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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25276.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Global Health Transitions and Sustainable Solutions: The Role of Partnerships PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP Rachel M. Taylor and John Maurice, Rapporteurs Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety Board on Global Health Health and Medicine Division PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This project was supported by Anheuser-Busch InBev; Becton, Dickinson and Company; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Catholic Health Association of the United States; ExxonMobil; GE; Global Health Innovative Technology Fund; Intel Corporation; Johnson & Johnson; Medtronic; Merck; Novartis Foundation; PATH; Pepsico; Procter & Gamble Co.; Safaricom; United Nations Foundation; University of Notre Dame; UPS Foundation; U.S. Agency for International Development; U.S. Department of State; and U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/1o.17226/25276 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Global health transitions and sustainable solutions: The role of partnerships: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/1o.17226/25276. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON GLOBAL HEALTH TRANSITIONS AND SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS: THE ROLE OF PARTNERSHIPS1 JO IVEY BOUFFORD (Co-Chair), Clinical Professor, New York University College of Global Public Health JOHN E. LANGE (Co-Chair), Senior Fellow, Global Health Diplomacy, United Nations Foundation DEENA BUFORD, Global Medical Director, Medicine and Occupational Health Department, ExxonMobil Corporation JENNIFER ESPOSITO, Worldwide General Manager, Health and Life Sciences Group, Intel Corporation RENUKA GADDE, Vice President, Global Health, Becton, Dickinson and Company TREVOR GUNN, Vice President, International Relations, Medtronic AMY LIN, Market Access Team Lead, Center for Accelerating Innovation and Impact, U.S. Agency for International Development SCOTT RATZAN, President, Anheuser-Busch InBev Foundation KATHERINE TAYLOR, Associate Director, Director of Global Health Training, Eck Institute of Global Health, University of Notre Dame CHRIS WEST, Partner, Sumerian Partners 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for this published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS v

FORUM ON PUBLIC–PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS FOR GLOBAL HEALTH AND SAFETY1 JO IVEY BOUFFORD (Co-Chair), Clinical Professor, New York University College of Global Public Health CLARION JOHNSON (Co-Chair), Private Consultant, ExxonMobil ANN AERTS, Head, Novartis Foundation SIR GEORGE ALLEYNE, Director Emeritus, Pan American Health Organization; Chancellor Emeritus, University of the West Indies NATASHA BILIMORIA, Director, U.S. Strategy, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance DEBORAH L. BIRX, U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator and U.S. Special Representative for Global Health Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State, The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) SIMON BLAND, Director, New York Liaison Office, UNAIDS CARA BRADLEY, Chief Corporate Engagement Officer, PATH STEPHEN CHEGE, Director, Corporate Affairs, Safaricom BRENDA D. COLATRELLA, Executive Director, Corporate Responsibility; President, Merck Foundation; President, Merck Patient Assistance Program Foundation, Merck & Co., Inc. BRUCE COMPTON, Senior Director of International Outreach, Catholic Health Association of the United States PATRICIA DALY, Associate Vice President, Global Health, Save the Children KATE DODSON, Vice President for Global Health Strategy, United Nations Foundation JENNIFER ESPOSITO, Worldwide General Manager, Health and Life Sciences Group, Intel Corporation RENUKA GADDE, Vice President, Global Health, Becton, Dickinson and Company ROGER GLASS, Director, Fogarty International Center TREVOR GUNN, Vice President, International Relations, Medtronic JESSICA HERZSTEIN, Preventive Medicine Specialist JAMES JONES, Executive Director, ExxonMobil Foundation ALLISON TUMMON KAMPHUIS, Global Program Leader, Gender Equality and the Children’s Safe Drinking Water Program, Procter & Gamble Co. SEEMA KUMAR, Vice President, Innovation, Global Health & Science Policy Communication, Johnson & Johnson AMY LIN, Acting Deputy Director, Center for Innovation and Impact, U.S. Agency for International Development EDUARDO MARTINEZ, President and Chief Diversity & Inclusion Officer, UPS Foundation JOHN MONAHAN, Senior Fellow and Senior Advisor for Global Health Initiatives to the President, Georgetown University GABRIELLA MORRIS, Senior Vice President, Strategic Partnerships and UNICEF Ventures, U.S. Fund for UNICEF 1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for this published Proceedings of a Workshop Series rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS vii

ANDRIN OSWALD, Director, Life Sciences Partnerships, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation REGINA RABINOVICH, ExxonMobil Malaria Scholar in Residence, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health SCOTT C. RATZAN, President, Anheuser-Busch InBev Foundation B. T. SLINGSBY, Chief Executive Officer and Executive Director, Global Health Innovative Technology Fund KATHERINE TAYLOR, Associate Director and Director of Global Health Training, Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame MARY LOU VALDEZ, Associate Commissioner for International Programs; Director, Office of International Programs, U.S. Food and Drug Administration TADATAKA “TACHI” YAMADA, Venture Partner, Frazier Healthcare Partners Health and Medicine Division Staff RACHEL M. TAYLOR, Senior Program Officer and Forum Director PRIYANKA NALAMADA, Research Associate (until July 2018) KATHERINE PEREZ, Senior Program Assistant DANIEL CESNALIS, Financial Associate JULIE PAVLIN, Director, Board on Global Health Consultant JOHN MAURICE, Science writer PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS viii

