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E-1 A P P E N D I X E Quick Start Handbook
1.0 INTRODUCTION ï 1 ï Quick Start Guide: Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk Prepared for Airport Cooperative Research Program ï Transportation Research Board of The National Academies Prepared by ICF with Gresham, Smith and Partners, and Faith Group, LLC Washington, DC ï January 2018
ï 2 ï 1.0 INTRODUCTION handbook present a practical approach for airports to account for risks from a changing climate when assessing risks as part of existing management systems. Each chapter of the associated handbook provides additional detail and insights associated with the chapter subject area. 1.1 Who should use this Quick Start Guide? â¢ Do you manage airport infrastructure or services? â¢ Does weather aect the infrastructure or services that you manage? â¢ Does weather inuence your airportâs ability to operate? â¢ Do you wish to reduce the nancial, operational, and safety risks at your airport? If you answered âyesâ to any of the questions above, this Quick Start Guide is for you. Even if your airport has not experienced extreme weather events in recent years, it is important to understand how the climate may change in your area and the associated vulnerabilities and risks to maintaining your day-to-day operations. 1.2 Why should my airport be concerned about climate change? A changing climate creates uncertainty in the type, frequency and intensity of weather events that may occur. Recent trends at your airport may already be evident, such as â¢ Increased frequency of intense storms or microbursts, â¢ Longer lasting or more frequent extreme temperatures, â¢ Drought, and â¢ Flooding from higher tidal storm surges and increased sea-level rise threats. conditions can create impacts to your airport both in the short- and long-term: â¢ Limiting the service life of existing infrastructure assets. â¢ Altering the type and frequency of emergency response situations. These could require added from microbursts that compromise worker safety and asset functionality). â¢ Expanding or shortening the tourism season for your community, resulting in new economic considerations. Your airport may already have management systems that manage risk to severe weather and other hazards. You can use these existing systems to address your new impacts from a changing climate. CLIMATE RISK DEFINITION: The potential losses associated with individual or multiple climate hazards, frequency, exposure, and consequences . Also known as climate change risk (ACRP 2015a). This Quick Start Guide accompanies ACRP Research Report 188. The guide and
ï 3 ï 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.3. How do I start managing my climate risks? The following four elements, listed below and addressed in subsequent sections of this Quick Start Guide, are the key action items for managing climate risks using the common management systems in place at your airport. management systems. INTEGRATION IDENTIFY CLIMATE HAZARDS. IDENTIFY RELEVANT BUILD SUPPORT. TAKE ACTION TO INTEGRATE CLIMATE RISKS. WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF INTEGRATING CLIMATE RISKS INTO EXISTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS? â¢ Save on costs for pavement repair, drainage system maintenance, and other weather- related costs. â¢ Improve safety and security for sta and passengers â¢ Avoid being caught unprepared for an extreme weather event â¢ Avoid underestimating infrastructure sizing requirements â¢ Maintain compliance with environmental, safety, and other regulations â¢ Improve reliability and customer service â¢ Maintain continuity of operations during an extreme event â¢ Improve ability to recover from an extreme event Some business-as-usual processes, such as annual engineering assessments, can help you to stay on top of trends and impacts as they occur. This adaptive management approach is best suited to manage gradually changing risks over time. When climate change poses immediate threats, adaptive management may not be
ï 4 ï 2.0 SELF-ASSESSMENT Your airport is unique. You have a set of established management systems used to conduct business, some of which may follow industry standards while others may be a less formal process. Your airport experiences âtypicalâ weather that may change in the future due to a changing climate. And the team at your airport is already familiar with addressing and mitigating risks. 2.1 What are my relevant climate hazards? Information on the anticipated local climate hazards is available from numerous sourcesâso many, in fact, that are intended to simplify that process: USE THIS INFORMATION TO FILL OUT COLUMNS A 1. If you have little previous exposure to the topic of climate change and the associated impacts, review the National Climate Assessment (NCA) chapter for your region for a high-level overview. If you are already familiar with this information, continue on. 2. Use the ACRP Airport Climate Risk Operational Screening (ACROS) Tool to gather detailed, airport- specic projections of climate hazards and associated impact to your infrastructure assets. SHORTCUT! Without going through the full tool to evaluate climate risks, you can use the ACROS tool to gather climate projections for your airport in less than 10 minutes: Â Open the ACROS tool Â Enter your airport code Â Click the âReportsâ button at the bottom left pane to generate a summary table of the climate hazard projections at your airport 3. Check whether there have been other climate change assessments in your location. For example, check with your local city government or university for existing published studies. These may provide additional information beyond the ACROS tool. 4. If your airport is coastal, look for information on whether any parts of your airport or its access roads could be aected by sea level rise. Check the following sources of information: Â» Locally-specic studies â Many coastal areas have existing sea level rise mapping studies that consider local land elevations, vertical land movement rates, expected sea level changes rates in the area, and local coastal processes. Check with your state or local government oces and nearby universities for existing sea level rise assessments. Â» NOAA â If no locally-specic studies are available, the NOAA Sea Level Rise Viewer is a tool to visualize community-level impacts from coastal ooding or sea level rise (NOAA 2017). The answers to these questions and completion of the Appendix A â Self-assessment Worksheet, located in the accompanying handbook is your rst step in this process. The self-assessment will help you understand your airport-specic climate hazards; the risks these hazards pose to operations, workers and passengers; and which of your existing management systems are best for managing these risks. Please see Chapter 2 of the handbook for more self-assessment details. many airports nd it overwhelming. The following steps AND B OF THE SELF-ASSESSMENT WORKSHEET
