum development of the talent pipeline. This can help educate younger generations and nontraditional candidates, such as veterans, about airport careers, which can subsequently generate greater interest and help expand the future talent pipeline. Attracting the right talent means people need to know about airport careers, want to pursue them, and develop the skills to succeed. During Phase I of this effort, an airport leader from a rural airport noted that it is difficult to find suitable maintenance and operations personnel, given the limited local labor market in the area. An airport leader from the San Francisco Bay Area also noted that it is difficult to hire IT employees, given the presence of several large tech companies in the area.

Attracting New Talent 2-3 3. Embrace a far-reaching strategy to attract new talent. Given the challenges airports in both urban and rural areas face with regard to finding local talent, airports should embrace regional and national strategies to identify new talent beyond the local labor market. The following infographics recap insights and data contained in ACRP Web-Only Document 28 regarding the challenge of attracting new talent.

2-4 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity

Attracting New Talent 2-5 Action Plans for Attracting New Talent This section includes four action plans airports may use for improving how they attract new talent to their organization. Information on strategy, implementation steps, resource requirements, and alternate approaches is included in each action plan. The following table describes the four action plans in this chapter along with brief highlights and corresponding page numbers. Action Plan Overview Page Develop an Employer Brand Perceptions about the airport from leadership, employees, and prospective employees may not be consistent. Effective branding requires effort from throughout the organization. Numerous steps to take in achieving a more unified employer brand are discussed. 2-6 Develop Internships and Apprenticeships Internship programs and apprenticeships are an effective way to attract early career employees and help them develop skills and knowledge important for working in the airport industry. This action plan covers the major steps and considerations involved in developing an internship and/or apprenticeship program. 2-10 Recruit Nontraditional Candidates Nontraditional candidates can be an excellent recruitment source. This action plan covers tactics that can help in attracting applicants from nontraditional demographic groups such as military veterans, retirees, and stay-at-home parents. 2-15 Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries Because the pool of potential applicants within the airport industry is limited, recruiting from other industries can be a valuable alternative. This action plan covers methods airports can use to effectively recruit candidates who have the potential to succeed in a future airport career. 2-19

2-6 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Description. As technology becomes integral to more airport systems, data analysis becomes more critical to decision-making, and innovation becomes more vital to success, airports may find they need to attract a very different workforce than in the past. Yet, their image among the community may not align with their forward-thinking aspirations, especially when competing for top talent. A compelling employer brand can help an airport differentiate itself in a competitive labor market. In the same way that a product brand conveys the strength of its reputation and is a driving factor in why customers want to purchase it (i.e., its value proposition), an organization’s employer brand represents its reputation as an employer and what an organization means to its employees. The employer brand unifies the organization’s messaging to attract, engage, and retain talent. A critical element of the employer brand is the employee value proposition (EVP), which defines the full scope of the benefits an organization offers to its employees. This concept includes and goes far beyond the traditional compensation packages (e.g., wage/salary, health insurance, pension/401K) to include elements of the total work experience that are meaningful to an organization’s employees, such as organizational culture, career opportunities, societal impact, and the work environment. Examples of the kinds of themes or statements an organization might include in their EVP are: “You will make an impact,” “We invest in our people,” and “We provide an environment for creativity and innovation to thrive.” The employer brand includes the EVP in addition to the full range of images, concepts, and values that the organization wants to convey to current and potential employees. An effective employer brand is both accurate and aspirational, in that it reflects current employee perceptions of the airport and the way the airport would like to be seen by the workforce it hopes to attract. Airport leaders seeking to develop or improve their employer brand would benefit from first asking their own workforce what being an airport employee means to them. Focus groups and surveys can capture a broad and deep understanding of the defining experiences and attitudes of the workforce. At the same time, airports must assess future needs and consider how best to appeal to the workforce they seek to attract. For example, a brand focused on job security and union benefits may not appeal as much to younger, more mobile workers who expect to have many different employers throughout their Action Plan 1: Develop an Employer Brand Overview of Strategic Recommendation Real-World Example As an independent authority, San Diego International periodically updates its employer brand to integrate value-aligned behaviors such as “agile, entrepreneurial, and driven” in order to shed the image of a government bureaucracy and adopt one of an innovative company. Strategy Highlights • Demonstrate what makes an airport career—and your airport in particular—unique. • Define your employee value proposition, including all the ways an airport career can be meaningful for its employees. • Engage airport leaders and the workforce to determine what it means to work at your airport and align the employer brand to the airport’s values and culture.

Attracting New Talent 2-7 Pro Tip Featuring real life stories on the web of successful employees who have grown and developed in their careers at the airport can help communicate the employer brand to potential and new employees. K-12 Comm College 4-Year College Graduate School Early Career Mid-Career Late Career Retirees Other Key Stakeholders • Airport senior leadership • Communications staff Action Plan Lead(s) • HR personnel • Marketing personnel Resources Needed: • Staff or consultant to identify values and other elements of employer brand • Staff time to participate in surveys or focus groups • Creative/design staff to develop materials • Communications staff to coordinate advertising/message development • Data from previously conducted employee satisfaction surveys careers. Identifying the aspirational elements of the employer brand is both a strategic human capital and marketing question, so leaders from both functions should typically be involved. Target Career Stages Mission-Critical Airport Occupations Targeted Workforce Types Planning Features Engineer Financial Analysis & Planning IT Project Planning Airport Development Airport Ops Airport Security Electrician Target Audience Action Plan 1 Cont’d: Develop an Employer Brand Senior/Exec Leadership Frontline Workers Mid-Level Leaders Administrative Support Staff Technical Personnel First-Line Supervisors In the broader transportation industry, there are some useful elements airports can incorporate into their employer brand. In the transit industry, for example, agencies have successfully focused on their role in connecting people to work and social activities (see TCRP Report 162, Cronin et al., 2013). As a hub of international travel, a small city within a city, and a vital economic engine within any community, airports offer employees the opportunity to make an impact and face exciting challenges every day. But to truly stand out, airports must articulate what makes them a unique and stimulating place to work. The values expressed in the airport’s brand help supplement any insights generated by the airport’s own workforce.

2-8 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity 1. Develop internal communications to explain the “employer brand” concept. 2. Involve employees from across the organization in identifying elements of the employer brand. 3. Develop messaging to present elements of the employer brand to the workforce. 4. Request employee feedback and integrate it into the brand concept. Implementation Lead(s) • Senior HR leader • Marketing/Communications leader 1. Collect input from staff on what they value most about their experience as employees. Surveys or focus groups can be used to capture the defining values and experience of staff that could form elements of the employer brand. Structured protocols should be used with a varied cross section of employees to ensure the collected input is representative. 2. Engage leadership in a discussion of strategic human capital needs and related branding strategies. Airport leaders must identify the key features of the workforce that will help the airport meet its strategic goals and define the ideals and values that exemplify that workforce. 3. Develop elements of the employer brand that reflect current and desired workforce. The human resource and marketing teams (or an outside marketing firm) should collaborate to brainstorm and refine core elements of the employer brand and align them to the broader public branding of the airport. 4. Deploy the employer brand through an internal and external messaging campaign. The new employer branding should be presented to employees first, followed by a broader rollout that integrates it into recruitment and other branding materials. 5. Collect feedback from staff and leadership to measure success and identify opportunities for improvement. Employer branding must resonate with employees and must continue to do so as the organization and its workforce needs evolve. Gathering feedback after launch and periodically thereafter can help to refine the employer brand and ensure it remains relevant. Estimated Time to Implement 0-3 months 3-6 months 7 months - 1 year More than 1 year Key Stakeholder(s) • All staff • Branding consultants (if applicable) Return on Investment 0-2 years 3-5 years 6-8 years 8+ years Implementation Factors Action Plan 1 Cont’d: Develop an Employer Brand Pr oc es s fo r O bt ai ni ng Bu y- In Im pl em en ta ti on S te ps

