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Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk (2018)

Chapter: Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25327.
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22 Thus far, the handbook has helped you to identify climate hazards, climate-related risks to your airport, and the management systems now in place that are best suited to address these risks. This chapter provides you with strategies for using existing management systems to man- age those climate risks. This chapter includes •   Specific strategies for addressing climate risk through the following management systems: – Strategic planning (Section 4.1), – Master planning (Section 4.2), – Enterprise risk management (Section 4.3), – Safety management (Section 4.4), – Capital planning (Section 4.5), – Asset management (Section 4.6), and – Emergency management (Section 4.7) and •   Cross-cutting adaptive management strategies that apply across multiple management systems (Section 4.8). Airports may have varying levels of interest in climate risk management. Therefore, the handbook provides integration strategies in a recommended priority order, so that each airport can successively build on its efforts over time. For each of the management system sections (Sections 4.1–4.7), the handbook summarizes the basic steps of that system, iden- tifies the best opportunities (i.e., entry points) for integrating climate risk, and provides details on specific strategies that your airport can use to take advantage of each of these entry points. 4.1 Strategic Planning Strategies Strategic planning is a process that airports use to define their vision for the future and formulate a road map for achieving that vision (ACRP 2009). Strategic planning outlines the long-term direction of the airport and often lays the foundation for other planning and management systems. Strategic planning, therefore, can be used to help an airport define its long-term vision and strat- egy related to managing its climate risks. As noted in Section 2.3, this function is most likely to be C H A P T E R 4 Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks Other Management Systems This handbook focuses on common manage- ment systems with the greatest opportunities for mitigating climate risks. However, you may find that your airport has management systems related to climate risks not addressed in this handbook. For example, changes in precipitation may impair your control of runoff pollutants (e.g., glycol from deicing), affecting your environmental management system. You could apply similar strategies to those pre- sented in this handbook to manage climate risks through environmental management systems or others not covered explicitly. To help you with those management systems, see Section 4.8 for cross-cutting strategies that may be applicable for many management systems.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 23 Overview of Management System Flowcharts This handbook provides a flowchart for each of the seven management systems (e.g., Figure 11). Each flowchart has three main components: 1. Overview of the main steps of a system. This is the base layer of each flow- chart, and it organizes the main steps of each system into the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Plan-Do-Check-Act framework (ISO 2015). This four-step framework, defined below, is intended to help you align the flowchart steps with your own planning process, even if you do not have a formal management system or do not follow the steps exactly as outlined. Plan Define scope and objectives. Collect and analyze data. Identify risks/problems. Develop a plan to solve problems/ meet objectives. Do Implement plan. Check Verify plan meets objectives by monitoring and measuring. Act Improve process effectiveness based on findings. Integrate with future decision-making. 2. Climate entry points. In the boxes, the flowcharts identify suggested climate entry points to integrate climate risk into your planning processes. The climate entry points are listed alphabetically in recommended priority order. Depend- ing on your planning process and capacity to address climate integration, some entry points may be more relevant than others. The remainder of each section details how to take advantage of each possible entry point. 3. Climate integration actions. The flowcharts provide integration actions associ- ated with each entry point. Your airport can take these actions at that step to integrate climate risk into the management system. Plan Do Check Act Example: Managing Climate Risk Through Strategic Planning An airport’s air service demand and revenues are highly dependent on ski-related tourism. The airport realizes that climate change may increase uncertainty in ski-related tourism—warmer temperatures can affect snowpack not just in the airport’s own market, but in other competing markets. Depending on the year and the location of the snowfall, winter demand could vary considerably. Therefore, the airport uses strategic planning to create local partnerships with ski resorts, the chamber of commerce, and public officials to diversify tourism offer- ings and ensure continued service demands and local economic health.

