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4-1 Chapter 4: Planning for Future Workforce Needs Planning for future workforce needs is crucial for airports because it helps to ensure that airports will have the right people in the right jobs. This will enable airports to better achieve strategic goals and operate effectively, even in a changing environment. Chapter Overview This chapter addresses two workforce capacity needs related to planning for future airport workforce needs. The strategies in this chapter can help airports take proactive measures to ensure that they have employees to fill important positions, retain institutional knowledge as older generations of employees retire and newer generations move into leadership positions, and prepare employees to fill leadership roles as they are vacated. The specific workforce capacity needs related to this challenge include the following: F. Preparing employees for advancement G. Engaging in workforce planning The research conducted to identify these workforce capacity needs is further detailed in ACRP Web-Only Document 28. Within this chapter, four detailed action plans are included to address the two workforce capacity needs. The strategies featured in these action plans include the following: Create Career Pathways Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning Implement Strategic Succession Planning Following the action plans, there are four separate tools that can guide airports through strategy implementation related to planning for future workforce needs. They include the following: Career Pathway Guide Template Individual Development Plan (IDP) Template Job Profile Template Career Transition Checklist Finally, the chapter concludes with three case studies that demonstrate how airports have successfully implemented strategies related to planning for future workforce needs.
4-2 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Description of the Workforce Capacity Challenge Workforce sustainability and continuity of operations are critical to airports amidst significant industry fluctuations. To adequately prepare for the known and unknown futures of the industry, airports should focus on identifying and nurturing their high-potential employees, so they are ready to assume new, higher level positions as needed. For example, airports are facing many impending retirements over the next 5â10 years, particularly at leadership levels. Without proper planning, these widespread retirements could result in workforce gaps as well as a major loss of institutional knowledge and skills. Previously, airports have taken a âfill the job nowâ approach, which takes focus and resources away from investing in and developing entry- and mid-level staff. As a result, entry- and mid-level employees may lack the leadership and managerial skills required to fill leadership roles. This becomes an increasingly critical issue as more and more airport employees become eligible for retirement. Career portability presents another challenge, as many younger employees do not anticipate spending several years in one organization. These individuals are typically less concerned with long-term job security and retirement benefits and more concerned with higher pay, which airports are often unable to offer. As such, it will be necessary for airports to develop more creative means to retain the younger workforce and then develop and prepare them for advancement. These challenges could potentially cause widespread vacancies in leadership positions, which could then lead to disruptions in operations and a decline in the airportâs overall performance. To prevent this from occurring, airports should act proactively to 1. Prepare employees for advancement. Providing employees training, education, and developmental opportunities aligned with critical positions as well as employeesâ areas of interest can help retain employees and prepare them to advance into higher level positions when vacancies occur. However, preparing employees for advancement goes beyond just offering educational opportunities. It involves ensuring that there are mechanisms in place to share knowledge among employees to decrease the loss of institutional knowledge when employees leave the organization. Preparation also involves showing employees a clear path to advancement and helping them to follow it. 2. Engage in workforce planning. The value in workforce planning is that it can help airports assess their future workforce requirements while they still have time to meaningfully prepare for them. Through workforce planning, airports can ensure that they have sufficient staff to fill anticipated vacancies in the future and that these staff have the technical and personal effectiveness skills needed to keep pace with industry change and a dynamic airport environment. It can also help airports understand the Airports must act proactively to plan for workforce needs and prevent widespread vacancies and operational inefficiencies that may result from industry challenges. Stakeholders who participated in Phase I of this effort indicated that many critical positions at airports may not have even a single potential successor to fill a role when an employee departs.
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-3 extent to which the community is able to provide employees to meet future workforce needs. The following infographics present highlights of the insights and data contained in ACRP Web- Only Document 28 regarding the challenge of planning for future workforce needs.
4-4 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-5 Action Plans for Planning for Future Workforce Needs This section presents four action plans that airports can implement as they begin to plan for future workforce needs. Each action plan provides an overview of a strategy, implementation steps, resource requirements, and alternate approaches. The following table provides an overview of the four action plans included in this chapter. Action Plan Overview Page Create Career Pathways One way to prepare for future workforce needs is to motivate current employees and job seekers to see airports as a long-term career option. Career pathways depict the myriad ways an airport career can progress using diagrams of links between various roles in the industry, job descriptions, and relevant training, education, and developmental opportunities. They can motivate employees to stay with the airport over the long term and help them develop a plan to make their career aspirations a reality. 4-6 Leverage Expertise of Retirement- Eligible Employees Many retirement-eligible employees within airports possess decades of experience, and airports risk losing much of their accumulated knowledge and expertise suddenly when they retire. To combat this possibility, airports can pursue a range of related strategies, including exit interviews or expertise inventories, retaining retirees to serve as advisors or mentors, and phased retirement programs. These efforts can help airports to retain critical institutional knowledge and allow retirement-eligible employees to transition more gradually. 4-10 Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning Planning for the future requires airports to look beyond their current workforce and applicant pool to support a community-based approach to workforce development. By engaging with other community stakeholders like workforce development boards and training and education providers, airports can increase the chances that they will continue to have applicants with the skills and experience required for success in the future. Success is dependent on airports accurately identifying their own needs, assessing the availability of skills in their local area, and working effectively with partners to develop those skills in the local workforce. 4-16 Implement Strategic Succession Planning Airports face potentially large numbers of baby boomer retirements, especially among senior leadership. Strategic succession planning can help to mitigate the risk of knowledge loss and organizational instability by preparing high-potential (HIPO) employees to step into senior leadership positions that are anticipated to become vacant. Succession planning typically involves identifying critical positions, the capabilities and expertise required for success in them, the individuals most likely to succeed in them, and the training and developmental experiences to prepare HIPOs for advancement. 4-23
4-6 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity One way airports can do this is through the development and promotion of career pathways. Career pathways demonstrate the possible ways that a career can progress as well as the different jobs an employee may consider as his or her career develops. Typically, career pathways consist of the following: â¢ Diagrams showing the relationships and connections between various roles in an industry across career levels, with regard to both upward mobility in one functional area and mobility across different functional areas; â¢ Job descriptions including key duties and responsibilities; job requirements; and knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs); and â¢ Relevant training, education, and developmental opportunities. Action Plan 9: Create Career Pathways Overview of Strategic Recommendation Strategy Highlights â¢ Provides guidance to employees to help plan for future career aspirations within the airportâs organizational structure â¢ Improves employee retention and engagement â¢ Demonstrates promising career opportunities to motivate employees toward successful performance and potential career advancement Description. Many individuals, including many who already work in airports, are unaware of the numerous career opportunities available in the airport industry. The lack of awareness among job seekers makes it challenging for airports to attract new talent to the industry. This comes at a time when airports are increasingly competing with other industries and organizations for employees in high demand, such as engineers and IT professionals. Additionally, it is difficult for airports to retain employees who may not be able to envision a long-term career trajectory in the industry. If current airport employees lack awareness of their opportunities for movement and advancement within the airport and industry, they may move to other organizations where they perceive greater opportunities. Further adding to this challenge is the aging airport workforce; according to interviews with airport leaders, some airports are at risk of losing up to 50% of their current workforce over the next 5â10 years as a result of baby boomer retirements. Therefore, it is critical for airports to attract, retain, and develop employees to prevent workforce gaps and mitigate any associated risks. Because career pathways can help employees determine where their interests lie and how they can advance in their area of interest, career pathways can aid employees and their supervisors in creating individual development plans. Career pathways also benefit airports at an overall organizational level. By clearly identifying relevant training and education as well as developmental activities, career pathways can help promote a higher
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-7 Airport Development Target Audience(s) â¢ Job seekers â¢ Entry-level through mid-level staff Action Plan Lead(s) â¢ Human resources personnel â¢ Senior management Real-World Example Denver International Airport created career pathways so employees would have a clear understanding of their developmental needs and how to progress in their careers. Career pathways are also discussed in the employeesâ annual evaluation so that they have the opportunity to discuss their career progress and any needs for technical training. K-12 Comm College 4-Year College Graduate School Early Career Mid-Career Late Career Retirees Target Career Stages Mission-Critical Airport Occupations Targeted Workforce Types Action Plan 9 Contâd: Create Career Pathways Planning Features Engineer Financial Analysis & Planning IT Project Planning Airport Ops Airport Security Electrician Resources Needed: â¢ Dedicated staff and funding â¢ Leadership support â¢ Existing job descriptions â¢ Communication materials (e.g., mail memos, newsletters, career pathway diagrams) Target Audience Senior/Exec Leadership Frontline Workers Mid-Level Leaders Administrative Support Staff Technical Personnel First-Line Supervisors quality workforce, which can improve the airportâs performance. Airports can also align competencies and KSAs within career pathways to the overall airportâs strategic objectives, to enhance organizational capabilities (Croteau & Wolk, 2010). For example, airports can align career paths with skills that can help airports to operate effectively under increasingly commercial business models. Additionally, as new technologies emerge and are implemented at airports, the necessary KSAs can be updated to ensure employee capabilities are keeping pace with current industry trends. Career pathways can also drive improvements in employee morale, innovation, and commitment (Campbell et al., 2010). Finally, they can lead to higher levels of employee retention and can be used in marketing materials to attract new talent (Harrington-Hughes and Associates, Inc., 2010).
