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Scientific Communication and National Security (1982)

Chapter: Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

Appendix F
THE ROLE OF FOREIGN NATIONALS STUDYING OR WORKING IN U.S. UNIVERSITIES AND OTHER SECTORS

Mitchel B.Wallerstein

Staff Consultant



The number of foreign students in higher education in the United States increased substantially during the 1970s, especially at the graduate level. Underlying this trend were two major factors: (1) an increased demand for U.S. training to meet the needs of foreign nations for skilled scientific and engineering personnel, and (2) increased recruitment of foreign students by U.S. institutions to augment domestic enrollment. This trend is indicated clearly in Table 1. Enrollment of foreign students doubled during the 1970s at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, rising to almost 290,000 students in 1979.

GRADUATE TRAINING

The proportion of full-time graduate students in science and engineering (S&E) who were from foreign countries rose from 16 percent in 1974 to 20 percent in 1979. Although there was an increase in almost all S&E fields between 1974 and 1979, the growth was most dramatic in engineering and mathematical/computer sciences. Over 40 percent (16,200) of the 1979 graduate enrollment in engineering, and over 30 percent (4,300) of the enrollment in mathematical/computer sciences, consisted of foreign students (see Figure 1).

DOCTORATE PRODUCTION

Approximately 3,600 (or 1 out of every 5) S&E doctorates granted by U.S. universities in 1979 were awarded to foreign citizens. This is

The material in this appendix was derived primarily from two sources: (1) a National Science Foundation report, “Foreign participation in U.S. science and engineering higher education and labor markets” (NSF 81–316), and (2) data provided by the Commission on Human Resources of the National Research Council. Due to general nature of the data, however, it was not possible to determine the number of foreign nationals from any particular country participating in U.S. scientific and technological enterprises.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

TABLE 1 Foreign Enrollment in US Institutions of Higher Education, Selected Years, 1954–1979

Selected Years

All Institutions

Total Enrollment

Foreign Enrollment

Foreign as a Percentage of Total

1954

2,499,800

34,200

1.4

1964

5,320,000

82,000

1.5

1970

8,649,400

144,700

1.7

1975

11,290,700

179,300

1.6

1976

11,121,400

203,100

1.8

1977

11,415,000

235,500

2.1

1978

11,392,000

263,900

2.3

1979

11,707,100

286,300a

2.4a

aPreliminary.

SOURCES: National Center for Education Statistics and Institute of International Education.

FIGURE 1 Foreign students as a percentage of full-time graduate science/engineering enrollment in doctorate-granting institutions within fields, 1974–1979.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

broken down by field of study in Table 2. In engineering alone, foreign nationals obtained about 1,200—or almost half—of the doctorates received by graduate students. The share of all S&E doctorates awarded to foreign nationals increased from about 15 percent in 1960 to 21 percent in 1979. Since then, it has remained relatively stable.

The large number of foreign citizens obtaining doctorates in the United States indicates the large amount of foreign interest in the high technology work underway in U.S. institutions. Foreign nationals with temporary visas received at least 20 percent of the S&E doctorates awarded in 1979 in each of more than 40 subspecialties. The largest percentages were in fuel technology/petroleum engineering (76 percent) and agricultural engineering (50 percent).

Table 3 lists the ten leading U.S. institutions that granted doctorates to foreign full-time graduate students. The University of California-Berkeley and M.I.T. were first and second, respectively, in both 1974 and 1979, but the other institutions on the list varied substantially during the five-year period. The top ten institutions (by size) accounted for 21 percent of all foreign graduate students in 1979, compared with 23 percent in 1974.

POSTDOCTORATES

Foreigners constituted about one-third (or almost 6,500) of the S&E postdoctorates employed in doctorate-granting institutions in 1979, down from almost one-half in 1977. Figure 2 shows that two of every three postdoctorate engineers in 1979 were foreign nationals. Similarly, about 50 percent of the postdoctorate positions in the physical sciences were held by persons with foreign citizenship. Likewise, foreign nationals held about 45 percent of the postdoctorate positions in mathematical/computer sciences. Table 4 presents a summary of the ten leading institutions for foreign S&E postdoctorate employment in 1979. These universities accounted for 27 percent of the foreigners with postdoctorates working in U.S. institutions.

CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYMENT DISTRIBUTION

Data from annual surveys conducted by the National Research Council’s Commission on Human Resources paints a more detailed picture of the fields of interest and types of employment of “science/engineering Ph.D.s with foreign citizenship in the United States in 1981.” The figures presented here vary somewhat from the preceding data because they are more recent. They are also particularly noteworthy in that they encompass foreign Ph.D.s in noneducational areas of S&E employment. Table 5 indicates, for example, that while about 55 percent of the foreign Ph.D.s were employed in U.S. educational institutions of all types, about 37 percent (391 of those replying to the survey) were working in business and industry, another 2.3 percent (42 of those replying) were working for nonprofit organizations, and 1.6 percent (22 of those replying) were working for the U.S. government. Foreign

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

TABLE 2 Number and Percent Distribution of Ph.D. Recipients by Type of Citizenship for Selected Years

Field

1960

1965

1970

1975

1979

Total Science/Engineering

 

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded

6,300

10,500

17,800

18,500

17,200

 

Percent US

85

83

82

78

79

 

Percent Foreign

15

17

18

22

21

 

 

Permanent Residents (immigrants)

(3)

(3)

(6)

(7)

(6)

 

 

Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants)

(12)

(14)

(12)

(15)

(15)

Physical Sciences

 

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded

1,900

2,900

4,400

3,600

3,300

 

Percent US

88

86

84

77

79

 

Percent Foreign

13

15

16

23

21

 

 

Permanent Residents (immigrants)

(3)

(3)

(6)

(8)

(6)

 

 

Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants)

(10)

(12)

(10)

(15)

(15)

Mathematical Sciences

 

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded

300

700

1,200

1,100

1,000

 

Percent US

81

86

84

76

74

 

Percent Foreign

19

14

16

24

26

 

 

Permanent Residents (immigrants)

(4)

(3)

(5)

(7)

(7)

 

 

Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants)

(15)

(11)

(11)

(17)

(19)

Engineering

 

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded

800

2,100

3,400

3,000

2,500

 

Percent US

77

79

75

58

53

 

Percent Foreign

23

22

26

42

47

 

 

Permanent Residents (immigrants)

(7)

(6)

(12)

(14)

(13)

 

 

Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants)

(16)

(16)

(14)

(28)

(34)

Agriculture

 

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded

400

600

800

900

900

 

Percent US

74

67

70

63

65

 

Percent Foreign

26

33

30

37

35

 

 

Permanent Residents (immigrants)

(4)

(3)

(5)

(8)

(3)

 

 

Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants)

(22)

(30)

(25)

(29)

(32)

Life Sciences (excl. Agric.)

 

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded

1,200

2,000

3,400

3,600

3,600

 

Percent US

85

81

84

85

88

 

Percent Foreign

15

19

16

15

12

 

 

Permanent Residents (immigrants)

(3)

(3)

(4)

(6)

(4)

 

 

Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants)

(12)

(16)

(12)

(9)

(8)

Social Sciences

 

Number of Ph.D.s Awarded

1,700

2,400

4,600

6,200

5,900

 

Percent US

88

87

86

86

87

 

Percent Foreign

12

13

14

14

13

 

 

Permanent Residents (immigrants)

(3)

(3)

(5)

(4)

(3)

 

 

Temporary Residents (nonimmigrants)

(9)

(10)

(9)

(10)

(10)

Note: Percents calculated from unrounded numbers. Detail may not add to total due to rounding.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation and National Research Council, unpublished tabulations.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

TABLE 3 Ten Leading Doctorate-Granting Institutions in Foreign Full-Time Graduate Science/Engineering Enrollment, 1979 and 1974

Institution

Rank

Number

Percent Change

1979

1974

1979

1974

1974–79

Total, all institutions

44,800

31,700

41

Total, leading 10 institutions

9,170

7,090

29

University of California-Berkeley

1

1

1,239

1,201

3

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2

2

1,101

881

25

Ohio State University

3

8

1,002

610

64

University of Wisconsin-Madison

4

3

904

750

21

University of Michigan

5

9

874

600

46

University of Illinois-Urbana

6

7

864

686

26

Stanford University

7

4

861

725

19

University of California-Los Angeles

8

13

830

467

78

University of Southern California

9

15

774

451

72

Cornell University

10

5

722

711

2

All other institutions

 

 

35,620

24,610

45

SOURCE: National Science Foundation.