24 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk applicable when airports face severe risks, such as a low-lying coastal airport dealing with flooding and property loss from sea level rise and an airport with significant climate-related air service demand (e.g., for skiing). Such airports can use strategic planning to review these climate risks in context with other threats and opportunities and articulate a vision that allows the airport to thrive despite these risks. As with other elements of the strategic plan, this vision and specific objectives can flow down through all other airport man- agement systems in a top-down approach to address climate risks. Examples of mitigating climate risk through strategic planning follow: •   Identifying airport-wide hazards that threaten operations or expansion plans, Links to Other Management Systems Airport management systems are inter-related. For example, Strategic planning informs – Capital planning and – Department/tactical level planning and Strategic planning is informed by – Aviation forecasts and facility requirements, – Capital planning, and – Department/tactical level planning. Figure 11. Strategic planning system overlaid with climate entry points and integration actions.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 25 •  Setting a climate risk management objective to limit service disruptions from a specific climate hazard, and •  Creating metrics to monitor operational performance during extreme weather events over time. 4.1.1 Climate Risk Management Overview There are five entry points for integrating climate risk management within the strategic plan- ning process, as shown in Figure 11. Not all entry points are necessary for any climate risk man- agement to occur, but airports can build on each entry point to successively increase the level to which they manage climate risks. In recommended priority order, the entry points are a. Scan the environment and predict developments (SWOT analysis); b. Identify strategic issues, strategies, and long-term objectives; c. Monitor and measure progress; d. Continuously improve; and e. Integrate with decision-making. The next section explains how your airport can take advantage of each entry point for inte- grating climate risk. 4.1.2 Climate Risk Management Steps A. Scan the environment and predict developments [analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT): identify threats and opportunities from climate change In this planning step, airports typically compile and assess all relevant information for current and future impacts to operations and service levels. This step offers a key opportunity to identify threats and opportunities from climate change and to evaluate those threats and opportunities alongside others. For example, in 2010 San Diego International Airport collaborated with the local government effort to identify vulnerabilities to sea level rise. The effort found that portions of the airfield were vulnerable to flooding and inundation, impacting the airport’s expansion plans for new terminals. As a result, the airport began to incorporate sea level rise scenarios into strategic plan- ning efforts to reduce current and future vulnerabilities (ACRP 2012a). Follow the same process to complete the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) for other threats and opportunities. As needed, draw from climate risk informa- tion collected during the self-assessment on the expected timing and type of impacts or conduct a more detailed analysis if needed. Consider the following: •  Evaluate hazards identified in self-assessment. In the SWOT analysis, you should carefully consider how the climate hazards identified in the self-assessment may impact current and future planning efforts. •  Prioritize climate risks to existing planning and operations. You may have identified sev- eral climate risks in the self-assessment, with some posing greater threats than others in the short term. For example, your airport may already be experiencing increased disruptions from more frequent and more severe storms. You may want to prioritize this short-term climate risk over others that are more relevant in the long term, such as changes in service levels asso- ciated with warmer temperatures.

26 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk B. Identify strategic issues, strategies, and long-term objectives: identify strategic issues, strategies, and long-term objectives related to managing climate risk Once you’ve completed the SWOT analysis, evaluate all threats and opportunities (includ- ing those related to climate change) to identify strategic issues, strategies, and long-term objec- tives. This step is the essence of articulating climate-related priorities within the strategic plan, as needed. These priorities or objectives could be high level (e.g., reduce risks from extreme weather) or more specific about managing a specific risk, such as uncertain passenger levels. Your objectives need not be exclusively climate specific. Several climate risk management strategies or objectives will have co-benefits of managing other types of risk; conversely, strat- egies to reduce the risk of any hazard will also help manage climate risks. Examples include the following: •  The Denver International Airport (DEN) strategic plan includes “investing for sustainability” as an objective: “Remaining financially healthy, staying operationally efficient, and working to improve our environment and our neighborhood are key components of our sustainability objectives” (DEN, n.d.). This is not an explicit example of a climate risk management objec- tive, but one could be similar. •  The Dallas–Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) strategic