4-8 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Implementation Lead(s) â¢ Human resources personnel 1. Identify key job duties and responsibilities and knowledge, skills, and abilities for each job. 2. Determine a core set of competencies across jobs within a functional area, based on job duties and responsibilities and knowledge, skills, and abilities. 3. Develop job descriptions based around core competencies, with increasing responsibilities for each job level. Involve employees throughout this process to obtain greater buy-in and support at various levels of the airport. 4. Identify relevant training, education, and developmental opportunities beneficial for advancement or lateral movement. 5. Create career path diagrams depicting connections between jobs linearly and laterally. 6. Develop career pathway guides consolidating job descriptions, relevant training and education, and career pathway diagrams for each career pathway that employees and supervisors can reference to develop IDPs. 7. Assess existing pay grades to ensure proper alignment with career path levels. 8. Develop interview questions based on core competencies and job duties within a function. 9. Align performance review process to core competencies, job duties, and each employeeâs IDP. 10. Assess and evaluate return on investment. Estimated Time to Implement 0-3 months 3-6 months 7 months - 1 year More than 1 year Key Stakeholder(s) â¢ Managers/supervisors and incumbents Return on Investment Less than 1 year 1-3 years 3+ years Implementation Factors 1. Develop communication materials to provide employees with an overview of career paths and benefits (e.g., newsletters, pamphlets). 2. Assemble examples of airports and organizations in other industries currently using and benefitting from career paths. Present return on investment that airports and organizations have experienced. 3. Communicate costs and risks of not implementing career paths. Action Plan 9 Contâd: Create Career Pathways Im pl em en ta ti on S te ps Pr oc es s fo r O bt ai ni ng Bu y- In
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-9 Obstacles & Considerations Key Success Factors â¢ Support from executive leadership â¢ Dedicated staff to develop, implement, and promote career paths â¢ Career pathways aligned with in-demand and growing occupations, to ensure realistic advancement opportunities â¢ Significant dedication of resources required â¢ Compliance with civil service regulations may be required Action Plan 9 Contâd: Create Career Pathways Sustain Quantifiable Outcomes/Measures of Impact 1. Decreased turnover and increased retention rates 2. Increase in internal promotions 3. Increase in self-reported intentions to stay with the organization 4. Increase in employee engagement and organizational commitment Alternative Approach â¢ Develop new job descriptions to provide employees with detailed information regarding critical competencies and knowledge and skills necessary for advancement. While job descriptions do not contain all details regarding relationships between positions and relevant training and development experiences, they can still provide employees with valuable information regarding knowledge and skills needed in jobs they would like to pursue. â¢ Inviting highly experienced employees to discuss their own career paths in a group setting can allow more junior employees to gain exposure to the career opportunities that exist in the airport without the investment required to develop formal career pathways. Adapting to Industry Change â¢ Changing Technologies: Updated job descriptions for the career pathways should reflect rapidly emerging technologies (e.g., beacon technology, passenger analytics, and social media) that require new skill sets and technical expertise and adaptability. â¢ New Business Models: As airports begin moving toward more commercial or entrepreneurial business models, all employees, including those not dealing directly with finances, will need to be mindful of controlling costs and doing more with less, to contribute to the bottom line and overall airport success.
4-10 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Strategy Highlights â¢ Allows airports to retain critical institutional knowledge and expertise that may otherwise be lost when employees retire or leave the airport for other employment â¢ Provides opportunities for retirement-eligible employees to directly pass knowledge down to replacements, especially âknow howâ knowledge or information that is not contained in any organizational records To offset some of the consequences of a high volume of retirements, airports should leverage the expertise of retirement-eligible employees before they depart. By investing in efforts to sustain institutional knowledge, airports will ensure that employees are equipped to take on new roles as soon as needed and maintain continuity at a time of increasing departures. Additionally, leveraging the expertise of retirement-eligible employees can help to communicate the airportâs commitment to its employees, which can increase retention at all levels of the organization. Action Plan 10: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees Overview of Strategic Recommendation Description. Retirement-eligible employees hold critical institutional knowledge that airports risk losing over the next 5â10 years as the baby boomer population exits the workforce. By 2018, nearly all baby boomers will be 55 years and older and will account for 23.9% of the total workforce (Toossi, 2009). Many of the retirement- eligible employees within airports possess decades of experience and, without clear guidance for future workers to assume their vacated roles, this expertise will literally walk out the door. Thus, it is imperative that airports make strategic investments to prepare for these retirements. Those that do not could face programmatic, technical, and âcontextualâ (how-to) knowledge loss; inefficiency in planning and operations (i.e., âreinventing the wheelâ); and excess workforce development costs. For example, one large independently operated airport explained that as of 5 years ago, 51% of all staff and 86% of executive staff were eligible for retirement, suggesting that the airport was at risk of significant knowledge loss. In the last 5 years, following a number of retirements, the proportion of retirement-eligible employees at the airport has declined to 18% and 36%, respectively, signifying that much of the pain has already been felt. Nonetheless, significant risk remains. The airport now faces the challenge of assessing and addressing the impact of institutional knowledge loss on work and organizational performance incurred as a result of recent retirements as it actively plans to reduce any potentially negative impact from future retirements.
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-11 Real-World Example Jacksonville International Airport developed a workforce profile to highlight the large number of retirement-eligible employees, in order to raise awareness of operational risks and gaps that could potentially occur as a result of vacancies, and prompt managers to take action to mitigate these risks. There are various strategies airports can implement to leverage the expertise of retirement-eligible employees. Some valuable strategies include the following: â¢ Conducting exit interviews or implementing expertise inventories to capture these employeesâ knowledge. Exit interviews and expertise inventories can identify where specific functional expertise, technical knowledge, and other institutional knowledge reside within the organization. This can then provide employees across the airport with points of contact for various types of information and facilitate knowledge transfer between experienced, retirement-eligible employees and younger employees. Second, airports can create knowledge repositories to store knowledge and expertise captured through exit interviews and expertise inventories. â¢ Rehiring post-retirement employees to serve in advisory or mentoring capacities. Bringing back retirees as advisors or consultants can facilitate a smoother transition for airports as they experience high levels of employee retirements. In addition to helping airports maintain continuity, this strategy allows post-retirement employees to continue working with and sharing knowledge and expertise with airport employees. Retirees serving in advisory capacities or retirement-eligible employees can also serve as mentors to their replacements. Mentoring relationships can be mutually beneficial to the retirement-eligible employee or retiree and the developing employee, as they demonstrate the value the seasoned employee brings to the organization while also preparing the future incumbent for advancement. â¢ Executing phased retirement programs to provide retirement-eligible employees and the employees with whom they work a transition period to facilitate knowledge transfer. Phased retirement programs allow retirement-eligible employees to work part-time prior to fully retiring. In a survey of employees 50 years and older, AARP found that 57% of employees deemed phased retirement programs âveryâ important (Brown, 2012). Phased retirement programs can help demonstrate the airportâs commitment to and investment in its employees. They can also improve retention for employees who will be approaching retirement over the next 10 years and may be interested in alternative employment options post-retirement. Action Plan 10 Contâd: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees
4-12 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity K-12 Comm College 4-Year College Graduate School Early Career Mid-Career Late Career Retirees Key Stakeholder(s) â¢ Airport leadership (e.g., CEO; director; executive team) â¢ Board of directors Action Plan Lead(s) â¢ HR steering committee â¢ Developing transition plans to help redefine a retireeâs new role. When retaining retirees as consultants or executing a phased retirement, there is a risk of confusion about roles and responsibilities under the new arrangement for the retiree, the employee(s) taking over the retireeâs responsibilities, and airport management. Transition plans can be implemented along with these strategies to mitigate potential confusion or interpersonal conflict. Such plans typically outline the following: o A retireeâs new relationship with the airport o A retireeâs relationship with their incoming replacement o Expectations regarding the new role (e.g., time commitment, performance expectations). Airports can facilitate smooth transitions and maintain continuity during a time of increasing staff departures by retaining retirement-eligible employees who may not be interested in fully retiring immediately and leveraging these employeesâ knowledge and expertise. Additionally, these strategies benefit employees at the mid and entry levels of the organization by further developing the airportâs talent pipeline through facilitating knowledge transfer and mentoring. This will ultimately ensure employees are being prepared to advance into positions that may become vacant due to retirements. Finally, airports can publicize the success of these strategies to demonstrate the airportâs investment in its employees in an effort to attract external candidates. Target Career Stages Mission-Critical Airport Occupations Targeted Workforce Types Action Plan 10 Contâd: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees Engineer Financial Analysis & Planning IT Project Planning Airport Development Airport Ops Airport Security Electrician Target Audience Planning Features Senior/Exec Leadership Frontline Workers Mid-Level Leaders Administrative Support Staff Technical Personnel First-Line Supervisors
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-13 Resources Needed: â¢ Intranet or internal database that can be used to house knowledge and information (e.g., SharePoint) â¢ Dedicated steering committee or working group to develop and implement program(s) Implementation Lead(s) â¢ HR personnel â¢ Division leads or designated workforce planning groups Phased Retirement Program 1. Create workforce profile to identify upcoming retirements and critical positions at risk for vacancy. 2. Identify potential roles for employees to fill in phased retirement program. 3. Promote phased retirement program and develop tailored transition plans for employees, based on roles they are filling. 4. Work individually with employees to develop individual phased retirement programs based on the employeeâs needs as they begin to retire and airport managementâs desire for a smooth transition and continuity. Pr oc es s fo r O bt ai ni ng Bu y- In Estimated Time to Implement 0-3 months 3-6 months 7 months - 1 year More than 1 year Key Stakeholder(s) â¢ Team leads (to support continuous identification and engagement of employees considering retirement) Return on Investment Less than 1 year 1-3 years 3+ years Implementation Factors Action Plan 10 Contâd: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees Im pl em en ta ti on S te ps 1. Use HR data to create a workforce profile by function and position. Project upcoming retirements and share results with leadership to highlight potential workforce gaps. 2. Highlight potential risks and operational challenges that may occur as a result of the vacancies. 3. Communicate benefits of phased retirement and advisory roles to current and upcoming retirement-eligible employees.