Attracting New Talent 2-9 Obstacles & Considerations Key Success Factors • Requesting employee input early and often. • Promoting employer brand with community and government leaders and industry organizations to generate buzz. • Branding must match reality. • It is possible that few common values exist within the airport or that many employee experiences are not positive. These underlying issues may need to be addressed prior to establishing the employer brand. Action Plan 1 Cont’d: Develop an Employer Brand Adapting to Industry Change • New Technologies: As airports integrate new technology, they can incorporate this into their employer brand to show how they are innovative and “high tech.” • Financial and Commercial Pressures: Airports operating as independent authorities may be able to promote a less rigid and more business-oriented image than their municipal peers. • Changing Demographics: Adapting the employer brand to speak to a more diverse and often younger audience can help to replenish the workforce following (or in anticipation of) retirements of long-time employees. • Compensation Competition: Employer branding enables the airport to expand the definition of compensation to include the broader value proposition the airport offers to the employee beyond pay and traditional benefits. Sustain Quantifiable Outcomes/Measures of Impact 1. Employee assessment of employer brand alignment with their experience 2. Employee satisfaction with the airport and their work experience 3. Employee intentions to remain with the airport 4. Candidate ratings of whether the airport seems like a good place to work 5. Turnover rates and time-to-fill open positions Alternative Approaches • Smaller airports with limited marketing or human resource budgets could conduct a small focus group with a mix of staff to identify common values. The information could be collected by a human resource or marketing staff member. • Rather than a large-scale rollout of the employer brand, the values could simply be integrated into job postings and the career page of the airport website. • If an airport-wide employer brand is not feasible, individual departments could focus on what makes their work unique and promote that message during recruiting.

2-10 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Pro Tip ACI-NA allows airports to post their internship opportunities on the ACI-NA website so the opportunities can be easily located by students across the country. Description. Many airports have a difficult time attracting and identifying individuals with both an interest in and the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities to succeed in airport careers. Many technical positions such as engineers, airport planners, electricians, and IT personnel require specialized skill sets, the foundations of which must be developed during or prior to vocational/technical or undergraduate study. Yet, most high school, vocational/technical, and undergraduate students have little awareness of airport careers and may not appreciate the career opportunities that exist “behind the scenes” or hold the skills required to succeed in them. Educators may not be aware of these opportunities either, so it is necessary for airports to reach out and offer pathways for students to experience airport careers and plant the seeds for careers in the industry. Internship and apprenticeship programs provide opportunities for students to gain exposure to airport-related activities while helping to develop knowledge, skills, and motivation that airports require to meet their workforce needs. An internship is any carefully monitored work or service experience in which a student has intentional learning goals and reflects actively on what he or she is learning. During the internship, interns should exercise real-world skills relevant to airport work in preparation for jobs that they might pursue in the industry. Internships can be paid or unpaid, or students can receive course credit in exchange for summer or short-term employment. The airport benefits from the interns’ contributions at relatively low cost, while developing a potential future workforce with relevant experience and a stronger awareness of airport career opportunities. Action Plan 2: Develop Internships and Apprenticeships Overview of Strategic Recommendation Real-World Example The internship program at a large hub airport in the Western U.S. partnered with the career center at a local university to provide housing for interns, making it more attractive to those from out of state. Strategy Highlights • Attracts early career employees interested in gaining industry experience • Helps develop skills in future workforce at limited cost and risk • Requires identifying needs and sources of talent, developing program structure, recruiting participants, and evaluating performance Internship programs can provide opportunities as early as high school in order to foster an interest in airport jobs during important formative years. For example, Southwest Airlines’ Campus Reach program (https://www.southwest.com/campusreach/) provides distinct internship opportunities for high school students, undergraduates, MBA students, and recent graduates.

Attracting New Talent 2-11 K-12 Comm College 4-Year College Graduate School Early Career Mid-Career Late Career Retirees Apprenticeship programs fulfill a similar function to internships, but are typically developed for skilled trade jobs like construction, maintenance, electrical repair, and IT maintenance. The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) defines an apprenticeship program as a “combination of on-the-job training and related instruction in which workers learn the practical and theoretical aspects of a highly skilled occupation.” An apprenticeship typically has a more structured progression from the entry-level role to journeyman level, with close supervision and training from an experienced professional. Once developed, registering an apprenticeship program with DOL may provide opportunity for individuals and the airport to receive federal or state funding to support the program. Target Career Stages Mission-Critical Airport Occupations Targeted Workforce Types Action Plan 2 Cont’d: Develop Internships and Apprenticeships Engineer Financial Analysis & Planning IT Project Planning Airport Development Airport Ops Airport Security Electrician Target Audience Pro Tip It can be valuable to engage the appropriate union throughout development of the apprenticeship program if their commitment to member participation in the program would be required. Senior/Exec Leadership Frontline Workers Mid-Level Leaders Administrative Support Staff Technical Personnel First-Line Supervisors For Southwest, this provides not only an opportunity to identify potential future talent but also a chance to expose them to the unique culture of the organization that helps to attract, motivate, and retain its workforce. Some internship programs include a formal process through which interns can be hired into full-time positions. However, if there is not a clear pathway between the internship and future employment with the airport, that should be noted to avoid unmet expectations. For example, at some municipality-run airports, job candidates may be required to have specific civil service credentials (e.g., degree type) that are not achieved through an internship. Even if interns are not hired directly, there is value in internships for these airports, as the internships provide exposure to jobs within the airport industry and allow the airport to gain from the fresh perspectives of the interns.

2-12 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Implementation Lead(s) • HR/Training director or designee Estimated Time to Implement 0-3 months 3-6 months 7 months - 1 year More than 1 year Key Stakeholder(s) • Director of relevant operational/functional area • Supervisors in relevant operational/ functional area • Union leadership Return on Investment 0-2 years 3-5 years 6-8 years 8+ years Implementation Factors Other Key Stakeholders • Communications/marketing staff • Union leadership Action Plan Lead(s) • HR/Training personnel • Director of relevant operational/functional area Resources Needed: • Staff to identify options for internship/apprenticeship program and develop program materials • Staff time to develop marketing materials to publicize program • Staff time to supervise and mentor interns or apprentices 1. Engage team leads/supervisors to help identify occupational areas where workload is high, task variety exists without overly technical or complex requirements, a manageable learning curve exists, and experienced employees can serve as mentors. 2. Meet with local high schools, community colleges, vocational programs, and universities to identify the interests and skills of interested students. 3. Develop communications to explain the new program to the existing workforce, set expectations for employee involvement in program, and address any concerns. 4. Set up a referral program to promote employee involvement in recruiting. Planning Features Pr oc es s fo r O bt ai ni ng B uy -In Action Plan 2 Cont’d: Develop Internships and Apprenticeships