plan includes the following strategic objectives and initiatives (DFW 2016). Although these are not explicitly related to climate change, they nevertheless would have a co-benefit of reducing climate risks: – Delivering the ultimate customer service. Master the basics (initiatives include managing irregular operations to minimize customer disruption). – Focusing on employee engagement. Develop sustainable leadership capabilities (initiatives include implementing a biennial succession planning process). – Achieving operational excellence. Implement processes to improve airport operational effi- ciency (initiatives include opening a new fully integrated, airport-wide Airport Operations Center and Emergency Operations Center to enable DFW to provide situational awareness, proactive response, incident management, and review). – Ensuring a safe and secure environment. Establish an organizational resilience framework to strengthen DFW’s capacity to react, respond, and recover from threats by fiscal year 2018 (initiatives include conducting an airport-wide vulnerability assessment for critical assets and developing resilience metrics). C. Monitor and measure progress: monitor climate resilience performance measures Assuming that you identify climate risk management or climate resilience as a strategic objec- tive, set and monitor performance measures for that objective—just as you would for any stra- tegic objectives. Climate risk management performance measures may include the following: •  Existing performance measures that could help track impacts of climate risks, such as number of enplanements and pavement condition. Consider monitoring these performance measures more closely in relation to your climate risks, for example, determining if there is a trend of increased pavement failures in relation to increased average temperatures. •  New performance measures specific to climate risk management. For example, if you are seeking to manage coastal flood risk, set a performance measure for the number of times the airport experiences flooding. Section 4.8 and Appendix C provide more information on potential data metrics and performance measures for climate risk management.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 27 D. Continuously improve: reevaluate and modify your climate risk management objectives over time As you would for any other strategic issues, strategies, or long-term objectives, continuously improve your management of climate risks. This is particularly important in the context of climate risks because your understanding of the risks will change over time. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. E. Integrate with decision-making: continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making As you would for any other strategic issues, strategies, or long-term objectives, periodically review data on performance measures to understand and improve your performance. After review, refine your strategic issues, strategies, and objectives as needed to ensure you are meeting your objectives. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. 4.2 Master Planning Strategies Master planning is a required process for Part 139 airports to assess the current capacity of the airport’s infrastructure, evaluate current and projected demand, and identify existing and antici- pated deficiencies (ACRP 2012c). Master plans typically have a 20- to 25-year planning horizon and are updated every 5 years. Master planning outlines the short-, medium-, and long-term development goals for the airport, pulling from the strategic plan and laying the foundation for a number of other planning and management systems (ACRP 2012c). Accounting for climate change in master planning is critical to managing climate risks to infrastructure capacity. Climate hazards could threaten operational capacity and infrastructure conditions. If these hazards are not incorporated into master planning, the airport may not be able to meet its projected demand and development goals. Examples for mitigating climate risk through master planning include •  Evaluating trends in existing conditions that could affect aviation forecasts and tourism travel, •  Upgrading infrastructure to accommodate climate change hazards, and •  Creating metrics to monitor infrastructure capacity and opera- tional performance during extreme weather events over time. 4.2.1 Climate Risk Management Overview There are six entry points for integrating climate risk into existing master planning processes, as shown in Figure 12. Not all entry points are necessary for any climate risk manage- ment to occur, but your airport can build on each entry point to increase successively the level at which you manage climate risks to infrastructure capacity. Example: Managing Climate Risk Through Master Planning An airport has two runways that have limited capacity under extreme heat events. The airport realizes that climate change may increase the frequency and the severity of extreme temperature events, which may limit the number and size of planes able to take off. Therefore, the airport uses its master planning process to consider appropriate resilience mea- sures, which range from infrastructure changes (e.g., building longer runways) to operational changes (e.g., planning for situations where certain aircraft might not be able to take off). Links to Other Management Systems Airport management systems are inter-related. For example, Master planning informs – Strategic planning, – Capital planning, and – Department/tactical level planning and Master planning is informed by – Strategic planning, – Capital planning, and – Department/tactical level planning.