ï 5 ï 2.0 SELF-ASSESSMENT 2.2 What are my expected climate risks? Now that you have information on anticipated local climate hazards, evaluate what risks these pose to your airport. The degree of risk depends on: the magnitude of change for each climate hazard, the sensitivity of your airport infrastructure and operations to those changes, and your preparedness to adapt. USE THIS INFORMATION TO FILL OUT COLUMNS C, 1. High-level risk assessment is appropriate if you are not ready to spend time on a more detailed risk assessment. Work with others in your airport to evaluate how the projected climate hazards could disrupt service, cause safety concerns to airport workers or passengers, and change service demand (e.g., tourism season variations), among other items. TIP! Default results from the ACROS tool provide a structured process for conducting a risk screening to identify whatâs most at risk to projected climate change (ACRP 2015a). 2. For a more detailed risk assessment, involve sta from multiple departments to assess and prioritize risks by completing the ACROS tool. The tool includes sequential screens where users rate the criticality (i.e., importance) and vulnerability on their assets to the hazards. 2.3 Which of my management systems should I use to address my climate risks? Strategic Planning Well-suited to manage multi-discipline, potentially existential risks to the airport, such as the risk of long-term inundation from sea level rise or the potential for signicant changes in passenger or other use demand Master Planning Useful to manage long-term infrastructure risks that can impact forecasted service levels, such as those from extreme temperatures, sea level rise or ooding Enterprise Risk Management Applicable to holistically address risk identication, planning and response coordination across the airport, such as those addressing airport service reliability Safety Management Well-suited to manage safety-related risks, such as extreme heat and the health eects on workers Capital Planning Applicable to address infrastructure management and investment through a multi-year approach that ensures basic safety, security and operational eciency and maximizes economic potential Asset Management Well-suited to manage the status of existing assets and infrastructure, as well as risks related to changes in operations and maintenance costs Emergency Management Useful to manage risks from operational changes due to extreme events (e.g., new risk of wildres or ice storms) addressed using any of the above common management systems. Refer to Chapter 2.3 of the handbook for additional explanation.
ï 6 ï 3.1 Identify a champion Climate risk management initiatives may be most successful support and excitement. This champion, or champions, drive climate risk integration across your airport so that it is considered in each management system planning cycle. The role of this champion is not to single-handedly do all the work, but to gather the support that is needed, 3.2 Define roles and responsibilities individual to understand and take actions in their departments that align with the champion's objective. 3.3 Make the case to executive management Securing the buy in of airport executives and senior executive leadership sets the priorities for individual departments. Executive management also has a broad view of the organization and may provide insight and are addressed internally. A template and guide for speaking with executive management is included in the handbookâs Appendix B, Template for Communicating with Airport Executives. 3.4 Build support across airport departments Building an awareness of the risks from changing climate conditions will require a coordinated and persistent approach. The end goal is to develop consensus and share coordination is encouraged, where feasible. information already collected to date (as part of the self- assessment process) to build momentum for continued only person actively seeking to integrate climate risk, 3.5 Coordinate with external stakeholders Airlines, other commercial airport tenants, xed base operators (FBOs), and concessions (i.e., external stakeholders) are dependent on airports to maintain business continuity. Coordinating with these stakeholders allows you to address indirect climate risks that cannot be directly mitigated by your airport. These risks might range from energy and water supplies to road access. 3.6 Communicate effectively Keeping your message straightforward, focused, positive, and solutions-based will increase understanding. your airport include: 1. Focus on risks from climate change, not the causes. The science behind the forces that create climate change can be challenging to communicate, and sometimes can create tension. Focusing instead on the risks, and those risks specic to your airport and region, can simplify this message. 2. Keep the message positive. A proven approach is to focus your message on what CAN be done to mitigate risks from climate change, whether as an individual or team. When people feel they are empowered to address a risk, they are more likely to act. 3. Focus on why this matters to your audience . The risks to any particular airport functional area may vary. While keeping your core points and objectives the same, tailor your message when addressing dierent audiences. For example, planners involved in emergency management will better relate when the focus is on risks and hazards associated with frequency and intensity of severe weather events, while asset management personnel will be more interested in impacts to infrastructure maintenance and operational reliability. Before you can identify, develop, and propose climate risk integration strategies at your airport, you may need to build support and consensus. The following strategies can help you build the support you need. Chapter 3 of the handbook presents additional strategies and examples. 3.0 BUILDING SUPPORT information to account fully for these risks. Engaging executive management to assist with facilitating this âTemplate for Communicating with Airport Leadership.