Attracting New Talent 2-13 1. Conduct needs assessment. To identify occupational areas to support interns/apprentices, the airport should assess key areas of need for entry level talent in the years ahead. This could involve discussions with senior leaders or a survey of leaders across the airport. 2. Identify sources of talent from which to attract candidates. Explore the airport’s existing sources of early career talent (e.g., local universities, technical schools) to identify those that could act as a source for interns/apprentices across the selected occupational areas. 3. Design program structure. In collaboration with incumbents in the target occupation, HR personnel should identify the structure of the program to include selection criteria, number to be accepted, typical assignments, rotational and developmental experiences, support/resources available to interns/apprentices, compensation (if any), and on/off-boarding activities. 4. Engage sources of talent to promote program. Unless individuals are already considering airports as a career option, they may not appreciate the value of an internship or apprenticeship at an airport. Building connections with college or high school career counselors can help provide greater visibility for the program and steer students in the right direction. Airport employees who have existing relationships with these institutions (e.g., alumni) could help with initial contact. 5. Recruit and select participants. Based on the criteria for participation, publicize the opportunity through local sources and airport communications (e.g., website, social media), review applicant qualifications, and select those who meet the criteria and show the most interest and aptitude. Action Plan 2 Cont’d: Develop Internships and Apprenticeships Im pl em en ta tio n St ep s Obstacles & Considerations Key Success Factors • Particularly for apprenticeship programs, it is critical to show a clear career path and estimated time frame for progression. • It helps to have an internal champion to sell others on the value of having an intern in their departments and address any of their concerns. • Interns should not be seen as a replacement for the current workforce, and it is important to ensure the experience is developmental in nature. • Interns will need an airport badge; consider including related requirements on the application form (e.g., U.S. citizens).

2-14 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Action Plan 2 Cont’d: Develop Internships and Apprenticeships Sustain Quantifiable Outcomes/Measures of Impact 1. Number of interns/apprentices applied and accepted per year 2. Number/percentage who become full-time employees 3. Supervisor ratings of performance 4. Savings in recruitment costs vs. cost of developing/maintaining program Alternative Approaches • For small airports where differentiated career tracks do not exist, internship programs could focus on providing experience with a broad range of general management activities. • If there are no local colleges or trade schools to recruit from, consider posting the opportunity on ACI-NA’s internship database to cast a wider net. • If an apprenticeship isn’t feasible, consider instituting individual development plans (IDPs). IDPs can help employees to feel that they have a promising future at the airport, even if it is not through the highly structured progression of an apprenticeship program. Adapting to Industry Change • Compensation Competition: Competing for top talent on salary alone is challenging for many airports, but internships and apprenticeships provide a way to capture that talent early on by contributing to their development and exposing them to the value of airport careers. • Changing Demographics: As the older generation of airport employees retires, internships and apprenticeships offer a way to transfer expertise and experience to the next generation. • Gaps in Technical Trades: With fewer young people pursuing technical trades, apprenticeship programs allow airports to attract and develop skilled tradespeople early on and develop their abilities to address airport-specific electrical, IT, and facility needs. • Local Job Market Factors: Internships and apprenticeships can help attract candidates from a competitive local job market or attract students from outside the area for an experience they might not be able to find in their hometown.

Attracting New Talent 2-15 Overview of Strategic Recommendation Real-World Examples • Several airports currently offer the Edge4Vets program, which aims to connect veterans with jobs at the airport or with local community partners. • The program consists of two workshops that help veterans talk about their military skills in a way that resonates with a civilian audience and provides mentors to give constructive feedback on the job search process. Strategy Highlights • Develop a targeted recruitment strategy based on required KSAs • Provide job arrangements that may be attractive to nontraditional candidates (e.g., flexible scheduling) • Implement a communications and marketing campaign • Consider different resources for reaching specific candidates • Sponsor career orientation activities or career fairs Action Plan 3: Recruit Nontraditional Candidates Description. Airports often struggle to find a sufficient number of quality, skilled employees within the applicant pools they have traditionally used to fill jobs (e.g., other airports, word-of-mouth, and industry postings). By creating a recruitment strategy that seeks out candidates from new sources and diverse backgrounds, airports are able to build a deeper and more dynamic pool of applicants not traditionally associated with the airport industry. For example, the industry should look to attract applicants from nontraditional demographic groups such as military veterans, retirees, and stay-at-home parents. These individuals offer unique and valuable skill sets and often desire to return to the workforce in some fashion, but may be unaware of the job opportunities airports have available. Nontraditional candidates often have a variety of skills and knowledge from previous positions that can bring innovative perspectives to airports that employ them. To begin targeting and attracting nontraditional candi- dates, airports should research and understand the key motivators and interests within these groups. For example, retirees often have interests similar to those who have dependents to care for, including a desire to have some flexibility in their work schedule. Thus, adapting work arrangements to allow for part-time or flexible work may help airports expand their reach and attract from a broader pool of applicants. To successfully support implementation of this recruitment strategy, it is valuable to organize a recruitment committee consisting of both senior leaders and the Human Resources (HR) department. This committee can be tasked with identifying the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed for airport jobs, as well as developing a means to market these jobs based on the pool of potential applicants being targeted.

2-16 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity K-12 Comm College 4-Year College Graduate School Early Career Mid-Career Late Career Retirees Other Key Stakeholders • Nontraditional candidates (e.g., retirees, veterans, stay-at-home parents) • Professional and community associations • Local employers Action Plan Lead(s) • Agency HR director • To reach military veterans, consider partnering with military organizations or local community veterans groups. Examples of relevant organizations and points of contact include transition assistance personnel at a local military base, veterans’ employment centers, DOL Veterans’ Employment and Training Service, and Edge4Vets. • To reach retirees, consider partnerships with senior-related organizations (e.g., AARP), senior centers, or local community groups. • To reach stay-at-home parents, identify local parent groups where potential candidates can be recruited. Target Career Stages Mission-Critical Airport Occupations Targeted Workforce Types Action Plan 3 Cont’d: Recruit Nontraditional Candidates Planning Features Engineer Financial Analysis & Planning IT Project Planning Airport Development Airport Ops Airport Security Electrician Target Audience Senior/Exec Leadership Frontline Workers Mid-Level Leaders Administrative Support Staff Technical Personnel First-Line Supervisors Once a targeted recruitment strategy has been established, a communications and marketing campaign should also be developed to help reach specific candidates. Airports should tailor communications and marketing strategies based upon the type of job being filled (e.g., entry-level, leadership, specific experience required) and should work to identify different resources for reaching candidates. The details depend upon the specific type of candidate that would be appropriate for the position. For example: As part of a recruitment effort, airports should also consider partnering with other local employers to sponsor career orientation activities or career fairs for individuals from particular populations. Hosting seminars, workshops, and mentoring events can help empower individuals with the skills and insights needed for the job search process, as well as help them understand how they would fit into an airport- related career.