FIGURE 2 Foreign students as a percentage of total science/engineering postdoctorates in doctorate-grating institutions within fields: 1979.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

TABLE 4 Ten Leading Institutions in Foreign Science/Engineering Postdoctorate Employment, 1979

Institution

Rank

Number

Percent Distribution

Total, all institutions

6,080

100

Total, leading 10 institutions

 

1,649

27

Harvard University

1

297

5

University of California-Berkeley

2

189

3

Stanford University

3

171

3

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

4

160

3

University of Wisconsin-Madison

5

158

3

University of California-Los Angeles

6

145

2

University of Southern California

7

143

2

Cornell University

8

139

2

University of California-San Francisco

9

127

2

Yale University

10

120

2

All other institutions

 

4,430

73

 

SOURCE: National Science Foundation.

TABLE 5 Number of Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Field of Doctorate and Type of Employer

1982 Type of Employer

 

All Fields

Field of Doctorate

Mathematics

Computer Science

Physics

Chemistry

Engineering

Bioscience

Employed Populationa

N

1,328

107

25

146

187

181

208

 

V%b

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Educational Institution

N

800

84

13

84

91

57

160

 

V%

54.5

78.3

43.5

58.7

45.5

24.5

76.2

4-Year College/University/Medical School

N

789

82

13

83

91

57

159

V%

54.0

76.1

43.5

58.6

45.5

24.5

76.0

Business/Industryc

N

391

19

12

47

85

116

26

 

V%

36.8

18.2

56.5

32.0

51.7

71.6

10.1

U.S. Government

N

22

1

3

1

4

 

V%

1.6

0.3

2.6

0.9

4.1

Other Nonprofit Organization

N

42

3

8

4

4

4

 

V%

2.3

3.2

4.8

1.1

1.8

2.5

NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated.

aIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments.

bV%=Vertical percentage.

cIncludes those self-employed.

SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

TABLE 6 Number of Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Selected Field of Doctorate and Primary Work Activity

Primary Work Activity

 

All Fieldsa

Field of Doctorate

Mathematics

Computer Science

Physics

Chemistry

Engineering

Bioscience

Totalb

N

1,328

107

25

146

187

181

208

 

V%c

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Research and Development

N

675

33

14

99

121

99

130

 

V%

52.8

29.2

62.5

65.1

72.0

58.6

66.9

Basic Research

N

364

21

6

55

62

10

114

 

V%

24.6

20.2

32.9

35.8

33.7

6.0

59.7

Applied Research

N

226

8

5

25

49

55

13

 

V%

18.7

6.6

16.3

16.0

32.1

28.4

6.4

Development/Design

N

85

4

3

19

10

34

3

 

V%

9.4

2.4

14.4

13.4

6.2

24.2

0.8

Management/Administration

N

115

4

4

10

19

20

15

 

V%

10.3

3.5

8.8

6.3

9.6

12.7

6.7

Management of R&D

N

74

1

4

8

14

17

10

 

V%

6.7

0.3

8.8

6.1

6.7

12.0

4.9

Teaching

N

375

59

7

30

31

34

41

 

V%

25.3

54.3

28.7

22.3

10.9

14.5

17.4

Consulting/Professional Services

N

84

7

4

3

19

12

V%

6.3

7.5

3.9

1.3

11.1

5.0

NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated.

aThese figures represent more than the totals presented in the table.

bIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments.

cV%=Vertical percentage.

SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council.

nationals in business and industry were heavily represented in the fields of engineering, chemistry, and physics, but were found in other fields as well. Most of those working for the U.S. government were employed in bioscience, physics, or chemistry.

In Table 6 the doctoral fields of foreign national Ph.D.s and their primary work activity are shown. Approximately 53 percent were engaged in R&D, with lesser numbers in R&D management, consulting, or teaching. The heaviest concentration of foreign national Ph.D.s working in R&D was in chemistry, followed closely by bioscience, physics, computer science, and engineering. With the exception of engineering, a larger proportion of the researchers were engaged in basic research than in applied science or development/design.

Table 7 shows foreign national Ph.D.s by type of employer and primary work activity. Here again the majority (52.8 percent, or 678, of those replying to the survey) were engaged in R&D, primarily within educational institutions (45.6 percent, or 356, of those replying) and business/industry (45.5 percent, or 250, of those replying). A majority of the foreign nationals involved in R&D in educational institutions were working in basic research, while those employed by business/industry tended to be in applied research or development/design. The table also reveals that the federal government was

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

TABLE 7 Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Selected Type of Employer and Primary Work Activity

Primary Work Activity

 

Total Employeda

1981 Type of Employer

Educational Institution Total

College/University/MedicalSchool

Business/Industryb

U.S. Government

Other Nonprofit Organization

Totalc

N

1,328

800

789

391

22

42

 