ï 7 ï 4.0 USING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FLOWCHARTS evaluated the associated risks to your airport. You have buy-in from the appropriate decision makers. Well Done! Now one of your management systems is ready to begin the planning cycle. Letâs get started. QUICK START GUIDEâS AIRPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 5.1 STRATEGIC PLANNING 5.2 MASTER PLANNING 5.3 ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT 5.4 SAFETY MANAGEMENT 5.5 CAPITAL PLANNING 5.6 ASSET MANAGEMENT 5.7 EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PLAN DO CHECK A CT DO ï CHECK ï ACT ï 4.1 What are management system flowcharts? main steps in each of the seven common management systems. The steps are organized into the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)âs Plan-Do-Check-Act framework (ISO steps with your own planning process, even if you do not have a formal management system or follow the steps exactly as page) to illustrate the various components. Depending on the selected management system and your preferred level of climate integration, some climate entry points may be more relevant than others. This is an opportunity to account for, or integrate, climate risks into the management system(s) you regularly update. Chapter 4 of the handbook provides details to maximize each entry point. â¢ Define scope and objectives. â¢ Collect and analyze data. â¢ Identify risks/problems. â¢ Develop a plan to solve problems/meet objectives. PLAN ï â¢ Implement plan. â¢ Verify plan meets objectives by monitoring and measuring progress. â¢ Improve process effectiveness based on findings. â¢ Integrate with future decision-making.
ï 8 ï PL AN DO CH EC K AC T 1. Understand the Organization 2. Develop Mission, Vision and Value Statement 3. Scan the Environment and Predict Developments (SWOT Analysis) 7. Monitor and Measure Progress CLIMATE ENTRY POINTS AND INTEGRATION ACTIONS Identify threats and opportunities from climate change Identify strategic issues, strategies, and long-term objectives related to managing climate risk Monitor climate resilience performance measures Reevaluate and modify your climate risk management objectives over time Continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making 11. Continuously Improve 4. Identify Strategic Issues, Strategies & Long-term Objectives 5. Formulate Short-term Objectives and Create Action Plans 6. Secure Funding and Implement Plan 8. Communicate Progress to Organization 9. Evaluate Plan Implementation 10. Conduct Management Review 12. Integrate with Decision-making 4.0 USING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FLOWCHARTS 4.2 How do I use the management system flowcharts? Step 3. Execute the management system â Complete the plan-do-check-act steps of your management system as you typically would and account for climate risks at the coordinate with other management system data collection and prioritization. For example, end of life data collected during asset management system implementation may inform the prioritization of funding determined during the capital planning process. Step 4. Continuous improvement â Each time the management system planning cycle commences, consider TYPICAL STEPS followed to complete the development of a system, implement the system, verify the system is meeting objectives by monitoring and measuring progress, and communicating outcomes to integrate system revisions HOW TO READ YOUR FLOWCHART CLIMATE ENTRY POINTS AND INTEGRATION ACTIONS -These describe the climate-related risk assessment steps, or climate entry points, along with the corresponding suggested action(s) during that step 4 Steps of the Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle Step1. Identify the management system. - Referencing the list of 7 common management systems, select the system you will be reviewing. Locate the associated owchart in Section 5.0 of this Quick Start Guide. Step 2. Review the management system owchart for climate entry points. â You are likely familiar with the typical steps you take when creating a system and implementing the system for any particular topic area. Compare your typical process with the detailed owchart. Identify the steps with a corresponding climate entry point and integration action and determine those that apply to your tailored implementation of your management system. pre-identied climate entry points. Look for opportunities to new or dierent risks from updated climate change data.