Attracting New Talent 2-17 Implementation Lead(s) • Agency HR director • HR personnel • Communications and marketing team 1. Identify target nontraditional candidate groups and relevant partners based upon the needs of the airport and the demographics of the surrounding community. 2. Establish professional and community partnerships with organizations that may be involved with target nontraditional applicants and conduct information sessions to educate these partners about the airport industry and potential careers. 3. Tap into local veteran transition programs, community groups, and senior centers by marketing the airport’s need for unique skill sets. Focus on key motivators that may attract nontraditional candidates to the airport work environment, such as the potential for flexible work opportunities and accommodations. 4. Sponsor career fairs targeted at specific populations and/or career orientation activities that help potential applicants understand how their skills and abilities would fit into an airport-related career. Key Stakeholder(s) • Senior leadership Implementation Factors Resources Needed: • Names of local employers, professional associations, and community associations • HR personnel proficient at designing targeted recruitment strategies • Senior leadership involvement in the recruitment committee Estimated Time to Implement 0-3 months 3-6 months 7 months - 1 year More than 1 year Return on Investment 0-2 years 3-5 years 6-8 years 8+ years Action Plan 3 Cont’d: Recruit Nontraditional Candidates Im pl em en ta tio n St ep s Pr oc es s f or O bt ai ni ng Bu y- In 1. Create a committee composed of senior leadership from each business unit to discuss the development of a recruitment strategy that targets nontraditional candidates. 2. Identify KSAs needed upon entry into the job. 3. Form a communications team to help prepare marketing materials that are specific to the candidate groups targeted. 4. Collaborate with professional and community associations to gain information on potential candidates. 5. Contact other local employers to participate in or sponsor career orientation/fair.

2-18 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity • Tailor marketing and recruitment materials to increase interest among target populations. Highlight airport’s ability to accommodate specific groups. • Promote airport jobs via the internet, press releases, community centers, and other places likely to attract nontraditional job seekers. • Consider how to leverage the experience and expertise of nontraditional applicants while adapting work arrangements to meet their needs (e.g., extended leave, flexible work arrangements, job sharing). • Consider potential retention issues associated with a nontraditional workforce. 5. Partner with local employers and community associations to offer training and other support for prospective nontraditional applicants that provides individuals with the skills needed during the hiring process. Potential opportunities include interview coaching, seminars, workshops, and face-to-face meetings with airport employers. Action Plan 3 Cont’d: Recruit Nontraditional Candidates Adapting to Industry Change • Changing Demographics: As older employees prepare to retire, adapt airport marketing and recruitment efforts to attract a more diverse audience, including nontraditional applicants looking to re-enter the workforce. Offering a variety of working arrangements can help attract both younger generations and other skilled candidates who are looking for additional job flexibility not offered by other employers. Sustain Quantifiable Outcomes/Measures of Impact 1. Attendance size at airport-sponsored career fairs and/or targeted training opportunities. 2. Strength and number of active partnerships with local employers and community associations. 3. Number of nontraditional candidates recruited to open positions. 4. Nontraditional candidates’ satisfaction with their airport work experience. Alternative Approaches • Offer veterans and other nontraditional candidates short-term (e.g., 6-month) assignments to interim positions or positions specifically funded for targeted groups. Individuals would be provided the opportunity to learn the job they are placed in and experience the standard interview process for positions that become available. • Identify informal rotational activities to help inform nontraditional candidates about the different job activities that are performed within an airport environment. • For smaller airports with limited HR support, partner with other local airports or state/national airport associations (e.g., AAAE, ACI-NA) on programs to attract nontraditional candidates. Obstacles & Considerations Key Success Factors Im pl em en t- ati on S te ps

Attracting New Talent 2-19 In addition to focusing on talent sources that are most likely to produce candidates with relevant skills, it is helpful to focus on industries or markets where workers are more likely to be seeking new employment. For example, across industries, there are frequently ebbs and flows in terms of industry demand. In fact, as new technologies emerge and political or purchasing interests shift, different industries fluctuate in terms of their employment opportunities. By tapping into shrinking industries for new talent, airports may have a competitive advantage and find it easier to recruit capable talent than it is in their current talent sources. The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) publishes data that can be used to identify industries that are expected to shrink in employment numbers in the near and longer term. Employees working in these downsizing industries are likely to be seeking employment, and, if their previous industry or job had similar skill requirements as jobs within airports, these employees could be a good fit at an airport. Further, these employees could offer new perspectives based on their experience within other industries. TCRP Report 162 describes this strategy as a means for recruiting employees for hard-to-fill positions (Cronin et al., 2013). The DOL data could also be used to identify employees for new positions that emerge based on changes occurring in the workforce and new skill requirements that airports will need to meet to continue providing high quality service to their customers. One key step to recruiting new airport employees from other industries is to expand the reach of recruitment efforts and seek out candidates from new talent sources. As described in the “Real-World Action Plan 4: Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries Overview of Strategic Recommendation Strategy Highlights • Identifies new types of job candidates who could be targeted to fill open positions • Provides airports with a larger pool of potential applicants • Requires understanding of relevant labor market data and trends Real-World Example San Diego International Airport worked with a statewide airports’ agency to develop a career page so people across the state can explore different airport careers. This career page also provides internship and job opportunities that residents, from any industry, can view and click on to be linked to the airport site to apply. Description. Many airport jobs require airport-specific knowledge, some of which can be taught on the job. However, for a number of mission-critical occupations (MCOs), skills from other fields of employment may be transferable to the airport industry. Specifically, skills for trades or highly technical jobs must be found outside of airport training and education (T&E) programs because those programs offer few courses in the trades skills. For example, MCOs like Engineer, Electrician, and Information Technology Specialist are all jobs for which searching outside of the airport industry might prove to be a necessary strategy for talent sourcing (see ACRP Web-Only Document 28 for the eight MCOs and a review of current airport T&E).

2-20 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity K-12 Comm College 4-Year College Graduate School Early Career Mid-Career Late Career Retirees Example” presented here, teaming up with other airports, agencies, or regional organizations is another way to reach new audiences. Partnerships to promote broader outreach can be used in conjunction with cross-industry recruitment to create a robust recruitment strategy for airport jobs. To attract high quality job candidates from other industries, it is important to also consider the likely job arrangements (e.g., flexibilities), compensation, and benefits that were made available to that workforce. It is important to conduct market research on these aspects of the industry from which talent is being sought to ensure similar positive aspects of airport employment are highlighted in recruitment material. One leader with experience at multiple large airports said that it is necessary to make pay appealing to be able to attract people from other some candidates may be willing to take a pay cut if other positive employment aspects are featured, such Target Career Stages Mission-Critical Airport Occupations Targeted Workforce Types Target Audience Engineer Financial Analysis & Planning IT Project Planning Airport Development Airport Ops Airport Security Electrician Real-World Example The City of Long Beach Public Works Department had plans to lay off workers from their painting division. Long Beach Airport looked at the qualifications of the painters and hired them internally for painting and maintenance services, which enabled Long Beach Airport to terminate its third-party contracts for painting services. Pro Tip Employees in other industries may not believe they have the skills needed for airport jobs. It can be helpful to map how the knowledge and skills of workers in a particular industry or field translate to specific careers within an airport. Senior/Exec Leadership Frontline Workers Mid-Level Leaders Administrative Support Staff Technical Personnel First-Line Supervisors Action Plan 4 Cont’d: Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries as less travel and increased work-life balance compared to a private-sector job. Further, attracting talent from other industries may be best accomplished by highlighting the similarities between different career paths to demonstrate how skills are transferable. Still, to ensure the recruitment strategy translates into effective retention of new talent, it is also imperative that the airport recognize the adjustments required of employees moving across industries. Such employees should be offered adequate support and onboarding training to equip them with the airport-specific expertise necessary for success from the onset of employment. industries into the airport. While airport salaries may not be commensurate with the private sector,

