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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Simplified Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck Panel Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25319.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Simplified Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck Panel Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25319.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2018 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 895 Simplified Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck Panel Systems Sameh S. Badie The GeorGe WashinGTon UniversiTy Washington, D.C. George Morcous UniversiTy of nebraska–LincoLn Lincoln, NE Maher K. Tadros e.consTrUcT Usa, LLc. Omaha, NE Subscriber Categories Bridges and Other Structures Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide inter- est to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 895 Project 12-96 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-47996-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2018961247 © 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 12-96 by the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. The George Washington University was the contractor for this study. The University of Nebraska–Lincoln and e.Construct USA in Omaha, Nebraska, served as subcontractors to The George Washington University. Sameh S. Badie, professor of Civil Engineering at The George Washington University, was the project director and principal investigator. Other authors of this report are George Morcous, professor of Civil Engineering at University of Nebraska–Lincoln; and Maher K. Tadros, principal at e.Construct USA. Many thanks are due the following individuals for their help and support during various phases of the project: Majid Manzari, professor; Arzhang Zamani and Saman Mehryar, PhD students; Khaled Alfadl and Hannah Gaudet, undergraduate students; and Daniel Balacha, William Rutkowski, Thomas Punte, and Mark Wagner, laboratory technicians at George Washington University; Raed Tawadrous, Mostafa Aboelkhier, and Antony Kodsy, PhD students at University of Nebraska–Lincoln; Chuanbing Sun, PhD, and Michael Saad, PhD, of e.Construct USA; Nicholas Paleologos, John Paleologos, Michael Lenkin, and Alan Jenkins of Miller and Long DC in Washington, D.C.; Mark Lafferty of Concrete Industries, Inc., in Lincoln, Nebraska; Todd Culp of Coreslab Structures, Inc., in Plattsmouth, Nebraska; Gregory Nault of LafargeHolcim North America, Inc., in Chicago, Illinois; and Robert Cramer of Cramer and Associates in Grimes, Iowa. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 895 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Senior Program Officer Megan Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications NCHRP PROJECT 12-96 PANEL Field of Design—Area of Bridges Ahmad Abu-Hawash, Iowa DOT, Ames, IA (Chair) Ihab Said Darwish, Alfred Benesch and Company, East Lansing, MI Hussam Z. “Sam” Fallaha, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL Michael D. Hyzak, Texas DOT, Austin, TX William N. Nickas, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Tallahassee, FL Carin L. Roberts-Wollmann, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA William P. Saffian, New Hampshire DOT, Concord, NH Benjamin A. Graybeal, FHWA Liaison Richard B. “Dick” Stoddard, NHTSA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, P.E., TRB Liaison

