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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 190 2018 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Operations and Traffic Management â¢ Planning and Forecasting Common Performance Metrics for Airport Infrastructure and Operational Planning Barbara A. Bottiger Booz Allen HAmilton Raleigh, NC Vitaly S. Guzhva Chunyan Yu emBry-riddle AeronAuticAl university Daytona Beach, FL Frederick Busch JviAtion, inc. Denver, CO Charles Murphy Barbara Cogliandro metron AviAtion Washington, DC Richard Marchi rFmArcHi AviAtion consulting, inc. Washington, DC
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 190 Project 03-41 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-47992-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2018959902 Â© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 190 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Megan A. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Heidi Willis, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-41 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Daniel H. Frazee, KSAN, Carlsbad, CA (Chair) James H. Cistone, Sullivan Aviation Services, LLC, Hanover, PA Leihong Li, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA John J. Martin, JetBlue Airways, Boston, MA Paul Meyer, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, GA Marcus E.B. Smith, MITRE Corporation, Amherst, MA Ralph Tamburro, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York, NY Kent Duffy, FAA Liaison Christopher J. Oswald, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The ACRP Project 03-41 Principal Investigator (PI) would like to thank the entire project team and gratefully acknowledge Amandine Coudert, Domenico Ruggiero, Mario Lento, Jacqueline Serrao, Akshay Belle, Colleen Reiche, and Chrishanth Fernando of Booz Allen Hamilton for their contributions to the Reference Guide and accompanying Smart Guide. The PI would also like to thank fellow authors Frederick Busch and Richard Marchi for their invaluable guidance and support throughout the development of this Reference Guide. The entire project team would like to thank the panel for sharing their expertise and providing guidance.
ACRP Research Report 190: Common Performance Metrics for Airport Infrastructure and Operational Planning is a reference guide to common performance metrics for airport infra- structure and operational planning. The guidance includes information on how to interpret these performance metrics that can be used for analysis among airports, airlines, and air traffic control. Information is provided on practical application and demonstration of the relationship between common metrics. This reference guide will be useful for airport opera- tors and planners at a variety of airports/airport systems for improved efficiency and deci- sion making. The Microsoft Excel-based Smart Guide, an interactive, easy-to-use reference guide, is available on the TRB website (www.trb.org). Specific considerations included relevant aspects of NextGen; overall system issues and their impact on airport operations; benchmarking across airports; safety issues in surface movement; airport geometry and its impact on complexity of operations; gate management and ramp tower operations; and federal regulation reporting requirements. The interaction between airports, airlines, and air traffic systems is evolving and increas- ing with overlapping projects related to new technologies, integrated operations, and infrastructure development. These include a variety of initiatives, for example: departure queue management, ramp tower operations and utilization, design of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) and other NextGen processes and integration with metroplex airspace, airport participation in the FAA/industry Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) process, and development of operational efficiencies to attract new service. For any initiative, per- formance and cost-benefit analyses are highly advisable and often used for planning pur- poses. To support these analyses, metrics are needed to perform accurate and worthwhile comparisons. ACRP Project 03-41 was designed to consider metrics that are currently in use or proposed by airports, air traffic control, and airlines [e.g., departure and arrival delays, passenger throughput, ASV (annual service volume), ADC (average daily capac- ity)] and to identify sources of information to develop the metrics [e.g., SWIM (system wide information management), gate management, ASPM (aviation system performance metrics), and BTS (Bureau of Transportation Statistics)]. This reference guide will help airports that have difficulty in evaluating the impacts on operations and will help establish an understanding or a uniform set of metrics that can be used for analysis among airports, airlines, and air traffic control. Under ACRP Project 03-41, research was conducted by Booz Allen Hamilton, led by Barb Bottiger, in association with Embry Riddle Aeronautical University; Jviation, Inc.; Metron Aviation; and RFMarchi Aviation Consulting, Inc. The research was conducted using a three-phased approach that included input gathered from subject matter experts F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
on the Booz Allen team to develop preliminary drafts of the Reference Guide and initial concept for the Smart Guide. A literature review helped develop and refine a database of performance metrics. An advisory committee who was consulted on the performance metrics database validated the usefulness of the included per- formance metrics and recommended additional metrics. Benchmarking studies were also conducted to compare performance metrics amongst airports.
1 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Reference Guide and Smart Guide 2 1.1 How to Use the Reference Guide 3 1.2 How to Use the Smart Guide 3 1.3 How to Use the Performance Metrics Database 4 Chapter 2 Introduction to Performance Metrics 4 2.1 Definition 4 2.2 Using Performance Metrics 6 2.3 Types of Performance Metrics 7 2.4 FAA Harmonized Metrics 8 Chapter 3 Focus Area Performance Metrics 8 3.1 Relevant Aspects of NextGen 13 3.2 Overall System Issues and Their Variability 21 3.3 Safety Issues in Surface Movement 26 3.4 Benchmarking across Airports 31 3.5 Airport Geometry Impact on Operations 35 3.6 Gate Management and Ramp Tower Operations 38 3.7 Regulations/Requirements 43 Chapter 4 Data Sources and Considerations 44 4.1 Considerations for Choosing Data Source 46 4.2 FAA Operations and Performance Data Portal 53 4.3 Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Data 61 Bibliography 65 Acronyms 69 Appendix A Smart Guide Instructions 75 Appendix B Performance Metrics Database 164 Appendix C List of ASPM Data Modules C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.