28 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk Figure 12. Master planning system overlaid with climate entry points and integration actions. The entry points, in the recommended priority order, follow: a. Conduct existing conditions survey. b. Develop and evaluate alternatives: assess environmental impact of analysis. c. Develop and evaluate alternatives: develop airport layout plan. d. Monitor and measure progress. e. Continuously improve. f. Integrate with decision-making. The next section explains how your airport can take advantage of each entry point for inte- grating climate risk.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 29 4.2.2 Climate Risk Management Steps A. Conduct existing conditions survey: evaluate how climate change could affect aviation forecasts or facility requirements In this planning step, airport managers typically assess the existing conditions of infrastructure capacity and demand. An existing conditions survey is used to assess existing infrastructure, com- munity and market conditions, economic forecasts, and operating revenues, expenses, funding sources, and funding uses (ACRP 2012c). The existing conditions survey sets the foundation of your master plan and feeds into facility requirements and forecasts. This step offers a key oppor- tunity to evaluate how climate change could affect your infrastructure capacity and demand. In the context of climate change, the existing conditions survey provides an opportunity to identify climate data, models, and trends early in the master planning process. Existing con- ditions surveys based on current conditions and historical trends can be modified to include projected trends in climate. You should draw from climate hazard data collected during the self-assessment or from other sources to develop climate-related metrics to inform your exist- ing conditions survey. In addition to assessing climate change-related impacts, compare these findings to other potential impacts to infrastructure capacity and demand forecasts to help you prioritize or coordinate your efforts. Conduct additional analysis if needed. Climate hazards may present risks to aviation forecasts and facility requirements. In some cases, climate change may result in opportunities for aviation forecasts if you experience a more favorable climate for tourists in the northern latitudes. Example climate change impacts that may affect infrastructure or passenger demand include the following: •  Extreme temperatures can increase the rate of pavement deterioration. •  Heavy precipitation events can reduce the adequacy of drainage systems and thereby increase the risk of flooding. •  Changes in snowfall may affect tourism and seasonal enplanements. •  Wildfires may increase the frequency of smoke-related visibility disruptions. •  Sea level rise may cause more frequent inundation of low-lying coastal areas. •  Increased storm surge depth and extent can damage infrastructure. The following steps can help you integrate climate considerations into your existing condi- tions survey: •  Understand your existing organization/facility. Understand how your organization operates currently. You may not be aware of internal barriers to organizational procedures that may hinder integration efforts. There may also be external opportunities or barriers, depending on the current goals of the local government. These goals can change with each administration; such changes will likely affect your airport’s funding or goals. Other external influences, such as constricted water resources from a nearby drought, may affect your supply chain •  Evaluate hazards identified in the self-assessment. Use the self-assessment to understand how climate change could affect existing conditions, such as normal temperature range, fre- quency of different hazards, and travel demand. •  Incorporate climate information into level of service forecasts. Analyze whether trends in level of service requirements, such as a decrease in winter tourism, are influenced by climate. If level of service requirements are sensitive to changes in climate, consider finding or com- missioning an analysis to determine whether climate change would change level of service forecasts. Although some studies have tried to model how climate change may affect tourism demands, a number of uncertainties are associated with these models because of the complex- ity of the metric (Gossling et al. 2012). Gossling et al. (2012) assessed the existing literature and concluded that climate change does affect tourism, but the degree and direction of change are difficult to quantify.