4-14 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Obstacles & Considerations Key Success Factors â¢ Include the strategy or strategies being implemented as part of the airportâs strategic plan â¢ Prepare and develop employees internally to fulfill roles at risk for vacancy â¢ Create a âwin-winâ retention strategy that provides retirement-eligible employees with the employment flexibility they desire while retaining their presence and knowledge within the organization Exit Interviews/Expertise Inventories 1. Develop exit interview protocol/expertise inventory to gather knowledge and expertise of retirement-eligible employees, regardless of whether or not they will participate in the phased retirement program or return in an advisory capacity. 2. Conduct interviews with retirement-eligible employees. 3. Implement knowledge repository accessible to all employees and store information gathered in interview for employees to review and utilize as needed. Mentoring and Job Shadowing Please refer to the mentoring and job shadowing strategy action plans in Chapter 3 for implementation details. â¢ Experienced employees may be reluctant to share knowledge or be identified as âready to retireâ for fear of becoming dispensable â¢ Generational differences exist in the work styles of retirement-eligible and younger employees â¢ Exit interview and expertise inventory documents saved in a knowledge repository should be organized to ensure they are quickly and easily searchable Action Plan 10 Contâd: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees Im pl em en ta ti on S te ps Sustain Quantifiable Outcomes/Measures of Impact 1. Decrease in resources spent on attracting and recruiting external candidates 2. Increase in retention of retirement-eligible staff 3. Increase in internal promotions due to mentoring knowledge transfer from experienced employees
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-15 Action Plan 10 Contâd: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees Alternative Approaches â¢ Exit interviews and expertise inventories can be a more cost-effective strategy for airports with few retirement-eligible employees and/or limited resources. â¢ An airport anticipating a large number of retirements and many potential vacancies may find it more effective to implement mentoring and job shadowing programs, in order to act proactively and prepare high-potential employees for advancement. â¢ Airports with greater resources available may choose to implement a phased retirement program while also conducting exit interviews and expertise inventories with employees uninterested in phased retirement. Adapting to Industry Change Changing Demographics: Integrating the new, younger workforce with older, more tenured employees can be challenging due to generational differences in work styles. Promoting knowledge sharing among these employees through mentoring and job shadowing can be beneficial in increasing understanding and decreasing barriers among employees. It can also result in a greater variety of perspectives and skill sets.
4-16 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Supporting development of the local labor force is above all about ensuring that the competencies and skill sets the airport will require in the future can be found in the local community when the time comes. When community members have the relevant skills and are able to fill airport jobs, hiring is more cost efficient, open jobs are filled more quickly, and new hires from the community are more likely to be successful at the airport. Moreover, focusing workforce planning efforts on the local community will help both the airport and the community experience growth and Some examples of the far-reaching benefits of this strategy include the following: â¢ The airport is able to identify and locate needed talent in the local community â¢ Partnerships among the airport, local community members, and community organizations are strengthened Action Plan 11: Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning Overview of Strategic Recommendation Strategy Highlights â¢ Workforce planning focused on the local community provides benefits to the airport as well as local people and educational institutions â¢ By investing in and working with the local community, airports can be proactive in meeting their workforce needs as well as providing benefits to local people and educational institutions â¢ Success is dependent on developing strong relationships with local business and economic organizations, education providers, and community members â¢ Airports need to determine their needs and the availability of skills in their local area to ensure needs can be fulfilled in both the short- and long-term Description. As a part of planning for the future needs of the airport workforce, airport managers should consider how the local labor market can impact their ability to recruit the future airport workforce. In many ways, the airportâs workforce development goals are inextricably linked to the economic development goals of the surrounding community. Consequently, airports may find that working with local community leaders to promote a healthy job market can address the airportâs own workforce challenges while also demonstrating the airportâs commitment to the communities it serves. Many unemployed or underemployed workers in a local labor market can benefit from career opportunities in airports, given the right support. Such individuals are likely to be highly appreciative of these opportunities and the investments the airport has made in their training and development, potentially resulting in increased employee loyalty and retention. sustainability. While this can be an effective strategy for airports of all sizes, it can be particularly impactful for small or rural airports where it is often difficult to attract talent from other regions of the country. It can also be advantageous for attracting skilled labor employees in high-demand occupations such as electricians, who may not be aware of career opportunities within airports.
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-17 Real-World Example An executive officer at Jacksonville International Airport described the importance of creating and examining a workforce profile to better understand current employees by position and function. This includes learning which jobs are at most risk for mass retirements or where skill gaps exist. The airport can then look at skill availability in the local labor market to inform workforce strategy, whether it be partnering with job boards and educational institutions to develop individuals or expanding the talent search to a regional level. â¢ Local educational institutions are able to support career development of current students, recent graduates, and alumni â¢ Community members are better prepared for jobs that will be available â¢ The local economy benefits because community members are able to obtain good paying jobs and can then contribute financially to their community through increased buying power. While engaging in economic and workplace planning with the local community could take on multiple forms, the key elements of the process include the following: â¢ Analysis of current workforce capabilities and needs â¢ Identification of critical jobs and corresponding responsibilities, knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) â¢ Research on availability of talent with relevant experience and required KSAs within the local labor market â¢ Collaboration with local agencies or educational providers to develop interventions that will close skill gaps and prepare community members to fill future positions The success of this strategy hinges on developing strong relationships with multiple stakeholders. For example, airports can work with local business entities such as chambers of commerce or workforce development boards to better understand the local community and its workforce needs and capabilities. These relationships enable the airport to steer workforce development activities in the local community Action Plan 11 Contâd: Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning toward efforts that will meet the future workforce needs of the airport. Airports can collaborate with local colleges, universities, technical training programs, or other education providers in the area to identify or develop courses and programs that will support development of the future airport workforce. If major airport services are contracted out, those firms should be engaged as well, given their shared interest in workforce development. While collaboration can sometimes be challenging, the potential benefits to colleges of knowing the skills that employers require, to potential employees of knowing what career paths are available to them, and to airports of developing a competent local labor pool are well worth the effort.