Attracting New Talent 2-21 Other Key Stakeholders • Airport senior leadership • Data analysts to review employment numbers and industrial profiles Action Plan Lead(s) • HR personnel or steering committee • Hiring managers Resources Needed: • Staff or consultant to identify key jobs and links to other industries • Access to data regarding employment numbers in the local area • Industry profiles including information on employment numbers Implementation Lead(s) • Designated HR personnel • Steering committee for recruitment Estimated Time to Implement 0-3 months 3-6 months 7 months – 1 year More than 1 year Key Stakeholder(s) • Data analysts • Recruiters • HR contacts in other industries Return on Investment 0-2 years 3-5 years 6-8 years 8+ years Implementation Factors 1. Identify airport jobs that require skill sets similar to those in other industries to determine the types of jobs that would benefit from recruiting new employees to the airport in this manner. 2. Create a plan to show how local industries or employers could provide the skill sets needed for mission-critical or open airport jobs. 3. Share the benefits that hiring employees from different industries with needed skills will bring to the airport, such as decreased training needs and new ideas coming from employees of different backgrounds. 4. Share benefits and plan with leadership to obtain full buy-in. Pr oc es s fo r O bt ai ni ng B uy -In Planning Features Action Plan 4 Cont’d: Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries

2-22 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity 1. Determine which mission-critical jobs do not require previous airport experience. Recruiting from other industries does not make sense for all airport jobs. For example, jobs within Airport Operations may require employees to have very specific airport-related knowledge from either prior airport work experience or airport training and education. On the other hand, some airport management or administrative jobs (e.g., finance, procurement) may not require prior airport experience at the point of hire, and any necessary airport knowledge could be gained from initial training and on-the-job experiences. 2. Identify the knowledge, skill and ability (KSA) requirements for identified jobs. New hires must be selected based upon the relevance of their KSAs for the job tasks that they will be required to perform upon entry — selecting solely based on relevant KSAs is the law. Thus, the airport must ensure job descriptions are up-to-date and the criteria used in the hiring process map to actual job requirements. The required KSAs are best determined by conducting a job analysis, though common KSAs for several mission-critical occupations can be found in ACRP Web-Only Document 28. The required KSAs for each target job should be well documented and used to guide the determination of talent sources (i.e., industries/organizations/programs likely to include or reach individuals with those KSAs). 3. Select jobs that require similar skill sets to the target airport jobs. Reputable, scientifically founded databases exist that organize jobs according to job duties and required KSAs to perform those duties. One example is the O*NET Occupational Information Network (www.onetonline.org). By reviewing the knowledge and skill requirements for the target airport jobs, other jobs with similar skills can be identified. 4. Identify shrinking industries with jobs comparable to the identified airport MCOs. Industries that are shrinking are expected to have fewer jobs available in the future, which means that employees from the industry will likely be seeking new employment opportunities. See Bureau of Labor Statistics website (www.bls.gov, e.g., www.bls.gov/emp/ep_table_105.htm). 5. Create job advertisements that target individuals from jobs and industries outside of airports. Job advertisements to target new types of employees should differ from those used to recruit employees who are already in the airport industry. These job advertisements should highlight the skills that are transferable between the identified jobs/industries and the target airport jobs, as well as the benefits of pursuing a career within the airport. 6. Advertise job openings in places that will reach candidates from new industries. Recruiting materials may need to be revamped to target employees outside of airports. This means that traditional ways of advertising jobs, such as airport membership associations, will likely not reach the intended audiences. Membership associations for other industries, state JobWorks websites, and job search engines like Indeed, CareerBuilder, TheLadders, or LinkedIn serve as good starting places to post job ads to reach new audiences. Action Plan 4 Cont’d: Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries Im pl em en ta ti on S te ps

Attracting New Talent 2-23 Action Plan 4 Cont’d: Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries Sustain Quantifiable Outcomes/Measures of Impact 1. Number of qualified applicants for key airport jobs 2. Number of applicants with experience in targeted industries 3. Employees recruited from outside the airport industry 4. Time to fill open positions Alternative Approaches • Rather than focusing on entire industries that are downsizing, airports can focus on local employers who are downsizing or certain types of employees likely to be looking for work in the local community. • Consider more direct outreach to companies undergoing downsizing or unions and other organizations that support individuals in those industries. For example, the airport could host a career fair or info session with a local union for facilities maintenance technicians. Adapting to Industry Change • New Technologies: When looking to other industries to identify new employees, airports need to consider their emerging technology requirements and industries that may be ahead of airports in terms of technology implementation, thus having employees who will be well positioned to work with technological improvements. • Compensation Competition: Employees from other industries may be accustomed to higher salaries. When recruiting, airports need to determine the types of benefits and job offer packages that they can provide to employees from other industries that will aid in enticing them to consider airport jobs. Obstacles & Considerations Key Success Factors • Municipally operated airports may be faced with certain obstacles; for example, civil service job descriptions may require specific credentials (e.g., degrees, certifications) that applicants from other industries may not have. • The presence or lack of a union for a position may be a deterrent for some. • There may not be jobs or industries that have employees with the skills needed for some mission-critical jobs. • Highlight benefits of working in airports (e.g., better work-life balance). • Showcase positive features of benefit programs offered. • Highlight the value of working within an industry that is vital to the local economy and vitality of the community as airports connect residents to the outside world. • Emphasize career paths to demonstrate the long-term career potential.

2-24 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Practical Tools and Resources for Attracting New Talent Tools and Resources Action Plan Page Employer Branding Discussion Guide Develop an Employer Brand 2-28 Internship Program Development Checklist Develop Internships and Apprenticeships 2-30 Guide to Public Resources to Recruit Employees from Other Industries Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries 2-33 The three tools and resources are described here, followed by the links to additional resources and the newly created tools and resources. Employer Branding Discussion Guide • This tool applies to Action Plan 1: Develop an Employer Brand • The tool can be used to interview employees about what aspects of their experiences at the airport should be reflected in the employer brand. Topics covered include: o What employees like about working there o Employee values o Organizational culture o Perceptions and priorities regarding compensation Internship Program Development Checklist • This tool applies to Action Plan 2: Develop Internships and Apprenticeships • The tool guides airports through the major tasks involved in establishing an effective internship program. Topics covered include: o Defining program goals and structure o Developing the intern job description o Recruiting and selecting interns o Developing the program o Conducting internship assessment and review Guide to Public Resources to Recruit Employees from Other Industries • This tool applies to Action Plan 4: Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries • This tool provides guidance to recruit employees from other industries using publicly accessible resources. Specifically, the guidance can help airports: As a way to help airports implement the action plans described in this chapter, three tools have been developed to guide strategy implementation efforts. Additionally, several links to publicly available resources that provide further information or effective practices for implementing each action plan have been identified. Each of the tools and practical resources included in this chapter, along with the action plan with which they are associated and the page number on which they begin, are provided in the table below.