30 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk •  Prioritize immediate climate risks to existing infrastructure and aviation forecasts. As infrastructure is reviewed on its regular schedule, consider how and when climate may impact infrastructure capacity and whether changes need to be made in the short or long term. B. Develop and evaluate alternatives and assess environmental impacts of alternatives: consider impact of climate change through environmental analyses In this step, your airport’s planners typically conduct environmental impact analyses to document environmental conditions that should be considered in alternative development (FAA 2015). Alternative development is used to assess and evaluate the operational, envi- ronmental, and financial performance of a variety of options for meeting projected facility requirements (FAA 2015). This step of your process provides an opportunity to incorpo- rate climate change impacts into your environmental analyses to help develop and evaluate alternatives. This climate entry point allows you to consider how climate change hazards may affect your environmental analyses of alternatives. Environmental conditions documented in and around your airport are referenced when developing alternatives (FAA 2015). Environmental consider- ations often include air and water quality, floodplains, and endangered and threatened species. You should draw from the climate hazard data collected during the self-assessment or other sources to add these conditions to your environmental analysis and alternative development process. You should also consider any climate implications determined during the existing con- ditions survey. The following resources can help you integrate climate considerations into your environ- mental analyses: •  Council on Environmental Quality. Final Guidance for Federal Departments and Agencies on Considerations of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Effects of Climate Change in National Envi- ronmental Policy Act (NEPA) Reviews. Guidance for considering climate change and climate change adaptation in the NEPA review process. This guidance is no longer required by execu- tive order, but nonetheless provides information on how organizations could voluntarily con- sider climate change in environmental reviews. •  NOAA. U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit. Variety of resources and case studies for addressing climate risks and increasing climate resilience. •  U.S. Department of Transportation. Sensitivity Matrix. Guidance for identifying the thresh- old at which a specific asset type becomes sensitive, historical precedents for climate-related damage to that asset type, and features of the asset that may be more sensitive. •  Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulner- ability Assessment Framework. Flexible framework for considering climate risk. C. Develop and evaluate alternatives and develop airport layout plan: consider whether infrastructure changes are needed to accommodate climate change In this step, your airport’s planners typically develop an airport layout plan of existing facili- ties and proposed developments based on aviation forecasts, facility requirements, and alterna- tives analysis, in line with FAA Advisory Circular 150 (FAA 2015). The airport layout plan is a set of drawings graphically representing the long-term development plan of your airport (FAA 2015). Your airport uses the layout plan to inform decision-making, plan for facility improve- ments, and make sure design standards and safety requirements are met (FAA 2015). This step offers a key opportunity to consider managing climate risks to infrastructure through your air- port layout plan.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 31 This climate entry point allows you to integrate potential climate change hazards to facility requirements or aviation forecasts into your guiding airport layout plan. The plan includes both existing airport facilities and proposed developments and is supported by aviation forecasts, facility requirements, and alternatives analysis (FAA 2015). You should draw from the climate hazard data collected during the self-assessment or from other sources. You should also consider any climate implications determined during the existing conditions survey. You may need to adjust your airport layout plan to accommodate climate risks. For example, if sea level rise is threatening your airport, you may need to account for major stormwater system upgrades, or if you are planning additions to your runway, you should consider how projected temperature change may factor into the length of the runway. The following steps can help you integrate climate considerations into your airport layout plan: •  Assess the time horizon of your identified climate hazards. Using your self-assessment results and airport layout plan, assess whether climate hazards will affect infrastructure in the short or long term and adjust your airport layout plan accordingly. You may want to prioritize short-term climate hazards to critical infrastructure. •  Incorporate climate change considerations into design requirements. Using your exist- ing conditions survey and your self-assessment results, you should amend your design requirements for level of service requirements and alternative development and evalua- tion processes. Although specific climate hazards or considerations may vary across assets and facilities, general requirements should be developed for use within master planning and across other management systems. For example, the Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ) updated its cyclical review of potential stormwater flows to integrate pro- jected increases in severe weather events due to climate change into its hydraulic model- ing and pipe sizing engineering design practices throughout airport projects and systems (ACRP 2016b). D. Monitor and measure progress: monitor climate resilience performance measures Assuming that you identify climate risk management or climate resilience as a key objective of the master plan, set and monitor performance measures for that objective—just as you would for any other. Climate risk management performance measures may include the following: •  Existing performance measures that could help track impacts of climate risks, such as num- ber of enplanements and pavement condition. Consider monitoring these performance measures more closely in relation to your climate risks; for example, you could determine if there is a trend of increased pavement failures in relation to increased average temperatures. •  New performance measures specific to climate risk management. For example, if you are seeking to manage coastal flood risk, set a performance measure for the number of times your airport experiences flooding. Section 4.8 and Appendix C provide more information on potential data metrics and perfor- mance measures for climate risk management. E. Continuously improve: reevaluate and modify your climate risk management objectives over time As you would for any other strategic issues, strategies, or long-term objectives, continuously improve your management of climate risks. This is particularly important in the context of climate risks because your understanding of the risks will change over time. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management.