ï 9 ï 5.0 SYSTEM INTEGRATION STRATEGIES 5.1 Strategic Planning Refer to Section 4.1 of the handbook for additional information. PL AN DO CH EC K AC T 1. Understand the Organization 2. Develop Mission, Vision and Value Statement 3. Scan the Environment and Predict Developments (SWOT Analysis) 7. Monitor and Measure Progress CLIMATE ENTRY POINTS AND INTEGRATION ACTIONS Identify threats and opportunities from climate change Identify strategic issues, strategies, and long-term objectives related to managing climate risk Monitor climate resilience performance measures Reevaluate and modify your climate risk management objectives over time Continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making 11. Continuously Improve 4. Identify Strategic Issues, Strategies & Long-term Objectives 5. Formulate Short-term Objectives and Create Action Plans 6. Secure Funding and Implement Plan 8. Communicate Progress to Organization 9. Evaluate Plan Implementation 10. Conduct Management Review 12. Integrate with Decision-making
ï 10 ï 5.2 Master Planning Refer to Section 4.2 of the handbook for additional information. 5.0 SYSTEM INTEGRATION STRATEGIES PL AN DO CH EC K AC T 1. Understand the Organization 3. Assess Level of Service Requirements 2. Conduct Existing Conditions Survey 7. Monitor and Measure Progress CLIMATE ENTRY POINTS AND INTEGRATION ACTIONS Evaluate how climate change could requirements Consider impact of climate change through environmental analyses Consider whether infrastructure changes are needed to accommodate climate change Monitor climate resilience performance measures Reevaluate and modify your climate risk management objectives over time Continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making 10. Continuously Improve 6. Secure Funding and Implement Plan 8. Evaluate Plan Implementation 9. Conduct Management Review 11. Integrate with Decision-making 4. Develop and Evaluate Alternatives 5. Develop Master Plan
ï 11 ï PL AN DO CH EC K AC T 5.3 Enterprise Risk Management Refer to Section 4.3 of the handbook for additional information. 5.0 SYSTEM INTEGRATION STRATEGIES 1. Develop Enterprise Risk Management Policy 3. Develop Risk Response Plans (Mitigation Strategies) 2. Identify Risks 7. Monitor and Measure Progress CLIMATE ENTRY POINTS AND INTEGRATION ACTIONS Identify threats from climate change Incorporate climate risks into existing mitigation strategies, or develop new strategies Identify funding sources for climate risk management activities Update training protocols Monitor climate risk-related performance indicators Reevaluate climate risk data and mitigation strategies over time Continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making 10. Continuously Improve 8. Report Progress 9. Conduct Management Review 11. Integrate with Decision-making 4. Develop Implementation Plan 5. Secure Funding and Implement Plan 6. Provide ERM Training
ï 12 ï 5.4 Safety Management Refer to Section 4.4 of the handbook for additional information. 5.0 SYSTEM INTEGRATION STRATEGIES PL AN DO CH EC K AC T 1. Develop Safety Management Policy 3. Identify Risks/Hazards 4. Dene and Document SMS 5. Develop SMS Implementation Plan CLIMATE ENTRY POINTS AND INTEGRATION ACTIONS Identify climate change as a safety risk Include risks from climate change and extreme weather events in risk/hazard Incorporate climate change into SMS procedure trainings Monitor weather trends and climate- related metrics Reevaluate and modify climate- related safety risks Continuously integrate new climate risk information into risk assessment 6. Implementation Plan 7. Provide SMS Training 9. Conduct SMS Assessment 10. Conduct Management Review 11. Continuously Improve 12. Integrate with Decision-making 2. Design SMS 8. Monitor and Measure Progress
ï 13 ï 5.5 Capital Planning Refer to Section 4.5 of the handbook for additional information. 5.0 SYSTEM INTEGRATION STRATEGIES PL AN DO CH EC K AC T 1. Develop Airport Capital Planning Policy 2. Manage Financial Plan 3. Manage Capital Plan 4. Analyze Programming Criteria 5. Develop Airport Capital Plan with Funding Sources Identied CLIMATE ENTRY POINTS AND INTEGRATION ACTIONS Incorporate climate risk management as an overarching guideline Consider climate risk management needs in development of project request list Screen projects for climate risks Include climate risk management as a criterion for project ranking Allocate funding for climate risk management projects Integrate climate change projection data into design practices Monitor the performance of risk management projects Review climate risk management improvement Reevaluate climate risk data and design protocols over time Continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making 6. Secure Funding and Implement Plan 7. Design Project 9. Monitor and Measure Progress 8. Construct Project 10. Operate Project 11. Close out and Evaluate Project 12. Conduct Management Review 13. Continuously Improve 14. Integrate with Decision-making