4-18 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity K-12 Comm College 4-Year College Graduate School Early Career Mid-Career Late Career Retirees Other Key Stakeholders â¢ Airport senior leadership â¢ Internal workforce development experts Action Plan Lead(s) â¢ HR personnel or steering committee â¢ Training and development leads â¢ Recruitment and hiring employees Resources Needed: â¢ Staff or consultant to identify key jobs or promising career paths â¢ Information to develop a profile of the current workforce â¢ Data regarding local workforce and economy â¢ Commitment to collaboration from local education providers and community partners 1. Identify and communicate the benefits of investing in this strategy, both for the airport and for external stakeholders. 2. Create a workforce profile to show areas of need within the airport with regard to workforce development. 3. Seek input from those likely to be affected by or to benefit from this investment to make sure that their needs and concerns are met. This will encourage them to become champions for the effort. Target Career Stages Mission-Critical Airport Occupations Targeted Workforce Types Action Plan 11 Contâd: Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning Planning Features Pr oc es s f or O bt ai ni ng B uy -In Target Audience Engineer Financial Analysis & Planning IT Project Planning Airport Development Airport Ops Airport Security Electrician Senior/Exec Leadership Frontline Workers Mid-Level Leaders Administrative Support Staff Technical Personnel First-Line Supervisors
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-19 Implementation Lead(s) â¢ Designated HR personnel â¢ Steering committee for workforce development 1. Develop a workforce profile. This step involves gaining an understanding of the current workforce in the airport, airport needs, and where future workforce gaps may exist. The workforce profile should include analysis of expected employee departures and associated position openings, which could be based on expected retirements and historical turnover data from different types of positions. The profile should also include analysis on new positions that will be needed or types of jobs that will no longer be relevant. In the end, this workforce profile should provide a picture of the types of employees who will be needed to meet airport strategic objectives in both the short and long term. 2. Identify key airport jobs and related career pathways that are lacking, based on airport needs. Based on areas of need identified in the airport, identify key airport jobs that will be the focus of investment in local economic and training programs. ACRP Web-Only Document 28 could be a valuable resource in this effort as it highlights mission-critical airport jobs and describes expected future workforce needs in airports. Once the key airport jobs are identified, create career paths that show the trajectories airport employees can follow to gain a successful career within the airport (see Action Plan 9). These career pathways will support relationships with education providers and local economic groups because they show the value of investing resources to prepare potential employees for the jobs airports will need to fill. Estimated Time to Implement 0-3 months 3-6 months 7 months - 1 year More than 1 year Key Stakeholder(s) â¢ Local colleges, universities, or technical training providers â¢ Local economic and business organizations â¢ Relevant union representatives Return on Investment Less than 1 year 1-3 years 3+ years Implementation Factors Action Plan 11 Contâd: Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning Im pl em en ta ti on S te ps
4-20 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity 3. Conduct labor market analysis to understand key occupations. Use available labor market data to identify the current capacity in the local economy related to the identified key jobs. For example, it will be beneficial to look at the types of industries that are shrinking (potentially yielding more skilled individuals looking for work), the size of the labor pool, and the number of students pursuing related educational or training programs. Understanding the full labor market and local economic picture will help airports to determine where to focus partnership efforts and investments in local organizations that can support local workforce development. 4. Identify local education providers who can support training and education for the key airport jobs. Different types of education providers will offer different advantages and disadvantages in regard to the key jobs that the airport has identified. For example, if an airport prioritizes development of maintenance employees, a technical school that provides equipment maintenance training may be a good partner. Alternatively, a focus on developing employees to fill retail management positions may be best supported by a local community college that offers management training courses. Ideally, an airport would select programs that already exist and could be updated or modified to support airport workforce needs. This approach decreases the time and resources required to make an impact. 5. Work with education providers to tailor training programs to meet airport workforce needs. While some educational programs may offer relevant courses, they may need to be updated or changed slightly to meet the specific needs of the airport. Working with the providers, airports can suggest or develop additions to course content, additional courses that would be helpful, or ways to combine courses into a certificate program or something similar. This will create an extremely tailored content that will prepare potential employees well for future employment in the key airport jobs. 6. Develop partnerships with local organizations that can support airport employees and potential employees. Most areas have local economic, business, or community organizations that focus on supporting community members in obtaining and maintaining meaningful employment. Identifying such partners will benefit airports because these organizations often have funding, connections, or experience in working with local populations and can be a valued source in understanding the communityâs needs and strengths. Action Plan 11 Contâd: Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning Im pl em en ta tio n St ep s (C on tin ue d)
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-21 7. Hold regularly scheduled meetings with educational and community partners to collaborate, discuss needs, and develop solutions. Once partnerships have been established, it is important to have consistent communication and interaction among groups to make sure that there is progress toward meeting the airportâs workforce needs, as well as helping partners meet their goals, such as training the local community for success in the workforce. Scheduling meetings to occur at regular intervals helps to ensure progress is made and each group has an opportunity to share progress and concerns with the other partners. 8. Recruit employees from partner programs. Once training or local support programs are up and running, make sure to recruit and hire employees that have used these resources. This will show the benefit of developing partnerships and supporting economic development in the local community. Obstacles & Considerations Key Success Factors â¢ Identifying airport workforce needs and focusing on those specific jobs â¢ Gaining support from unions or other organizations that represent employees in key jobs â¢ Finding local partners who are already familiar with key airport jobs or provide training and support in these areas â¢ If there are not local education or training programs that focus on needed areas, there may be a need to develop new programs or find other ways to train employees â¢ Lack of communication may need to be overcome by encouraging positive interactions among partners Action Plan 11 Contâd: Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning Im pl em en ta tio n St ep s (C on tin ue d) Sustain Quantifiable Outcomes/Measures of Impact 1. Increased number of qualified applicants for key airport jobs 2. Decreased time to fill open positions 3. Relevant courses offered at local colleges, universities, or technical training programs 4. Partnerships created with local community, business, or economic groups
4-22 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Action Plan 11 Contâd: Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning Alternative Approaches â¢ Smaller airports may not have the resources to fully tailor training courses to their needs. In this case, they could focus on identifying existing courses that teach relevant topics and skills. â¢ Rather than sending airport employees or potential employees to local education institutions, airports could create a space to offer courses from local providers within their own facilities. This would provide employees with the opportunity to learn new skills or develop in needed areas without having to travel to or find outside institutions. â¢ Attending local meetings of government or non-profit organizations focused on workforce development can enable airport management to have a voice in workforce development activities in the area with minimal investment. Adapting to Industry Change â¢ New Technologies: Identifying emerging technology and the skills needed to successfully employ it can be part of the analysis phase of this approach. By working directly with education providers, airports can help to incorporate these technology and skill needs into relevant curricula or programs. â¢ Changing Demographics: Local economic and business organizations often have initiatives that focus on minority demographic groups in the community. By working with these types of organizations, airports can better understand the needs of these individuals as employees and incorporate them successfully into the workforce. â¢ Compensation Competition: Creating employment opportunities and career paths for employees that incorporate mission-critical occupations will show the upward mobility available to applicants, which includes increased earning potential for employees who move up the career path.
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-23 Description. Airports are facing large numbers of departures within the next 5â10 years as baby boomers begin to retire. Many of these individuals hold critical positions within higher levels of the airport workforce, such as senior leadership positions. For example, during a focus group in Phase I of this effort, an airport leader shared that 80% of their senior staff will be eligible to retire by 2020. Without a plan to replace these critical leaders, airports are at risk for lengthy vacancies in vital positions, as well as a loss of institutional knowledge and skills, which could disrupt continuity of operations, safety and security, financial management, and ultimately, the airportâs overall performance. To mitigate these risks and ensure organizational and operational stability, airport leaders and boards should prepare for retirements and other high-level vacancies by implementing strategic succession planning. Succession planning grooms and develops high-potential (HIPO) employees for senior leadership positions that are anticipated to become vacant. Succession planning typically involves identifying critical positions; relevant competencies and knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs); and HIPO employees who demonstrate the talent, interest, and drive needed to succeed in these roles in the future. There are various techniques an airport can use to identify potential successors, depending on resources available, including the following: â¢ Administering an assessment of employeesâ KSAs and competencies. Airport leaders can use the assessment results to select employees who demonstrate the KSAs and competencies necessary for leadership positions. These employees can then be selected to participate in developmental activities to prepare them for future leadership roles. â¢ Conducting 360-degree assessments. In 360-degree assessments, employees receive performance feedback from subordinates, supervisors, and peers, in addition to completing a self-assessment. Alternatively, airports can use feedback collected through their existing performance review system. This can be a more cost-effective technique for airports lacking the necessary resources to implement 360-degree assessments. â¢ Identifying successors through supervisor recommendations. Supervisor recommendations are a more informal approach to identifying successors. Airport leaders can then engage employees who are interested in leadership positions and have been recommended by their supervisors in informal discussions. Action Plan 12: Implement Strategic Succession Planning Overview of Strategic Recommendation Strategy Highlights â¢ Involves acting proactively to fill and prevent workforce gaps that may occur given upcoming retirements â¢ Focuses on improving employee retention by investing in high-potential employees to ensure there are qualified employees ready to take on important leadership roles as they are vacated
4-24 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Real-World Example Columbus Regional Airport Authority launched a succession planning program that includes formal learning through universities, conferences, mentoring, and certifications. Participants also work towards goals outlined in individual development plans (Young et al., 2013). Regardless of the technique used, employees should be identified two to three levels deep for each critical job, if possible given the size of the airport. This means that two to three high-potential employees are identified and reviewed each year. These high potentials should be classified as âready immediately,â âready with minimal training,â or âready in 3â5 years.â This designation helps to determine the level of training and development successors need to be ready for advancement. Further, by designating high potentials for a particular job and starting to prepare them for that job early with relevant training and development, those employees can be ready to step in to help when needed (even prior to formal advancement), which increases bench strength for the critical job and builds overall professional capacity for the organization. This type of succession planning also serves as a long-term risk mitigation strategy. After identifying potential successors, airports can implement various activities to provide employees with greater job exposure and leadership skills development. Developmental activities should align with the employeeâs current level (e.g., ready in 3â5 years) to ensure that the training and opportunities are suited to his/her current level of experience. Activities can include mentoring, job shadowing, and leadership development. These activities enable employees being prepped for managerial positions to gain hands- on experience with various technical subjects while developing leadership and management skills. Likewise, employees being prepared for senior technical roles can obtain firsthand experience with various types of equipment and technology directly from a technical expert. Working alongside current leaders through mentoring and job shadowing can also allow successors to begin building relationships with key partners and stakeholders with which the airport collaborates and negotiates. Successors should be provided opportunities to increase their airport-specific knowledge; this was identified in ACRP Web-Only Document 28 as a critical skill need, particularly at leadership levels. One way to accomplish this is through job rotations, in which employees complete brief assignments in functions across the airport. By gaining hands-on experience within each function, employees gain a greater understanding of each functionâs key role in the airport, as well as how different functions work together to support the airportâs mission. This will then prepare employees to oversee various aspects of airport operations in a leadership role. If job rotations are not feasible given the size of the airport, training courses and conferences offered by organizations such as AAAE and ACI can be a valuable alternative. While training courses and conferences do not typically provide hands-on experiences, they can still provide employees with a broader perspective of the overall airport. This can allow employees to gain more exposure and a greater understanding of functions and departments outside of their own. By acting proactively, rather than reactively, succession planning can help airports fill and prevent workforce gaps through a qualified and well-equipped internal pool of candidates. Ultimately, this helps an airport to maintain continuity as senior leaders begin to retire. Succession planning also has the potential to improve employee retention, as airports may be able to better retain high-potential employees long term by investing in their development (Croteau & Wolk, 2010). This becomes increasingly critical at a time when large numbers of employees are anticipated to retire. Furthermore, the training and developmental activities that accompany succession planning will help increase airport-specific Action Plan 12 Contâd: Implement Strategic Succession Planning knowledge of participating employees, another critical workforce need airports are facing today.