Attracting New Talent 2-25 o Use O*NET to select jobs or industries where employees would have relevant skills o Use Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data to identify shrinking industries and occupations with employees with skills transferable to the airport Links to Additional Resources In addition to the tools that have been developed specifically for this Guidebook, there are numerous publicly available resources that airport managers can access to find more information about different strategies or support implementation of the associated action plans. A sample of resources to support airports with the challenge of Attracting New Talent are provided in the following table, organized by the action plan to which they primarily relate. Note: These links were active at the time the resource was identified. While the links may change over time, a browser search of the resource titles should lead to valuable materials. Action Plan 1: Develop an Employer Brand Source Resource Description and Link Society for Human The Employer Brand: A Strategic Tool to Attract, Recruit, and Retain Talent This resource from the SHRM provides an overview of employer branding along with tips and effective practices based on their research with HR professionals. https://www.shrm.org/ResourcesAndTools/tools-and- samples/hr-qa/Documents/08- 0201StaffingInsert_FINAL.pdf Fast Company Why These 4 Companies Are Getting Serious About Their Employer Brands Fast Company describes the unique ways that GE, UPS, Sam Adams, and Foundation Medicine are enhancing their employer brands. The article includes embedded videos produced by several of the companies. https://www.fastcompany.com/3057020/why-these-4- companies-are-getting-serious-about-their-employer- brands LinkedIn Talent Blog Checklist: Employer Branding Tools and Tactics Every Modern Recruiter Should Know This article discusses some basics of employer branding and provides a lengthy list of “Employer Brand Vehicles, Techniques, and Approaches” that HR professionals should be familiar with. https://business.linkedin.com/talent- solutions/blog/employer-brand/2016/checklist-employer- branding-tools-and-tactics-every-modern-recruiter-should- know Resource Management (SHRM)

2-26 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Action Plan 2: Develop Internships and Apprenticeships Source Resource Description and Link National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) 15 Best Practices for Internship Programs NACE shares simple best practices that any organization should consider when developing their own internship programs in order to appeal to applicants and effectively manage the program. http://www.naceweb.org/talent- acquisition/internships/15-best-practices-for-internship- programs/ Department of Labor (DOL) ApprenticeshipUSA Toolkit DOL provides a diverse set of resources for employers looking to establish federally recognized internship programs, including FAQs, information on apprenticeship partnership models, and guidance on registering your apprenticeship program. https://www.dol.gov/apprenticeship/toolkit.htm DOL Apprenticeship Assessment and Planning Tool This resource presents a step-by-step approach to assessing whether an apprenticeship program is right for your organization, designing the program, and evaluating outcomes. https://www.dol.gov/apprenticeship/docs/RA- Planning-Tool.pdf Action Plan 3: Recruit Nontraditional Candidates Source Resource Description and Link Edge4Vets Edge4Vets This program, described in Case Study #1, helps veterans to translate their strengths from the military into tools for quality performance in the civilian workplace. It has been successfully piloted at LAX and can be adapted to airports of varying sizes. http://edge4vets.com/ DOL Veterans' Employment and Training Service Hire a Veteran This site provides employers with assistance in finding qualified veterans in their area, and includes a toolkit and information about relevant policies and programs. https://www.dol.gov/vets/hire/index.htm Monster Tapping Retirees for Contingent Workforce Needs This article from job search site Monster.com provides employers with several tips for recruiting retirees to address workforce gaps and tap into the knowledge and skills of highly experienced individuals. https://hiring.monster.com/hr/hr-best-practices/recruiting- hiring-advice/strategic-workforce-planning/contingent- workforce.aspx

Attracting New Talent 2-27 Action Plan 4: Recruit Airport Employees from Other Industries Source Resource Description and Link ACRP ACRP Web- Only Document 28 This ACRP resource, which also provided the foundation for this Guidebook, has helpful information for those planning to recruit from other industries, including data on employment trends in various industries, as well as data on occupations that are in high or low demand in each state. The data can help airports develop a strategy for what industries to recruit from and where to focus their efforts. http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/acrp/acrp_webdoc_028.pdf Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment by Major Industry Sector This BLS dataset provides current, detailed data on employment trends in different industry sectors that can be used to help airports focus their efforts to recruit from other industries. Other relevant datasets can also be found on the BLS site. https://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_table_201.htm

2-28 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Purpose and Overview When developing an employer brand, it is helpful to engage current employees to understand common aspects of the employee experience and learn what they value about working for the airport. Their perspectives can then be reflected in the airport’s employee value proposition (EVP) and the broader employer brand. This guide provides sample questions that airport leaders or HR personnel can ask groups of airport staff to begin formulating the employer brand, as described in Action Plan 1: Develop an Employer Brand. The questions cover four topics on which current employees can typically provide valuable insights: positive aspects of working at the airport, employee values and goals, organizational culture, and compensation. Airport leaders can integrate the themes that emerge from employees with the strategic human capital goals of the organization to develop a cohesive employer brand. Discussion Introduction You may wish to explain the following topics when you initiate a discussion with employees: • Purpose: The purpose of this discussion is to help guide strategy and branding of employee recruiting, retention, and development efforts. • Format: The session will involve a series of questions and an open discussion to better understand what you like about working at the airport, what your career goals and values are, how you view the airport work culture, and how compensation impacts your motivation and commitment to the organization. This will help in determining what information to present to future employees. • Confidentiality: All of the information shared will be non-attributional, in that no specific comments you share will be associated with you. No names or personally identifiable information will be recorded. Consolidated information from the discussion will be used to guide employer branding going forward. Being open and honest with your feedback will help us to better align our strategy and branding to reflect employee perspectives. Positive Aspects of Working at the Airport 1. What initially attracted you to apply for a position at the airport? 2. What are some things that you enjoy about working at the airport? What aspects of this airport are you most proud of? 3. What experiences do people get working at the airport that they would be unable to get elsewhere? 4. What aspects of working at the airport do you look forward to each day? What motivates you to perform your job well? Employer Branding Discussion Guide Tool to: Attract New Talent

Attracting New Talent 2-29 Employee Values and Goals 5. What are the most important factors for you when choosing where to work? 6. How does your experience working at the airport reflect your personal values? 7. To what extent does the airport’s impact on the community motivate you or factor into your decision to work here? 8. What goals do you have for your career at the airport? 9. How have your airport leaders, supervisors, or other colleagues helped you to achieve those goals? Have any training or development activities been particularly helpful in achieving your career goals? Organizational Culture 10. What do you think are the airport’s more meaningful traditions or shared experiences? 11. What qualities do people need to be successful here? 12. What are your favorite aspects of the work environment? 13. How do people at the airport work collaboratively or show support for each other? 14. What common goals or values do people across the airport share? Total Compensation 15. How important was compensation in your decision to join the airport? How important is it in your decision to continue working here? 16. How well do you feel that pay and pay raises reflect employee performance? 17. How do the employee benefits you receive help you to be successful in both your personal and professional life? (Note that benefits may also include intangible aspects of the job, such as work-life balance.) 18. Among the employee benefits offered by the airport, which do you find to be the most valuable to you? 19. Besides pay, how are you rewarded or recognized for doing a good job? 20. How else has the airport invested in your career development (e.g., training, conference attendance, professional/leadership development activities)?