ï 14 ï 5.6 Asset Management Refer to Section 4.6 of the handbook for additional information. 5.0 SYSTEM INTEGRATION STRATEGIES PL AN DO CH EC K AC T 1. Develop Asset Management Policy 2. Determine Existing Conditions 3. Set Target Levels of Service 4. Determine Business Risk (Criticality) 5. Develop Asset Management Plan CLIMATE ENTRY POINTS AND INTEGRATION ACTIONS Evaluate how climate change could Evaluate how climate change could requirements Consider the impacts of climate risks Integrate resilience into project design Monitor climate resilience metrics Reevaluate and modify existing conditions determination Continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making 6. Secure Funding and Implement Plan 7. Renew or Dispose of Assets 9. Monitor and Measure Progress 8. Maintain Assets 10. Audit Performance 11. Conduct Management Review 12. Continuously Improve 13. Integrate with Decision-making
ï 15 ï 5.0 SYSTEM INTEGRATION STRATEGIES 5.7 Emergency Management Refer to Section 4.7 of the handbook for additional information. PL AN DO CH EC K AC T 1. Develop Emergency Management Vision 2. Mitigate / Plan 3. Assess Preparedness 4. Develop Risk Response Processes / Mitigation Strategies 5. Develop Emergency Management Plan CLIMATE ENTRY POINTS AND INTEGRATION ACTIONS Review and update risk register in light of climate risks Develop risk response processes or mitigation strategies for any new climate-related risks Review performance during each stage of the event and integrate lessons learned into the emergency management plan Reevaluate and modify climate- related risks Continuously integrate new climate risk information into risk assessment 6. Implement Plan / Respond to Incidents 7. Evaluate Recovery 8. Conduct Management Review 9. Continuously Improve 10. Integrate with Decision-making
ï 16 ï 5.8 Cross-cutting Adaptive Management Strategies Refer to Section 4.8 of the handbook for additional information. begin tracking and regularly reviewing data so that you are aware of changes in trends and are ready to respond to climate risks as they become increasingly prevalent. EXAMPLE STRATEGIES INCLUDE: IDENTIFY DATA METRICS Begin tracking data metrics, such as those listed below, to detect changes in local climate conditions. This will help to understand the true costs to your airport. You may be tracking some of these metrics already, but not in terms of climate change. Align your data metrics with your priority climate risks and management systems USE EVENT EXPENSE CODES Use event codes to track labor, materials, and other costs associated with event preparation, response, and you can assess the severity of the impacts and costs to easily compare the event to others. PROCESSES TO REVIEW DATA You may already have an annual process in place that If you do not, consider creating a simple annual review process to monitor changes in trends. IDENTIFY A TIPPING POINT As you begin tracking these metrics, identify a tipping point when your airport will begin thinking about, and planning for, long-term changes. The tipping point events requiring a potential change in your management processes. If your airport reaches a tipping point, you should transition from monitoring conditions to actively implementing risk strategies. See the handbook for additional information. 5.0 SYSTEM INTEGRATION STRATEGIES DATA METRIC TRACKING FREQUENCY ASSET PERFORMANCE Duration of damage or closure (i.e., how long asset was out of service) For each event Pavement condition (such as occurrences of buckling, rutting, and cracking on runways and other paved surfaces) Annually OPERATIONS Changes in energy usage Annually Number of weather-related ight delays or cancellations Annually OVERALL EXPENDITURES Quantity of sta time spent preparing for, responding to, and recovering from weather events For each event Cost of damages to infrastructure and facilities For each event WEATHER EVENT FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY Frequency of storm events (e.g., thunderstorms, hurricanes, snow storms, and other severe weather) For each event Frequency of extreme temperatures (e.g., heat waves or cold fronts) For each event
Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation
TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED ISBN 978-0-309-47987-5 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 7 9 8 7 5 9 0 0 0 0 N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88 U sing Existing A irport M anagem ent System s to M anage Clim ate Risk A CRP Research Report 188 TRB