This report presents new simplified connections between full-depth precast concrete deck panels and beams. These new connections are simplified with regard to constructability, inspection during construction, reducing the impact of construction on traffic, and future deck replacement and are based on comprehensive analytical and testing programs. The new system utilizes clustered shear connectors spaced up to 6 ft and connected to the deck system using ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). In addition, the new system utilizes discrete joint connections (i.e., noncontinuous haunch) to eliminate blind grouting. The report also presents proposed revisions to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The material in this report will be of immediate interest to bridge engineers. Full-depth precast concrete deck panels have been widely used in accelerated bridge construction (ABC) in various forms and sizes. As a prefabricated component, full-depth deck panel systems meet the objectives of ABC by expediting construction, enhanc- ing quality and durability, improving public and worker safety, and reducing road-user impact. Typically, deck panels are connected to the supporting beams by shear connectors in formed openings in panels (i.e., shear pockets) to achieve composite action between the deck panels and beams of a bridge. The current use of shear connectors at small spacing poses several constructability challenges because of the large number of connectors and pockets, including the work associated with the blind grouting/concreting of numerous shear pockets and the longitudinal haunch between deck panels and beams. Specifically, leveling, sealing, forming, grouting, and concreting can be time-consuming and require access from above and below the deck. This access requirement may adversely affect traffic. A new deck connection that can overcome these constructability challenges by reducing the number of shear pockets and eliminating blind grouting would provide additional benefits from using this construction technique. Under NCHRP Project 12-96, George Washington University was asked to develop recommended guidelines and to propose AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications language for the design, fabrication, and construction of a new full-depth precast concrete deck panel system that simplifies the connection between deck panels and beams. A number of deliverables, provided as appendices, are not published but are available on the TRB project website at https://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp? ProjectID=3409. These appendices are titled as follows: • Appendix A—Literature Review • Appendix B—Analytical Program • Appendix C—Shop Drawings F O R E W O R D By Waseem Dekelbab Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Background 3 1.1 General 3 1.2 Literature Review 4 1.2.1 Variable-Depth Precast Deck Panel Systems 4 1.2.2 Slab–Girder Systems Made with Discrete Joints 6 1.2.3 Shear Connector Spacing and Capacity 9 Chapter 2 Research Goals and Approach 9 2.1 Introduction 10 2.2 Precast Deck Panel System with Longitudinal Post-Tensioning 20 2.3 Precast Deck Panel System with Conventional Longitudinal Reinforcement 24 Chapter 3 Research Findings 24 3.1 Analytical Program 24 3.1.1 Objectives of the Analytical Program 24 3.1.2 Design Requirement 1: Flexural Design of Deck 32 3.1.3 Design Requirement 2: Two-Way Shear at the Discrete Joints 33 3.1.4 Design Requirement 3: Two-Way Shear at Wheel Loads for Variable-Thickness Ribbed Slab 34 3.1.5 Design Requirement 4: Bearing Stresses 34 3.1.6 Analytical Model Used to Investigate Design Requirements 5 to 9 37 3.1.7 Design Requirement 5: One-Way Shear in the Slab 38 3.1.8 Design Requirement 6: Flexural Stresses of Composite Member 38 3.1.9 Design Requirement 7: Deflection of Composite Member 39 3.1.10 Design Requirement 8: Interface Shear 39 3.1.11 Design Requirement 9: Vertical Shear of Composite Beam 40 3.1.12 Design Requirement 10: Distribution Factors 42 3.1.13 Flexural Strength 42 3.1.14 Top Flange Buckling 45 3.1.15 Finite Element Analysis of Push-Off Specimens 47 3.1.16 Effect of Simplification of Deck Post-Tensioning 50 3.1.17 Summary and Conclusions 51 3.2 Experimental Program 51 3.2.1 Introduction to the Experimental Program 52 3.2.2 Investigation of Precast Deck System with Concrete Girders 74 3.2.3 Investigation of Precast Deck System with Steel Girders 107 3.3 Design Examples 107 3.3.1 Design of the Precast Deck Slab System 122 3.3.2 Longitudinal Design of Deck–Girder System for Concrete Girders 124 3.3.3 Longitudinal Design of Deck–Girder System with Steel Girders C O N T E N T S

131 3.4 Design Guidelines 131 3.4.1 Precast Deck 132 3.4.2 Haunch (Build-Up) Between Girders and Panels 133 3.4.3 Concrete Girder-to-Deck Joint 133 3.4.4 Steel Girder-to-Deck Joint 133 3.4.5 Concrete Girder Design 133 3.4.6 Steel Girder Design 134 3.5 Proposed Changes to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 134 3.5.1 Item 1: Create a New Section 2.5.2.6.4 134 3.5.2 Item 2: Add New Reference to Section 2.8 135 3.5.3 Item 3: Modify Section 5.7.4 138 3.5.4 Item 4: Add New Reference to Section 5.15 138 3.5.5 Item 5: Modify Section 6.10.10.1.2 140 3.5.6 Item 6: Modify Section 6.10.10.4.3 140 3.5.7 Item 7: Add New Reference to Section 6.17 140 3.5.8 Item 8: Add New Paragraphs to Section 9.7.5.3 141 3.5.9 Item 9: Add New Reference to Section 9.10 141 3.6 Economical Impact of Proposed Guidelines and Specifications 142 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research 142 4.1 Conclusions 144 4.2 Recommendations for Future Research 145 Bibliography 148 Appendices A–C Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 895: Simplified Full-Depth Precast Concrete Deck Panel Systems describes new connections between full-depth precast concrete deck panels and beams. These connections are simplified with regard to constructability, inspection during construction, reducing the impact of construction on traffic, and future deck replacement.The new system utilizes clustered shear connectors spaced up to six feet and connected to the deck system using ultra-high performance concrete. It also utilizes discrete joint connections to eliminate blind grouting. This report also presents proposed revisions to the AASHTO Bridge Design Specifications.

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