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AN ASSESSMENT OF FOUR DIVISIONS OF THE PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT LABORATORY AT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY FISCAL YEAR 2018 Panel on Review of Four Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Committee on NIST Technical Programs Laboratory Assessments Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. SB134117CQ0017/18107 with the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48545-6 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48545-2 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25281 Copies of this publication are available from Laboratory Assessments Board National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 500 Fifth Street, NW #928 Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested Citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. An Assessment of Four Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2018. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:https://doi.org/10.17226/25281.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the studyâs statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committeeâs deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.
PANEL ON REVIEW OF FOUR DIVISIONS OF THE PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT LABORATORY AT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ELSA M. GARMIRE, NAE,1 Dartmouth College (ret.), Santa Cruz, California, Chair ROBERT H. AUSTIN, NAS,2 Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey JESSE âJACKâ L. BEAUCHAMP, NAS, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California LOUIS E. BRUS, NAS, Columbia University, New York, New York THOMAS F, BUDINGER, NAE/NAM, University of California, Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ANDREW N. CLELAND, University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory JAMES J. COLEMAN, NAE, University of Texas at Dallas GRAHAM R. FLEMING, NAS, University of California, Berkeley DEREK F. JACKSON KIMBALL, California State UniversityâEast Bay, Hayward AHARON KAPITULNIK, NAS, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California DANIEL KLEPPNER, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MICHAEL J. MANFRA, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana PIERRE MEYSTRE, University of Arizona, Tucson CLARK TU-CUONG NGUYEN, University of California, Berkeley M. ALLEN NORTHRUP, NAE, MIODx, San Jose, California JOHN D. PRESTAGE, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California DANIEL E. PROBER, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut CHARLES TAHAN, Laboratory for Physical Sciences, College Park, Maryland DAVID A. THOMPSON, NAE, IBM Almaden Research Center (ret.), San Jose, California ADAM P. WAX, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina ANDREW M. WEINER, NAE, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana ALAN E. WILLNER, NAE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant LIZA HAMILTON, Associate Program Officer EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. McGEE, Director MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. v
COMMITTEE ON NIST TECHNICAL PROGRAMS ELSA REICHMANIS, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Chair MICHAEL I. BASKES, NAE, Mississippi State University LEWIS BRANSCOMB, NAS/NAE/NAM,3 University of California, San Diego MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN, NAE, Florida Institute of Technology JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE, H-Technologies Group CHRISTOPHER W. MACOSKO, NAE, University of Minnesota C. KUMAR PATEL, NAS/NAE, Pranalytica, Inc. BHAKTA B. RATH, NAE, Naval Research Laboratory ALICE WHITE, Boston University Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant LIZA HAMILTON, Associate Program Officer EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. vi
LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS BOARD ROSS B. COROTIS, NAE, University of Colorado, Boulder, Chair WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE, H-Technologies Group W. CARL LINEBERGER, NAS, University of Colorado, Boulder C. KUMAR N. PATEL, NAS/NAE, Pranalytica, Inc. ELSA REICHMANIS, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, NAE, U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research (retired) Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant LIZA HAMILTON, Associate Program Officer EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer MARTIN OFFUTT, Senior Program Officer vii
Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Ingrid Daubechies, NAS1/NAE,2 Duke University, Laura H. Greene, NAS, Florida State University, Paul Kwiat, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Jochen Lauterbach, University of South Carolina, and David Weitz, NAS/NAE, Harvard University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Arden L. Bement, Jr., NAE, Purdue University. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. ix
Contents SUMMARY 1 1 THE CHARGE TO THE PANEL AND THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS 7 2 ORGANIZATION AND MISSION OF THE PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT LABORATORY 9 3 APPLIED PHYSICS DIVISION 12 4 QUANTUM ELECTROMAGNETICS DIVISION 24 5 TIME AND FREQUENCY DIVISION 33 6 QUANTUM PHYSICS DIVISION 40 7 KEY RECOMMENDATIONS 47 ACRONYMS 49 xi