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-25 Airport Development Target Audience(s) â¢ Mid-level staff â¢ Executive leadership Action Plan Lead(s) â¢ Executive leadership â¢ Board of directors â¢ Human resources personnel Resources Needed: â¢ Dedicated staff and funding â¢ Leadership support and involvement 1. Communicate costs and risks of not implementing succession planning. 2. Emphasize resources saved due to less time spent recruiting external candidates. 3. Provide examples of other airports and organizations in other industries that have implemented succession planning. Communicate positive outcomes the airports and organizations have experienced as a result. Target Career Stages Mission-Critical Airport Occupations Targeted Workforce Types K-12 Comm College 4-Year College Graduate School Early Career Mid-Career Late Career Retirees Action Plan 12 Contâd: Implement Strategic Succession Planning Planning Features Target Audience Engineer Financial Analysis & Planning IT Project Planning Airport Ops Airport Security Electrician Pr oc es s fo r O bt ai ni ng Bu y- In Senior/Exec Leadership Frontline Workers Mid-Level Leaders Administrative Support Staff Technical Personnel First-Line Supervisors
4-26 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Implementation Factors 1. Identify critical positions at risk for vacancy. Consider positions that are critical to the strategic direction of the airport and/or require technical skills that largely impact effective airport operations and performance. 2. Review the job descriptions with the current employees in the positions identified to determine key knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required for effective performance. Also, consider skills that will be required due to changes in the industry, such as technological advancements. 3. Identify high potential mid-level employees. To the extent possible given the size of the airport, identify employees two to three levels deep, ranging from âready immediatelyâ to âready in 3â5 years.â There are multiple ways to do this, depending on the size of the airport and resources available: a. Assess mid-level employeesâ KSAs and competencies with respect to previously identified positions at risk for vacancy. Employees who demonstrate the KSAs and competencies necessary or high potential for developing them can be selected to participate in developmental activities to prepare for the new roles. b. Conduct 360-degree assessments, in which employees receive feedback from subordinates, supervisors, and peers, in addition to completing a self-assessment. Select employees as potential successors based on the feedback they receive. c. Leverage the existing performance management system and use performance reviews and feedback to select potential successors. d. Request recommendations for successors from supervisors and managers. Engage recommended employees in informal discussions regarding succession opportunities to gauge their interest in the position. 4. Conduct a gap analysis to identify gaps in competencies, KSAs, and qualifications between senior leaders and potential successors identified. Im pl em en ta tio n St ep s Action Plan 12 Contâd: Implement Strategic Succession Planning Implementation Lead(s) â¢ Human resources personnel Estimated Time to Implement 0-3 months 3-6 months 7 months - 1 year More than 1 year Key Stakeholder(s) â¢ Mid-level managers/supervisors, leadership Return on Investment Less than 1 year 1-3 years 3+ years
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-27 Action Plan 12 Contâd: Implement Strategic Succession Planning 5. Provide developmental opportunities and activities to close gaps and prepare employees for advancement. Refer to the action plans or strategy summaries for the activities listed below and for further details regarding implementation: a. Technical and/or leadership training and development (on-the-job, web- based, classroom-based) b. Mentoring c. Job shadowing d. Job rotations 6. Facilitate informal introductory discussions between retirement-eligible employees and their successor(s). This will encourage relationship building and knowledge sharing to support continuity as the workforce changes. Additionally, require all retirement-eligible employees to complete the Job Profile Template included in this Guidebook, as a reference for the successor(s). Im pl em en ta ti on S te ps (C on ti nu ed ) Obstacles & Considerations Key Success Factors â¢ Initiative from executive leadership â¢ Support from executive leaders and board of directors â¢ Dedicated staff to develop, implement, and promote succession planning â¢ Training and developmental opportunities to support employee advancement toward positions at risk for vacancy â¢ Older employees may perceive that the organization sees them as dispensable, and may become reluctant to share knowledge and expertise with successors â¢ High-potential employees identified may leave for more immediate opportunities at other airports
4-28 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Action Plan 12 Contâd: Implement Strategic Succession Planning Sustain Quantifiable Outcomes/Measures of Impact 1. Reduced time to fill senior-level technical and managerial positions 2. Increased employee retention and reduced turnover Alternative Approaches â¢ For smaller airports with fewer employees, it may be more feasible to select one high- potential employee for succession and provide that employee with the development necessary given his or her current level. â¢ If the internal staff pool is so limited that the airport is unlikely to be able to fill senior-level positions internally, set aside resources and develop a recruitment plan in advance of any potential departure of the leadership team. Such airports may need to consider those without airport experience but with deep technical expertise within their fields (e.g., financial analysis, engineering) and provide them training and guidance to adapt their perspective to the airport. â¢ Conduct an informal survey of the executive team to determine how many of them have at least one person on their team that they feel could step into their role if they were to leave the airport today. Based on the results, discuss actions that they could take to help prepare one of their staff members to step into their shoes down the road or mitigate the risk of a lengthy vacancy if they were to leave. Adapting to Industry Change Changing Technologies: Employees identified as successors for both technical and managerial positions will likely need more technological savvy than their predecessors, given rapidly emerging technologies in the industry. Training and developmental activities provided to successors should include opportunities to gain more skills and expertise with regard to these new technologies.
