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NCHRP Web-Only Document 253, Vol. 1: Legal Landscape 103 Section 6: Wrap-Up and Initial Conclusions The review of legislation throughout the U.S. and internationally has shown that, from a law and regulation perspective, we are entering the nascent beginnings of legislating for C/AVs/HAVs. Within the U.S., only 10 states have thus far have passed laws and developed and/or implemented regulations through their respective transportation/driver licensing agencies or enacted formal study groups tasked with preparing reports to the legislatures. Lawyers, law faculty, and law journal articles are beginning to parse out specific elements within law that may require revision. These have primarily focused on torts liability, and on privacy, cyber security, and some elements of constitutional protections regarding illegal search and seizure. At the federal level, no new laws have yet passed out of Congress regarding C/AVs/HAVs. However, Congress has introduced legislation regarding issues related to the introduction of C/AVs/HAVs, such as privacy. It is expected that further bills will be filed in the 115th Congress. NHTSA released updated policies in 2016 regarding C/AVs/HAVs and cyber security, and is expected to continue issuing regulations within this area. In addition, the FTC and FCC will continue to regulate in the areas of consumer protection and communications. What we did find was that law journal articles have yet to discuss â¢ amendments to motor vehicle codes, â¢ terminology that is obsolete/obsolescent, or â¢ driver/motor vehicle code laws that may need revisions. It should be noted, however, that the paucity of scholarly articles is not indicative that no activities are occurring, as the ULC, AAMVA, and the NCSL are tracking state laws within this area, and have committees dedicated to reviewing laws and making recommendations for uniform laws. In addition, states are developing laws and regulations, and responding to private sector activities, as are with quite a few notable local jurisdictions, including Boston, and Pittsburgh. A final conclusion within the arena of C/AVs/HAVs is that this area is constantly evolving, and that as new technologies and issues arise, federal and state governments will continue to develop associated laws, regulations, policies and executive orders.