2-30 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Purpose and Overview This tool is designed to help airports better understand the steps involved in developing, implementing, and monitoring the effectiveness of internship programs. It primarily consists of discrete tasks that can be checked off as airports develop their programs, but it also includes questions to consider and tips that may be helpful at various points in the process. While it is not critical that airport staff perform every step listed when instituting internship programs, the more of them that they are able to accomplish, the more likely it is that the program will attract qualified and capable applicants. 1. DEFINE INTERNSHIP PROGRAM GOALS AND STRUCTURE Check off each item as completed []: [ ] Specify overall program goals. [ ] Create a work plan for setting up the internship program. The work plan should at a minimum: [ ] Specify how the program will be structured in terms of duration, work hours (# per week), schedule (arrival/departure times), and number of interns. [ ] Outline the compensation structure including whether paid/unpaid, benefits (if applicable), developmental opportunities (e.g., conference attendance), and potential CPE (continuing professional education) credits. [ ] Designate an individual(s) to oversee the program. Identify champions to help support the program and introduce the program across the airport. Questions to consider when defining program goals 1. What will be the primary purpose of the internship program? For example: a. Will the internship program be used as a recruitment tool to find your next full- time employees? b. Will the program simply be a way to find talent for immediate needs? c. Will the program serve as a community engagement approach – to build a good rapport with the community by helping support youth/workforce development? 2. How will the internship program be mutually beneficial to students and your airport? How might the airport want to create stronger ties with local colleges and universities? 3. What level of involvement will interns have with airport operations, administrative functions, passenger services, safety and security, and other core functions? What level of responsibility will interns be given during their term? 4. How will the internship be kept interesting and valuable to interns as a learning experience? 5. How will the internship program impact the workload of regular employees during peak workloads or provide the resources for special projects to be completed? 6. How will the internship experience translate into future employment opportunities? (For example, in a municipality-run airport, a promise of future employment may not be possible. Expectations should be made clear to interns at the start.) Internship Program Development Checklist Tool to: Attract New Talent

Attracting New Talent 2-31 [ ] Identify supportive, enrichment elements to incorporate into the program such as periodic social events, developmental exercises, special projects, and job rotations that expose interns to multiple facets of the organization and to key leaders. [ ] Create a business case for the internship and obtain buy-in from the top. (Note: Demonstrating airport leadership support for the program can help interns feel included and encourage other airport employees to respect their contributions.) 2. DEVELOP JOB DESCRIPTION FOR INTERN JOB [ ] Describe where in the organization (i.e., department or unit) the intern will primarily serve, how it contributes to the airport mission, as well as any rotations outside of that unit. [ ] Define job duties and responsibilities. Consider what a typical day would look like and list out those tasks. [ ] Define the level of skills, education, and experience required upon entry into the job based on the duties/tasks to be performed. (Note: Legally, skills must be job relevant and necessary at entry versus qualifications that might be desirable to see.) 3. RECRUIT AND SELECT Recruitment Sources [ ] Identify local colleges and universities. [ ] Identify local high schools and technical schools. [ ] Identify professional associations (e.g., AAAE, ACI-NA) to help market the internship. [ ] Identify online job boards to seek talent. Recruitment Periods [ ] Establish a timeline for recruiting based upon the desired season of the internship, keeping typical school calendars in mind. Screening Candidates [ ] Establish a set of qualifications, experiences, and interests that align with the position. [ ] Review candidate resume for relevant experience and qualifications. [ ] Involve employees who would work directly with intern in screening/interviews. [ ] Use a structured protocol that includes open-ended interview questions to enable fair comparisons across applicants for required skills and organizational fit. [ ] Score/rank candidates based on all of the above. Rule of Thumb: Start recruiting interns 3–4 months prior to the internship start date. Identify candidates whose interests and experience align with the job description. Conduct interviews to validate that alignment and fit with the organizational/team culture.

2-32 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity 4. DEVELOP A COMPREHENSIVE INTERNSHIP PROGRAM Create Company Orientation [ ] Describe airport’s mission and culture. [ ] Provide an overview of the airport structure and where the intern fits into the organization. [ ] Explain department roles and the interdependencies between roles. Clarify who the intern should contact for specific needs/resources and where to find information. Create Training Program and Provide Support [ ] Set up workstation and required equipment. [ ] Provide an explanation of intern duties. [ ] Identify intern’s supervisor and any others required to train intern on technical duties. [ ] Identify a mentor (typically a senior leader or highly tenured employee) to provide guidance on career development, navigating the workplace, and other non-technical matters. 5. INTERNSHIP ASSESSMENT AND REVIEW Assessment of Intern [ ] Monitor intern; provide frequent and scheduled feedback (e.g., biweekly meetings). [ ] Obtain self-assessment from intern (e.g., after 6 weeks). [ ] Provide program-end performance review. Evaluation of Internship Program [ ] Develop evaluation criteria based on previously identified program goals. Consider creating a pre- and post-internship evaluation where intern skill development is assessed. [ ] Assess the outcome of the internship program using feedback from multiple sources (e.g., intern, supervisor, peers). [ ] Review and revise (if necessary) program goals and structure after first 6 months and annually thereafter based on evaluation results.

Attracting New Talent 2-33 Purpose and Overview This tool provides guidance regarding how to recruit employees from other industries and the resources available to support this strategy. This tool also identifies the current resources (e.g., websites) that can be used to identify information about the workforce of different industries. Specifically, direction is provided that can help airports understand how to: 1. Use O*NET to select jobs or industries in which employees will have relevant skills. 2. Use Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data to identify shrinking industries and occupations that have employees with skills comparable to the mission-critical occupations. Identifying Jobs or Industries with Relevant Skill Requirements O*NET is an online resource that includes occupational information about jobs across the United States, which is sponsored by the Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration and has been publicly available online since 1998. As a first step in identifying jobs with relevant skill requirements, it is necessary to understand the skills required for the jobs that are being filled. To do this, each occupation can be examined on O*NET. Once the skills for airport jobs have been identified, occupations with similar skill requirements can be explored. Depending on the skill selected, the list of occupations requiring that skill may be more focused (e.g., jobs that require repairing skills) or they may represent a wide range of jobs and industries (e.g., jobs that require critical thinking skills). The process to accomplish these activities is shown in Steps 1a through 4c of the following images. While major changes to O*NET are not anticipated in the near future, it is possible some variation from these images may occur if the O*NET website is updated. Guide to Public Resources to Recruit Employees from Other Industries Tool to: Attract New Talent

2-34 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity

Attracting New Talent 2-35 Note: The dark grey box is the same as the box shown in 3a; the intent of this figure in 3b is to show what is featured when any particular KSA is selected on the screen shown in 3a.

2-36 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity

Attracting New Talent 2-37 Using BLS Data to Explore Shrinking Industries or Occupations When looking to recruit airport employees from other industry and occupational areas, the most success is achieved when other industries are not also seeking to employ employees with similar skills. As such, a focus on identifying shrinking occupations or industries can be beneficial in recruitment strategy. Data provided on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics website (www.bls.org) can be used to identify and explore potential sources for recruiting employees. Identifying Shrinking Industries As a first step (see Step A), current and projected industry employment numbers can be examined to identify the shrinking industries. This is accomplished by comparing the most recent employment numbers (e.g., 2016 data here) to the 10-year projections (e.g., 2026). Within BLS, Table 2.1: Employment by major industry sector shows this projection data. These data can be used to identify industries that hold the most promise for having employees who are looking for employment opportunities in new areas (e.g., shrinking industries, large industries that are growing slowly). Two steps to take in identifying promising industries are presented in the following images.