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-29 Practical Tools and Resources for Planning for Future Workforce Needs As a way to help airports implement the action plans described in this chapter, four tools have been developed to guide implementation efforts. Additionally, several links to publicly available resources that provide further information or effective practices for implementing each action plan have been identified. Each of the tools and practical resources included in this chapter, along with the action plan with which they are associated and the page number on which they begin, are provided in the table below. Tools and Resources Action Plan Page Career Pathway Guide Template Create Career Pathways 4-34 Individual Development Plan (IDP) Template Create Career Pathways 4-38 Job Profile Template Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees 4-43 Career Transition Checklist Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees 4-49 The four tools and resources are described here, followed by the links to additional resources and the newly created tools and resources. Career Pathway Guide Template â¢ This tool applies to Action Plan 9: Create Career Pathways â¢ This template provides a format that can be used to display career paths to employees and potential employees. The template provides an overview of the career paths, the general expertise and required experience for the occupational group, key duties and responsibilities, and required competencies. It also provides a structure for displaying the specific requirements at each occupational level. Individual Development Plan (IDP) Template â¢ This tool applies to Action Plan 9: Create Career Pathways â¢ The IDP template outlines the type of information that can be used to guide discussions on personal growth for employees. It lays out goal-setting guidance and recommendations as well as developmental activities that can be used to help employees progress up a desired career path. Job Profile Template â¢ This tool applies to Action Plan 10: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees
4-30 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity â¢ This tool can be used to document information about job responsibilities, processes and procedures, necessary resources and their locations, and other information that is important to a job, but may only be known to a few employees. Before employees leave the organization, this type of information can be captured to reduce institutional knowledge loss and better prepare their successors to step into their roles. Career Transition Checklist â¢ This tool applies to Action Plan 10: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees â¢ The Career Transition Checklist lays out steps to follow to make sure that there is a smooth transition when someone moves out of a job and another employee is taking over. Links to Additional Resources In addition to the tools that have been developed specifically for this Guidebook, there are numerous publicly available resources that airport managers and leadership can access to find more information about different strategies or to support implementation of the associated action plans. A sample of resources to support airports with the challenge of Planning for Future Workforce Needs is provided in the following table, organized by the action plan to which the resources primarily relate. Note: These links were active at the time the resource was identified. While these links may change over time, a browser search of the resource titles should lead to valuable materials. Action Plan 9: Create Career Pathways Source Resource Description and Link U.S. Department of Labor Career Pathways Toolkit: A Guide for System Development This toolkit provides an overview of the process to develop career pathways, examples of promising practices, and information regarding available publications and resources to support agencies in the development of career pathways. https://www.doleta.gov/usworkforce/pdf/career_pathways_ toolkit.pdf Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) Developing Employee Career Paths and Ladders This resource discusses career paths and career ladders, including how to make a business case for developing career pathways, guidance in developing career pathways, and common challenges that can be encountered. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and- samples/ toolkits/pages/developingemployeecareerpaths andladders.aspx
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-31 Source Resource Description and Link National Association of Electrical Distributors (NAED) Career Path Planning Management Toolbox The NAED provides this toolbox that can be used to guide organizations though the definition, design, evaluation, and launch of career paths. It includes guidance in terms of the steps to take as well as worksheets that can be used in the development of career paths https://www.naed.org/NAEDDocs/Resources/Business%20 Tools/Employee%20Lifecycle/Career%20path_toolkit-1.pdf Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) Developing Criteria and Metrics for Quality Career Pathways CLASP provides this white paper designed to provide a common understanding of what career pathways entail and metrics to evaluate career pathways. https://www.clasp.org/sites/default/files/public/resources- and-publications/files/CLASP-The-AQCP-Approach-Feb- 2013.pdf Action Plan 10: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees Source Resource Description and Link University of North Carolina Passing the Torch: 5 Steps for Turning the Baby Boomer Brain Drain into a Brain Trust This resource discusses the best ways to make sure that organizations are able to retain knowledge from employees who are retiring. It lists steps to make sure that organizations are able to plan for knowledge retention and provides examples of organizations that have been able to accomplish this. http://www.kenan-flagler.unc.edu/executive-development/ custom-programs/~/media/Files/documents/executive- development/passing-the-torch.ashx Association for Talent Development (ATD) 6 Steps to Take Before Key Employees Retire This brief article describes the types of knowledge that must be transferred from retiring employees as well as steps that can be followed to accomplish this knowledge transfer. https://www.td.org/insights/6-steps-to-take-before-key- employees-retire
4-32 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Source Resource Description and Link Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) Capturing the Wisdom of Four Generations This article from SHRM focuses on generational differences between employees. It describes the traditional learning preferences for each generation and provides ideas for facilitating knowledge transfer between employees from different generations. https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-magazine/ pages/1114-intergenerational-knowledge-transfer.aspx Action Plan 11: Support Economic Development via Workforce Planning Source Resource Description and Link National Child Welfare Workforce Institute Workforce Development Planning & Assessment Tool Kit This toolkit provides detailed guidance and resources to guide organizations through the process of workforce planning. http://wdftoolkit.ncwwi.org/worksheets/WDF-ToolKit- Manual.pdf U.S. DOT Guide to Workforce Planning The U.S. DOT developed this in-depth guide to workforce planning that provides a description of workforce planning, explains why it is important, and gives detailed information regarding implementing this strategy. https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-oversight/human- capital-management/hiring-reform/wfpguide.pdf Action Plan 12: Implement Strategic Succession Planning Source Resource Description and Link SHRM Engaging in Succession Planning This resource from the Society for Human Resource Management provides an overview of succession planning including best practices, considerations for design and implementation, succession planning benefits, and challenges that can be associated with the practice. https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/tools-and- samples/toolkits/pages/engaginginsuccessionplanning.aspx
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-33 Source Resource Description and Link University of Washington Succession Planning Toolkit This document details a process for conducting succession planning within a university setting, including worksheets to complete and questions to ask during the process. It can provide airports with an overview of how to complete a detailed succession planning process. http://hr.uw.edu/pod/wp-content/uploads/sites/ 10/2016/08/Succession-Planning-Toolkit-1.pdf Ohio Department of Administrative Services 2015 Sample Succession Plan This sample succession plan provides a complete picture of what a succession plan can look like, including the steps taken to create the plan, the types of forms completed, and the questions asked throughout the process. http://das.ohio.gov/Portals/0/DASDivisions/HumanResources/ ORGDEV/pdf/Sample%20Succession%20Plan%202015.pdf
4-34 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity [Occupational Group] Career Pathway Guide Template I. [Occupational Group] [Insert a description of the occupational group (e.g., Airside Development) here.] 1. Career Overview [Provide a general job description of the occupation here. Include a career pathway graphic, such as the example below, so employees have a visual depiction of what the career path looks like.] 2. Expertise and Previous Experience [Expertise explains what an employee is expected to know to be successful in this occupation. Previous experience should be a brief explanation of the types of experience that would be advantageous for anyone in this role to have (e.g., previous customer service experience).] Career Pathway Guide Template Tool to: Plan for Future Workforce Needs
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-35 3. Key Duties and Responsibilities [This is a general, high-level description of duties and responsibilities that applies across all career levels. Add/remove key duties and responsibilities as needed.] â¢ Key Duty or Responsibility 1 â Description of that duty or responsibility â¢ Key Duty or Responsibility 2 â Description of that duty or responsibility â¢ Key Duty or Responsibility 3 â Description of that duty or responsibility 4. Competencies [This is a general, high-level list of competencies and definitions for each competency that applies across all career levels. Add/remove rows as needed, based on the number of competencies.] Competency Definition Competency 1 Definition 1 Competency 2 Definition 2 Competency 3 Definition 3 II. Career Advancement [This section offers detailed information on the job(s) within each career level; specific knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs); and training and developmental opportunities employees can use to advance to the next level of the career path. Add/remove career levels as needed, depending on the occupation.] 1. [Entry-Level Job Title] [Insert job description] Education and Qualifications â¢ [Example: At least a high school diploma or GED] â¢ Education and Qualifications 2 â¢ Education and Qualifications 3 Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities â¢ [Example: Knowledge of safety regulations and procedures â you have basic knowledge of airport, airline, and FAA safety rules, regulations, and procedures.] â¢ KSA 2 â¢ KSA 3 Recommended or Required Training [These are the areas of training or development that will help employees advance in the career. Indicate if a particular training is required for career advancement.]
4-36 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity â¢ [Example: Recommended: AAAE Airport Safety and Operations Specialists (ASOS) School] â¢ Training and Development Area 2 â¢ Training and Development Area 3 Developmental Experiences [This list would include specific âstretch assignmentsâ or growth activities that an employee should engage in to assist in advancing to the next level.] â¢ [Example: Gain experience supervising and/or training subordinates] â¢ Developmental Experience 2 â¢ Developmental Experience 3 2. [Mid-Level Job Title] [Insert job description] Education and Qualifications â¢ [Example: At least 3 years of prior experience as a (entry-level position).] â¢ Education and Qualifications 2 â¢ Education and Qualifications 3 Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities â¢ [Example: Knowledge of safety regulations and procedures â you have basic knowledge of airport, airline, and FAA safety rules, regulations, and procedures.] â¢ KSA 2 â¢ KSA 3 Recommended or Required Training [These are the areas of training or development that will help employees advance in the career. Indicate if a particular training is required for career advancement.] â¢ [Example: Recommended: AAAE Airport Safety and Operations Specialists (ASOS) School] â¢ Training and Development Area 2 â¢ Training and Development Area 3 Developmental Experiences [This list would include specific âstretch assignmentsâ or growth activities that an employee could engage in to assist in advancing to the next level.] â¢ [Example: Accompany a senior-level employee to a community meeting to begin building relationships with key stakeholders] â¢ Developmental Experience 2 â¢ Developmental Experience 3
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-37 3. [Senior-Level Job Title] [Insert job description] Education and Qualifications â¢ [Example: At least 3 years of prior experience as a (mid-level position).] â¢ Education and Qualifications 2 â¢ Education and Qualifications 3 Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities â¢ [Example: Knowledge of safety regulations and procedures â you have basic knowledge of airport, airline, and FAA safety rules, regulations, and procedures.] â¢ KSA 2 â¢ KSA 3 Recommended or Required Training [These are the areas of training or development that will help employees advance in the career. Indicate if a particular training is required for career advancement.] â¢ [Example: Recommended: AAAE Airport Safety and Operations Specialists (ASOS) School] â¢ Recommended or Required Training 2 â¢ Recommended or Required Training 3 Developmental Experiences [This list should include specific âstretch assignmentsâ or growth activities that an employee could engage in on the job to assist in advancing to the next level.] â¢ [Example: Contribute to the development of the airport master plan.] â¢ Developmental Experience 2 â¢ Developmental Experience 3
4-38 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Overview: An individual development plan (IDP) is a document created by an employee. It is to be owned by the employee and not to be used for performance assessment but for guiding professional growth. The importance of the employee maintaining âownershipâ of this document is that the employee will feel more at liberty to share true weaknesses and record progress when the document is not used for performance reasons. Further, the organization and its leaders should not maintain a copy of this document unless asked to do so by the employee. Instructions to Employee: This IDP should focus on professional development areas that you and your supervisor decide you need to address. This document is not intended for use as a performance evaluation. Instead, the IDP is intended solely to serve you and promote your professional development. Thus, you are responsible for maintaining this document. For the IDP to be most valuable to you, it is important to be candid about your areas of weakness and be as specific as possible about goals you would pursue to address those areas of weakness. You are encouraged to work with your supervisor or manager to complete the following pages. To promote accountability and support from your supervisor, it is advised that you schedule biweekly check-in meetings to discuss progress toward meeting your desired goals. Employee Information Name: Date Created: Position: Division/Department: Supervisor: Developmental Goals Short-Term Goals (6â12 months): Long-Term Goals (3â5 years): Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) Current KSAs Areas for Development and/or Improvement Individual Development Plan (IDP) Template Tool to: Plan for Future Workforce Needs
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-39 Goal-Setting Guidance Your short- and long-term goals are broad, yet focused goals that you will create to guide your career. Short-term goals are those that you would like to achieve in the next 6â12 months, while long-term goals are those that will take longer than a year to achieve, but should be achievable in the next 3â5 years. Both short- and long-term goals should be linked to the professional development areas that you and your supervisor identified. By linking goals to professional development areas, it will be easier to create specific developmental objectives. Writing Developmental Objectives Developmental objectives are specific accomplishments that will signal attainment of meaningful progress toward your short- or long-term goals. The SMART method below highlights five ways you can create clear and effective developmental objectives. The following are three examples of SMART developmental objectives: 1. Within the next 6 months I will complete X technical training and effectively apply my new skills on the job, in order to receive a promotion within 1 year.