H%d

100.0

54.0

54.0

36.8

1.6

2.3

 

V%d

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Research and Development

N

675

356

355

250

16

24

H%

100.0

45.6

45.6

45.5

2.3

2.8

 

V%

52.8

44.2

44.5

65.2

77.4

64.7

Basic Research

N

364

280

280

37

13

18

 

H%

100.0

77.1

77.1

11.7

3.9

4.4

 

V%

24.6

34.9

35.2

7.9

62.1

46.4

Applied Research

N

226

71

70

136

3

5

 

H%

100.0

26.7

26.6

63.7

1.3

2.1

 

V%

18.7

9.2

9.2

32.4

15.3

16.8

Development Design

N

85

5

5

77

1

 

H%

100.0

0.8

0.8

97.4

0.4

 

V%

9.4

0.1

0.1

25.0

1.4

Management/Administration

N

115

33

33

60

3

9

H%

100.0

31.8

31.8

56.2

2.9

4.3

 

V%

10.3

6.0

6.0

15.7

19.3

19.1

Management of R&D

N

74

12

12

51

2

6

 

H%

100.0

10.9

10.9

78.6

4.4

4.6

 

V%

6.7

1.3

1.3

14.2

18.7

13.3

Consulting/Professional Services

N

84

12

11

48

1

5

H%

100.0

9.6

8.9

71.2

0.5

1.9

 

V%

6.3

1.1

1.0

12.2

2.1

5.1

NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated.

aThese figures may represent more than the totals presented in the table.

bIncludes those self-employed.

cIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments.

dH%=Horizontal percentage. V%=Vertical percentage.

SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council.

design. The table also reveals that the federal government was relatively insignificant as an employer of foreign national Ph.D.s, either in R&D or in the management of science and technology.

The data in Tables 8 and 9 provide a very limited indication of the involvement of foreign nationals in some of the sectors of the U.S. economy that are considered vital to U.S. national security—i.e., defense, space, and energy. In Table 8 the individual’s generic area of interest is arrayed against his/her type of employment. Those working in the defense sector accounted for only 2.9 percent (29 of those replying to the survey) of the total foreign national workforce of Ph.D.s. This was similar to the percentage of those employed in space science (2.8 percent of those replying). Within the defense sector, Ph.D.s with foreign citizenship were found exclusively in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

TABLE 8 Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Selected Type of Employer and Area of National Interest

Area of Interest

 

Total Employeda

1981 Type of Employer

Educational Institution Total

College/University/Medical School

Business/Industryb

U.S. Government

Other Nonprofit Organization

Total Employedc

N

1,328

800

789

391

22

42

 

H%d

100.0

54.5

54.0

36.8

1.6

2.3

 

V%d

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Education (Not Teaching)

N

64

53

49

5

1

4

H%

100.0

86.0

80.6

6.2

2.8

4.5

 

V%

4.3

6.8

6.4

0.7

7.6

8.4

Health

N

273

193

193

37

5

7

 

H%

100.0

69.0

69.0

16.8

2.8

1.3

 

V%

16.0

20.3

20.4

7.3

28.7

9.2

Defense

N

29

12

12

17

 

H%

100.0

38.3

38.3

61.7

 

V%

2.9

2.0

2.0

4.8

Space

N

33

17

17

10

5

1

 

H%

100.0

53.6

53.6

31.9

14.2

0.3

 

V%

2.8

2.7

2.8

2.4

25.4

0.4

Energy or Fuel

N

119

49

49

63

4

 

H%

100.0

36.7

36.7

57.7

3.2

 

V%

12.5

8.4

8.5

19.6

17.2

NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated.

aThese figures may represent more than the totals presented in the table.

bIncludes those self-employed.

cIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments.

dH%=Horizontal percentage. V%=Vertical percentage.

SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council.

educational institutions or business/industry, similar to the pattern in space research. Finally, Table 9 shows that a majority (58.4 percent or 18) of the foreign nationals working in the defense sector were involved in R&D, primarily applied research and development/design. More than one-third were working in educational areas that are related in some way to national defense.