Reviewers This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: OLUSOJI O. ADEYI, World Bank Group LIZA KIMBO, LiveWell Ltd. PATRICIA ODERO, Innovations in Healthcare JOHANNA RALSTON, World Obesity Alliance Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by ENRIQUETA BOND, QE Philanthropic Advisors. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS ix

Acknowledgments A number of individuals contributed to the development of this workshop and proceedings. These include a number of staff members from the Health and Medicine Division and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Jeanay Butler, Daniel Cesnalis, Sarah Kelley, Priyanka Nalamada, Julie Pavlin, Katherine Perez, Bettina Seliber, Rachel M. Taylor, and Taryn Young. The planning committee contributed several hours of service to develop and execute the agenda. Reviewers also provided thoughtful remarks in reading the draft manuscript. The overall successful functioning of the Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety (PPP Forum) and its activities depends on the generosity of its sponsors. Financial support for the PPP Forum is provided by Anheuser-Busch InBev; Becton, Dickinson and Company; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Catholic Health Association of the United States; ExxonMobil; GE; Global Health Innovative Technology Fund; Intel Corporation; Johnson & Johnson; Medtronic; Merck; Novartis Foundation; PATH; Procter & Gamble Co.; Safaricom; United Nations Foundation; University of Notre Dame; UPS Foundation; U.S. Agency for International Development; U.S. Department of State; and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xi

Contents ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xvii 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Organization of the Proceedings, 2 2 GLOBAL HEALTH TRANSITIONS 5 Demographic and Health Transitions, 5 Multilateral Program Eligibility and Transition Policies in Practice, 9 Bilateral Approaches and Policies for Transitions Presented at the Workshop, 17 Transitions at the Country Level, 25 3 SETTING THE STAGE FOR SUSTAINABLE INVESTMENTS IN HEALTH 31 Multisectoral Engagement and Sustainable Solutions to Support Transitions, 31 Elevating Health on Domestic Agendas: Linking Health and Economic Growth, 33 Shaping the Market for Investments in Health, 34 4 SEVERAL MODELS FOR SUSTAINABLE PARTNERSHIPS AND PRIVATE- SECTOR ENGAGEMENT 39 Catalyzing and Scaling Promising Social Enterprises, 39 Leveraging Core Competencies of Private-Sector Companies, 44 Engaging Industries in Other Sectors, 50 Advancing Digital Development and Access for Health, 53 5 KEY MESSAGES AND THE WAY FORWARD 57 APPENDIXES A References 59 B Workshop Agenda 61 C Speaker and Moderator Biographical Sketches 69 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xiii

Boxes and Figures BOXES 1-1 Statement of Task, 3 2-1 Multilateral Global Health Initiatives: Eligibility Criteria for Country Support, 7 2-2 Lessons Learned from Gavi’s Experiences with Country Transitions, 11 2-3 Several Global Fund Transition Challenges, 15 2-4 Bilateral Programs, 18 2-5 The Research Fairness Initiative, 18 2-6 Lessons Learned from USAID’s Family Planning Assistance Transitions, 22 FIGURES 2-1 Demographic and epidemiological transition framework, 6 2-2 World Bank country policy institutional assessments, 8 2-3 Gavi’s transition support framework, 10 2-4 Gavi financing eligibility, 10 2-5 Framing the Sustainability, Transition, and Co-financing Policy (STC) in the Global Fund portfolio, 14 2-6 PEPFAR’s three guiding pillars, 20 2-7 HIV treatment coverage in Malawi, 21 2-8 HIV treatment coverage in South Africa, 21 2-9 Effects of USAID’s Bureau for Global Health’s private-sector engagement activities, 23 4-1 Issue focus in Africa, 40 4-2 Stages of social enterprise development in Africa, 41 4-3 Gateways for public–private partnership engagement under the ministry of health, 45 4-4 The Community Life Center value proposition for primary care, 47 4-5 ExxonMobil’s health-related support, 51 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xv

Acronyms and Abbreviations CDC U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CGD Center for Global Development CLC Community Life Center value proposition COE challenging operating environment COHRED Council on Health Research for Development CPIA Country Policy Institutional Assessment DAC Development Assistance Committee DAH development assistance for health FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration FIT Freight in Time Gavi Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance GDP gross domestic product GFF Global Financing Facility Global Fund Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria GNI gross national income GPEI Global Polio Eradication Initiative HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HMO health maintenance organization IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICT information and communications technology IDA International Development Association IFC International Finance Corporation IPV inactivated polio vaccine JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency KEMSA Kenya Medical Supplies Authority LIC low-income country LMIC low- and middle-income country MCT mother-to-child-transmission MSM men who have sex with men NCD noncommunicable disease NHIF National Health Insurance Fund PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xvii

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OPV oral live attenuated polio vaccine PAHO Pan American Health Organization PEPFAR The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief PPP public–private partnership PPP Forum Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety RAI Regional Artemisinin-resistance Initiative RFI Research Fairness Initiative SDG Sustainable Development Goals STC Sustainability, Transition, and Co-financing Policy STG standard treatment guideline TB tuberculosis UHC universal health coverage ULIC upper-middle-income country UN United Nations UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UPS United Parcel Service USAID U.S. Agency for International Development WHO World Health Organization PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xviii

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On June 13–14, 2018, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a multistakeholder workshop to examine the transitions affecting global health and innovative global health solutions. The goal of bringing these two topics together was to collectively explore models for innovative partnerships and private-sector engagement with the potential to support countries in transition. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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