4-40 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity 2. Within the next year, I will work toward the Airport Project Planner position by taking on greater project management responsibilities and shadowing current managers on planning projects of up to X dollar amount. 3. In order to build relationships and partnerships with key community stakeholders that are critical in X leadership position, I will accompany and shadow the current employee in that position to four meetings over the course of the next year. Prioritizing Goals After creating goals and objectives, it is critical to prioritize the goals, so you can focus on specific developmental areas and activities. Below are three strategies you can use to do so. Please note that these are suggested strategies, and you and your supervisor may identify other methods to prioritize goals. 1. Prioritize goals that are the easiest to start working toward. For example, consider an employee who would like to advance to a leadership position in 3 years. A short-term goal for this employee is related to developing greater leadership and management skills in preparation for a future leadership role. The employee recently enrolled in the AAAE Accredited Airport Executive Program and chooses to make this goal a higher priority, since she is currently working toward achieving it. 2. Align goals with daily job duties and responsibilities. While all goals should be relevant to your current job and/or a job you aspire to advance to, another way to prioritize goals is to focus first on goals that are directly aligned with your current daily job duties and responsibilities. This will help you master your current position, so you can prepare for advancement. On a larger scale, it will also contribute to effective overall airport operations. 3. Conduct a SWOT analysis. Conducting a SWOT analysis involves identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It is most commonly used by organizations as part of the planning process, but can also be applied at an individual level. To do so, consider your own strengths and weaknesses as an employee. Then, consider opportunities and threats in your external environment that may impact your individual development. More specifically, consider your work environment, the airport. What types of opportunities and threats exist at the airport and within the industry that will impact your development? Then, focus on goals that will help you overcome the weaknesses and threats you have documented. Not only will this enable you to achieve success on an individual level, but it will also support organizational success by preparing you to take on challenges and demands you anticipate facing at the airport.
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-41 Developmental Activities Below is a list of potential developmental activities to consider for inclusion in your IDP. These activities may be completed formally through an established program or on a more informal basis. Please note that these are suggestions and examples, and you and your supervisor may identify other effective activities you can complete to accomplish your goals. â¢ On-the-job training â¢ In-house classroom or web-based training â¢ External classroom or web-based training provided by AAAE, ACI, or other third-party organizations â¢ Airport industry conferences â¢ Stretch assignments (e.g., supervising staff, overseeing a project) â¢ Job rotations â¢ Coaching sessions â¢ Mentoring (as a mentor or mentee) â¢ Job shadowing â¢ Academic degree or certification programs
4-42 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity IDP Plan of Action Instructions: Based on goals and related areas for improvement and/or development, determine specific actions you can take to improve upon the KSAs that will help you move closer to accomplishing your goal. When identifying and selecting developmental activities, consider the 70-20-10 learning and development model. According to this model, 70% of learning and developmental activities should be on the job, 20% should involve interactions with others (e.g., mentoring, job shadowing), and 10% should be through formal training (e.g., web- based or classroom-based training)1. On-the-job opportunities and knowledge passed along from mentors, superiors, and peers can provide rich firsthand experiences, while formal training courses and programs can provide a foundational base to supplement and boost workplace experiences. Additionally, both leaders and peers can recommend and provide insight into developmental activities and experiences they have found valuable in their careers. After identifying developmental activities, determine the total time it will take to complete each activity, as well as milestones for assessing and tracking progress on a periodic basis (e.g., quarterly). Then, with your short-term and long-term goals in mind, identify the developmental objectives for each action. Add or remove rows below as needed. Area for Improvement/ Development Developmental Activity Total Time to Complete Milestones (Date/Quarter & Activity) Objective 1 The 70-20-10 Rule. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ccl.org/articles/leading-effectively-articles/the-70-20-10-rule/.
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-43 Instructions: Consider what a new employee entering your position would need to know. In particular, focus on information that may be difficult for a new employee to discover on his/her own. Position Information* Name: Date Created: Position: Division/Department: Supervisor: Core Responsibilities: *Please also attach the most current version of your position description. % of Daily Responsibilities Important Processes and Procedures Instructions: List the processes and procedures that are essential for completing your job responsibilities. Be sure to specify whether processes and procedures are routine or periodic. Be sure to indicate the steps involved in sequential order, if applicable. Next to additional information, describe any challenges, solutions, or historical information that you think your successor might find useful when completing the task. If possible, attach process maps visually depicting these processes. Add or remove the tables below as needed. Process or Procedure: Purpose: When Scheduled: Steps/Activities Involved: Additional Information: Job Profile Template Tool to: Plan for Future Workforce Needs
4-44 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Process or Procedure: Purpose: When Scheduled: Steps/Activities Involved: Additional Information: Process or Procedure: Purpose: When Scheduled: Steps/Activities Involved: Additional Information: Essential Resources Instructions: List the resources that are essential for completing your job responsibilities. Resources can include policies, documents, website addresses, books, reports, and other materials that you would want your successor to be familiar with. Under purpose, describe how you use the resource and explain any challenges you face when using it. Add or remove rows as needed in the table below. Resource Purpose/Additional Information Where Found
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-45 Resource Purpose/Additional Information Where Found Training and Developmental Activities Instructions: List training that you recommend for a new employee entering your position. Training Purpose Offered By Instructions: List developmental activities that you recommend for a new employee entering your position. For each activity, describe why it might be valuable and how the activity might be initiated and achieved. Developmental Activity Value How to Initiate/Achieve
4-46 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Meetings, Committees, and Other Functions Instructions: List essential meetings that you attend. Indicate the purpose, your role, and the frequency of the meetings. Meeting Purpose/Role Frequency List memberships on any committees or task force at [AIRPORT] and your role. In addition to your position title, do you hold any other functional titles? List title and purpose below.
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-47 Calendar of Events Instructions: List significant events, milestones, and deadlines that must be attended to at certain times of the year. Consider events that your successor may need to prepare for in advance. Activity When Started When Completed Key Points of Contact Instructions: List key internal and external points of contact below. Add or remove rows as needed. Important Internal (AIRPORT) Contacts: 1. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Office: Why is this person a key POC? 2. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Office: Why is this person a key POC? 3. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Office: Why is this person a key POC?
4-48 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity 4. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Office: Why is this person a key POC? 5. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Office: Why is this person a key POC? Important External Contacts: 1. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Organization: Why is this person a key POC? 2. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Organization: Why is this person a key POC? 3. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Organization: Why is this person a key POC? 4. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Organization: Why is this person a key POC? 5. Name: Phone: Email: Title: Organization: Why is this person a key POC?