2-38 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Identifying Shrinking Occupations While airports may be able to target new employees at the industry level, it can also be beneficial to examine individual occupations to determine if there are any shrinking occupations that are related to airport MCOs in terms of skill requirements (see Step B). Within BLS, Table 1.5: Fastest declining occupations gives an overview of the occupations that are expected to experience the greatest decreases in size in the next 10 years. Alternatively, if there are specific occupations that an airport would like to explore, the projections for each occupation are available in BLS in Table 1.2: Employment by detailed occupation. Looking at this information can help an airport understand how much competition there will be for employees in a specific occupation; if the occupation is growing quickly, it will likely be more difficult to bring employees into airport jobs than if there is a decline or slow growth in employment for the occupation. The following images display how to access and use this occupation-level information.

Attracting New Talent 2-39

2-40 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Case Studies Related to Attracting New Talent The three case studies in the following table present examples of creative ways airports are implementing strategies to attract new talent: Case Studies Airport Characteristics Page Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) Large, municipal 2-41 San Diego International Airport (SAN) Large, airport authority 2-42 Salina Regional Airport (SLN) Small, airport authority 2-43 Overview of Case Study 1: Los Angeles International Airport described a nationwide program that was successfully implemented to engage nontraditional candidates (veterans in this case) and prepare them for airport careers. It provides a structured format that can be replicated at airports across the country to help veterans find meaningful work at airports. Overview of Case Study 2: San Diego International Airport implemented a 3-month structured internship program for undergraduates and graduate students. It exposes participants to airport leaders as well as the day-to-day activities within various airport career paths. Overview of Case Study 3: Salina Regional Airport supports embedded industry field labs that are built into KSU’s airport management degree program to give students more real-world exposure to the industry. These labs help build airport knowledge and provide the future airport workforce with firsthand experience solving airport challenges. Case Studies for: Attracting New Talent

Attracting New Talent 2-41 Program: Recruiting Nontraditional Candidates Edge4Vets Summary of Strategy: The Edge4Vets program helps prepare veterans for civilian sector jobs by helping them identify their skills and participate in a workshop with mentors who are HR personnel and hiring managers. The pilot program conducted at LAX connected veterans with airport HR personnel in an all-day workshop that included facilitated assessments, exercises, and a networking lunch. Throughout the session, participants developed a professional profile that they could add to their resume to highlight their individual strengths and apply their military experience to airport careers. Seven veterans were able to receive job offers at the end of the day, and others had built connections with airport employers to pursue future opportunities. Solutions Challenges Encountered • Cost of meeting space and funding needed to sustain program over time • Ensuring sufficient exposure of each veteran to employers • Request hotel donate space and work with employers to provide ongoing support • Provide assigned seating to ensure mix of employers and veterans at each table Strategy in Action Case Study 1: LAX Airport, Los Angeles, CA Size Large Mid-size Small Additional Characteristics • Southern California has a large population of homeless and unemployed veterans • At the time this case study was developed, LAX had over 600 job vacancies Governance Model Municipal Airport Authority Other Authority (e.g., port authority) • Host a raffle at the end of the day to encourage people to stay for the entire day • Local news participation helps to publicize the event • Security positions align naturally with the skills and experience of veterans Lessons Learned Airport Features Strategy Highlights • Helped prepare veterans for civilian jobs and connect the airport to quality job candidates

2-42 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Program: Airport Career Experience (ACE) Internship Program Strategy in Action Summary of Strategy: SAN developed distinct internship opportunities for graduate and undergraduate students. They recruited 15 undergraduate interns over a 3-month period. About 70% of their time is devoted to one department; the remainder is spent exploring different departments and working on cross-functional, multidisciplinary projects. The graduate program is a smaller, 6-month program spent entirely in one department. Prior to developing the program, SAN conducted a strategic analysis to understand where their talent was coming from, the demographics of their workforce, and opportunities to attract candidates from local communities. They conducted workforce planning to determine what skills and capabilities were needed and then positioned the ACE internship program accordingly. Solutions Challenges Encountered • Need for managers to understand their responsibility for managing interns • Managers go to 90-minute mentorship training before interns begin Case Study 2: San Diego International Airport, San Diego, CA Airport Features Size Large Mid-size Small Additional Characteristics • Following a transition to an independent airport authority, SAN has rebranded itself to focus on innovation and sustainability. Governance Model Municipal Airport Authority Other Authority (e.g., port authority) • Provides opportunity for employees to learn from those at premiere educational institutions and to develop skills in management and mentorship • It can be beneficial to hire back the interns after they gain experience for a few years Lessons Learned Strategy Highlights • Strategically-planned internship program with tracks for both undergraduate and graduate students

Attracting New Talent 2-43 Case Study 3: Salina Regional Airport (SLN), Salina, KS Summary of Strategy: Embedded Industry Field Labs are built into KSU’s airport management classes to give students more real-world exposure to the industry. Each class has a minimum of five labs during which an industry expert teaches the students on a relevant topic (e.g., construction contracts, GIS). Labs are typically structured in two 1.5-hour sessions, and students are required to complete a project to demonstrate what they learned. With its location at the site of the university, SLN has been the most predominant provider of the labs. The airport’s responsibilities include determining a topic for the lab, providing advance reading material, developing a scoring rubric for the project, teaching the session, and assisting with grading. If the instructor has the availability to attend the second session, they will also help with following up and providing feedback to students. The airport benefits from these labs by helping to develop the airport leaders of the future, and more immediately, by identifying students for internships and positions after graduation. Program: Embedded Industry Field Labs Strategy in Action Size Large Mid-size Small Additional Characteristics • Kansas State University Polytechnic Campus is located onsite. Governance Model Municipal Airport Authority Other Authority (e.g., port authority) Airport Features Strategy Highlights • Industry experts teach KSU students practical topics • SLN staff teach the lab and provide assistance with planning and grading • The airport helps to develop future leaders and has a source for internships and positions for new graduates

2-44 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Solutions Challenges Encountered • Lack of resources to dedicate to long-term workforce development strategies • Airport may not be located physically near program • Labs require minimal burden and cost from the airport • Labs can be conducted virtually Lessons Learned • Leadership buy-in is critical for program success • Students may need additional coaching during initial labs, as they present a new way of learning with different expectations in comparison to traditional coursework

Next: Chapter 3: Building Internal Staff Capacity »
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 186: Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity is the final product of a two-phase study to identify and evaluate workforce requirements for airports.

Phase I, previously published as ACRP Web-Only Document 28, gathered information to analyze current and future airport job requirements and identify mission-critical airport occupations; assess the potential of current airport education, training, and resources to address workforce gaps; and project airport workforce capacity needs over the next 5 to 10 years.

ACRP Research Report 186, which is the product of Phase II, builds on that preliminary analysis to identify optimal workforce planning and development strategies and best practices designed to help airports prepare their workforce for emerging industry changes.

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