In sum, the data on foreign national Ph.D.s in science and engineering contain few surprises. Within certain fields, foreign citizens do constitute a significant percentage of those engaged in R&D activities in both the university and industrial sectors. At the same time, however, their presence remains inconsequential in generic areas, such as defense, which are directly related to U.S. national security. It is unfortunate that more specific data, indicating country or national origin, remain unavailable, since they would probably reveal that most foreign scientists and engineers are citizens of nonadversary countries. On the basis of the evidence presented here, however, it is apparent that the total number of foreign nationals presently in the United States is significant and, most likely, still increasing.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×

TABLE 9 Employed Science/Engineering Ph.D.s with Foreign Citizenship in the United States in 1981 by Selected Primary Work Activity and Area of National Interest

Area of Interest

 

Totala

Research and Development

Management

Area Total

Basic Research

Applied Research

Development/Design

Area Total

of R&D

Teaching

Consulting/Professional Services

Total Employedb

N

1,328

675

364

226

85

115

74

375

84

 

H%c

100.0

52.8

24.6

18.7

9.4

10.3

67

25.3

6.3

 

V%c

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Education (Not Teaching)

N

64

17

12

3

2

7

1

30

5

H%

100.0

26.6

24.1

1.7

0.9

18.6

1.0

42.9

7.3

 

V%

4.3

2.2

4.2

0.4

0.4

7.8

0.6

7.3

5.0

Health

N

273

171

126

39

6

23

14

49

19

 

H%

100.0

68.2

50.4

12.5

5.3

7.5

5.3

15.6

5.9

 

V%

16.0

20.7

32.7

10.7

9.0

11.8

12.9

9.8

15.1

Defense

N

29

18

3

10

5

1

1

8

2

 

H%

100.0

58.4

6.9

24.4

27.1

1.3

1.3

36.0

4.3

 

V%

2.9

3.2

0.8

3.8

8.3

0.4

0.6

4.1

2.0

Space

N

33

27

17

7

3

2

2

4

 

H%

100.0

85.7

47.8

21.0

16.9

8.2

8.2

6.1

 

V%

2.8

4.5

5.4

3.1

5.0

2.2

3.4

0.7

Energy or Fuel

N

119

75

22

38

15

6

6

25

10

 

H%

100.0

56.6

11.7

24.0

20.9

6.6

6.6

22.7

12.6

 

V%

12.5

13.4

5.9

16.0

27.7

8.0

12.4

11.2

24.9

NOTE: In view of the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame for foreign-earned doctorates in the United States, few additions of segment seven cases have been made to the sample since the 1973 survey. Therefore, the number of science and engineering Ph.D.s who are foreign citizens may be somewhat underestimated.

aThese figures may represent more than the totals presented in the table.

bIncludes those individuals who were full-time employed, part-time employed, or on postdoctoral appointments.

cH%=Horizontal percentage. V%=Vertical percentage.

SOURCE: 1981 Survey of Doctorate Recipients, National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 126
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 127
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 128
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 129
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 130
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 131
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 132
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 133
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 134
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: The Role of Foreign Nationals Studying or Working in U.S. Universities and Other Sectors." Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and National Academy of Engineering. 1982. Scientific Communication and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/253.
×
Page 135
Next: Appendix G: Letter from Five University Presidients »
Scientific Communication and National Security Get This Book
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The military, political, and economic preeminence of the United States during the post-World War II era is based to a substantial degree on its superior rate of achievement in science and technology, as well as on its capacity to translate these achievements into products and processes that contribute to economic prosperity and the national defense. The success of the U.S. scientific enterprise has been facilitated by many factors, important among them the opportunity for American scientists and engineers to pursue their research-and to communicate with each other-in a free and open environment.

During the last two administrations, however, concern has arisen that the characteristically open U.S. scientific community has served as one of the channels through which critical information and know-how are flowing to the Soviet Union and to other potential adversary countries; openness in science is thus perceived to present short-term national security risks in addition to its longer-term national security benefits in improved U.S. military technology.

The Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security was asked to examine the various aspects of the application of controls to scientific communication and to suggest how to balance competing national objectives so as to best serve the general welfare. The Panel held three two-day meetings in Washington at which it was briefed by representatives of the departments of Defense, State, and Commerce, and by representatives of the intelligence community, including the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Defense Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency. The Panel also heard presentations by members of the research community and by university representatives. In addition to these briefings, the Rand Corporation prepared an independent analysis of the transfer of sensitive technology from the United States to the Soviet Union. To determine the views of scientists and administrators at major research universities, the Panel asked a group of faculty members and administrative officials at Cornell University to prepare a paper incorporating their own views and those of counterparts at other universities.

The main thrust of the Panel's findings is completely reflected in this document. However, the Panel has also produced a classified version of the subpanel report based on the secret intelligence information it was given; this statement is available at the Academy to those with the appropriate security clearance.

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