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-49 Instructions: Use this checklist with Action Plan 10: Leverage Expertise of Retirement-Eligible Employees to ensure a smooth transition for newly retired employees who are moving into a new role at the airport (e.g., advisor, consultant, mentor). This tool will help ensure all proper steps are considered in the implementation of the strategy. While it is important for each item on this checklist to be covered during the transition, the items do not need to be completed in the order listed. Establish new role for retiree. New roles may include mentor, advisor, or consultant, depending on the airportâs needs and the retireeâs availability and interest in returning to the airport. Refer to Action Plan 10 for further details on establishing a new role. Introduce retiree to successor to facilitate relationship building. There are a number of ways to do so, including the following: â Setting up weekly meetings between the retiree/mentor and successor/mentee. â Facilitating the first meeting between the retiree/mentor and successor/mentee. â Assigning the successor/mentee to prepare questions to guide the first discussion with the retiree/mentor. â Providing resources, such as the Mentoring Checklist, to help the retiree/mentor and successor/mentee navigate discussions effectively. Complete and review Job Profile with retiree, and pass document onto retireeâs successor. Use the Job Profile tool also accompanying Action Plan 10 to do so. Provide the successor with a copy of the Job Profile as a reference. If there are any updated, added, and/or removed job duties and responsibilities, make sure to attach a copy of the latest job description to the Job Profile. Review and document expectations. This includes discussing the following: â The airportâs expectations of the retiree in the new role. â The retireeâs expectations of the role. â Key job duties and responsibilities. â Work location (e.g., will the retiree have the option to telework or is on-site presence required?) â Document this information internally and provide the retiree with a copy as a reference. Review compensation and benefits for the new role. Document this information internally and provide the retiree with a copy as a reference. Document the time commitment expected or required in the new role. Discuss whether or not the retiree will return full-time or part-time. If part-time, determine how many hours per week the retiree will be working. Document this information internally and provide the retiree with a copy as a reference. Establish a work schedule, based on the time commitment. Document this information internally and provide the retiree with a copy as a reference. Career Transition Checklist Tool to: Plan for Future Workforce Needs
4-50 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Case Studies Related to Planning for Future Workforce Needs The three case studies in the following table present examples of creative ways airports are implementing strategies to plan for future workforce needs. Case Studies Airport Characteristics Page Columbia Metropolitan Airport (CAE) Small, board of commissioners 4-51 Southwest Florida International Airport (RSW) Mid-size, port authority 4-53 Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) Large, board of directors 4-55 Overview of Case Study 6: Columbia Metropolitan Airport developed and implemented career paths within the airport. The airport also updated all job descriptions and the compensation structure to align with the new career paths. Overview of Case Study 7: Southwest Florida International Airport updated its performance management system in order to better support and promote employee growth and development. Overview of Case Study 8: Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport implemented a talent planning process to strategically plan for future needs. The talent planning process involves identifying high-potential mid-level and above employees and providing them with developmental activities to prepare them for advancement. Case Studies for: Planning for Future Workforce Needs
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-51 Program: Implementing Career Paths Strategy in Action Case Study 6: Columbia Metropolitan Airport, Columbia, SC Size Large Mid-size Small Additional Characteristics â¢ Approximately 1 million passengers annually Governance Model Board of Commissioners from Lexington County, Richland County, and City of Columbia Strategy Highlights â¢ Created career paths with 30 pay grades to ensure fair compensation â¢ Updated job descriptions to align with new business model Airport Features Summary of Strategy: Executive leaders at Columbia Metropolitan Airport reorganized the airport under a new business model with a substantially different organizational structure. They developed new career paths to support employee development and enable the workforce to perform more effectively under this new model. First, this involved creating 30 pay grades with 14 steps. Next, all job descriptions for airport employees were updated and aligned with the new pay grades to ensure fair compensation. Upon completion, employees could quickly see where they fit within the 13-step career ladder and what skills would be needed to progress and/or move across jobs.
4-52 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Solutions Challenges Encountered â¢ As part of the realignment that spurred development of new career paths, the Operations Department duties were absorbed into CAEâs newly created Public Safety Department. During this transitional period, the Operations Department was disbanded, leaving the airport without dedicated operations staff. â¢ Prior to the realignment, the CAE departments operated as silos; knowledge was kept within departments and rarely shared outside that silo unless it was an absolute necessity. â¢ In 2016, after a nationwide search involving position advertisement and participation in AAAEâs Career Fair at the Annual Conference & Exposition, an Operations Manager and Supervisor were hired and a fully operational Ops Department was rebuilt. CAE filled vacancies in the Operations Department with recent graduates and millennials from across the country who all showed strong interest in the aviation career paths available at the airport. â¢ With the breakdown of silos, implementation of the career paths, and recruitment of a new generation of employees, the workforce became more aware of roles across the airport, leading to more knowledge sharing. â¢ Cross-functional training together with promoting a knowledge-sharing culture serves as a valuable âcontingency plan.â It builds broader workforce capacity and better equips the airport to flex and move talent into place quickly when faced with losses in a particular area. Lessons Learned
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-53 Program: Performance Management for Employee Development Strategy Highlights â¢ Enabling employees to track training and progress in a new performance system â¢ Providing greater support for career growth and development â¢ Aligning jobs with the airportâs mission to better support operations Summary of Strategy: Southwest Florida International Airport is revamping its performance management system and job descriptions to better support employee career growth and development. The performance management system will move from a paper-based system where employees receive ratings on a scale of 1â6 to a cloud-based system, Cornerstone on Demand. The new system will help define career paths while assessing and developing employees. Employees and supervisors/managers can enter feedback and track goals, training, and other developmental activities throughout the year. As part of this, the airport is also updating all job descriptions to clearly define knowledge, skills, and abilities required for different positions, so employees have clearer guidance and well- defined skill sets and goals to achieve as part of the performance review process and to advance in their area of interest. Job descriptions will be stored on Cornerstone, so employees can refer to them as needed throughout the course of their career development. Additionally, the new job descriptions will be aligned with the airportâs mission, so employees understand the impact their jobs and performance have on the airport as a whole (e.g., operations, strategy). Strategy in Action Case Study 7: Southwest Florida International Airport, Fort Myers, FL Size Large Mid-size Small Additional Characteristics â¢ 365 employees (40 general aviation) â¢ Single runway Governance Model Port Authority, Board of Commissioners from Lee County Airport Features
4-54 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity Solutions Challenges Encountered â¢ Slow moving process to gain buy-in and develop and implement strategies â¢ Work directly with senior management to gain buy-in and make headway â¢ Start at the ground level â gather input from employees at different levels across the airport regarding what their needs are in terms of support for career development and what features they would find beneficial and useful in a performance management system. Lessons Learned
Planning for Future Workforce Needs 4-55 Program: Talent Planning Process Summary of Strategy: Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport developed a talent planning process currently focused on developing high-potential individuals in middle management and above. As part of the annual talent review process, leaders at the VP and Assistant VP level each identified two key challenges they faced. These challenges were confirmed during a CEO talent summit (consisting of the CEO and top executives) in terms of consistency and alignment with airport initiatives. A core leadership model was then mapped to address these challenges. The core leadership model provides competencies that leaders need in order to address the four key focus areas of the airportâs strategic plan (drive innovation, execute a customer-centered strategy, cultivate a high-performance culture, and develop strategic partnerships and relationships), and served as the foundation for the talent planning process. Strategy in Action Case Study 8: Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, Dallas, TX Size Large Mid-size Small Additional Characteristics â¢ Almost 2,000 employees â¢ 4th largest airport in the world (in terms of operations) â 5 terminals, 7 runways, 17,000+ acres Governance Model Board of Directors (appointed by Dallas and Fort Worth city councils) Airport Features Strategy Highlights â¢ Alignment of critical leadership competencies to key focus areas of strategic plan â¢ Top-down approach, focused on high-potential individuals â¢ Collaboration with HR partners to develop action plans and identify unique developmental opportunities
4-56 Guidebook on Building Airport Workforce Capacity The talent planning process used a top-down approach, in which high-potential individuals were selected based on information gathered during their talent review meetings and analyzed using a nine-box talent matrix. The current group of high-potential individuals represents approximately 12% of the middle management and above population. In collaboration with their HR business partners, managers of high-potential individuals are working to develop action plans that will provide tailored developmental opportunities, with a focus on moving beyond traditional classroom training. As the process progresses, DFW plans to hold quarterly meetings for division leaders to update leadership on the progress of developing these high-potential individuals, in order to identify any needed changes and make necessary re-calibrations. The progress and overall success of the talent planning process will also be tracked using key metrics (e.g., % of key talent with development plans, % of development plan items completed, and level of engagement and retention of high-potential talent vs. rest of population). At a higher level, DFW also plans to track metrics on if critical jobs are being filled from within the airport, the corresponding speed to hire, and the level of confidence that internal staff are the most skilled for the job. Overall, DFWâs efforts will ensure that the skills of the airport workforce match the critical competencies needed both now and into the future. Solutions Challenges Encountered â¢ Managers partnered with HR business partners to help provide feedback and develop action plans for individuals â¢ Ensure that all individuals receive developmental opportunities, but provide additional investment for high- potential individuals â¢ Expect that high-potential individuals will develop the capabilities necessary to enter future available roles â¢ Managers need additional support to help develop and manage talent â¢ Need to more effectively manage the large amount of internal developmental resources available at the airport â¢ Concurrent need to focus on succession planning Lessons Learned â¢ It was important to have a strong foundation for the talent planning process, which came from tying efforts directly back to the strategic plan. DFWâs strategic plan had already been communicated to all airport staff, via training that utilized learning maps, prior to the start of the talent planning process. This ensured that all staff were able to articulate the key areas and initiatives of the strategic plan. â¢ It was vital that leadership supported the talent planning process. From the start of the initiative, DFWâs CEO and top leadership were supportive and welcomed the new structural approach within the airport industry.