32 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk F. Integrate with decision-making: continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making As you would for any other strategic issues, strategies, or long-term objectives, periodically review data on performance measures to understand and improve your performance. After review, refine your existing conditions survey, environmental analysis, and airport layout plan as needed to align your decision-making process better. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. 4.3 Enterprise Risk Management Strategies Enterprise risk management allows airports to assess and mitigate the risk created by uncer- tainty. Common airport risk management practices include changing infrastructure and opera- tions protocols and conducting risk analyses to select insurance coverage for potential service interruptions (ACRP 2015a). Climate risks are created by uncertainty and can be a natural fit in the enterprise risk management planning structure. Examples of mitigating climate risk through enterprise risk management include the following: •   Identifying climate risks that could create service disruptions or threaten existing infrastructure, •   Seeking new insurance policies to account for identified climate risks, and •   Adapting training protocols to help internal stakeholders better understand climate risks and how to account for them in day- to-day operations. 4.3.1 Climate Risk Management Overview There are seven entry points for integrating climate risk into existing enterprise risk management processes, as shown in Fig- ure 13. Not all entry points are necessary for any climate risk management to occur, but your airport can build on each entry point to increase successively the level at which you manage cli- mate risks to infrastructure capacity. The entry points, in recommended priority order, follow: a. Identify risks. b. Develop risk response plans (mitigation strategies). c. Secure funding and implement plan. d. Provide enterprise risk management training. e. Monitor and measure progress. f. Continuously improve. g. Integrate with decision-making. The next section explains how your airport can take advantage of each entry point for integrating climate risk. 4.3.2 Climate Risk Management Steps A. Identify risks: identify threats from climate change Airport planners use risk identification to determine all relevant threats to airport operations, infrastructure, and safety. In the risk Example: Managing Climate Risk Through Enterprise Risk Management An airport needs to mitigate financial risks associated with service disruptions from severe storms. The airport realizes that climate change may increase the frequency and the severity of storms, but needs to understand better the uncertainty of these changes by assigning a probability to different storm events. The airport can use its existing enterprise risk management process to identify and priori- tize this risk, with climate model projections to assign probabilities to these changing fre- quencies and severities of storms. Links to Other Management Systems Airport management systems are inter-related. For example, Enterprise risk management informs – Strategic planning, – Safety management, and – Capital planning and Enterprise risk management is informed by – Strategic planning, – Capital planning, – Master planning, and – Asset management.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 33 Figure 13. Enterprise risk management system overlaid with climate entry points and integration actions. assessment and risk register, your planners can expand on hazard data from the self-assessment to generate risk projections and uncertainty analyses. To create a climate-resilient risk manage- ment system, you first need to have an accurate assessment of what climate risks are relevant for your airport. In risk identification, you can use the self-assessment results to incorporate climate risks into the existing identification process. This entry point is critical, as it will guide the actions of all subsequent steps in enterprise risk management. Past risk identification efforts at your airport may not account for future climate change. Using your identified climate hazards and risks from the self-assessment, you should

34 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk examine all steps in the risk identification process where these data may be needed to account fully for risks. •  Incorporate self-assessment results into the risk assessment. In the supporting analysis for the risk assessment, use the self-assessment outputs to account for climate hazards and risks. You may need to extend your climate analysis beyond the scope of the self-assessment; this process could entail generating climate hazard and risk projections in greater detail. You will also need to incorporate the uncertainty associated with your climate hazard and risk data into your risk assessment. •  Prioritize climate risks in the risk register. On the basis of your self-assessment outputs, you can determine that some climate hazards may present greater risks than others. Some climate risks may be more immediate, and others may be a greater threat in the long term. When developing your risk register, prioritize your climate risks on the basis of this information. This stop will allow you to better allocate resources and efforts to mitigating climate risks. •  Develop methods for incorporating uncertainty into climate risk assessments. Climate change uncertainty can be intimidating because of the many variables that influence pro- jected climate hazards. However, climate change uncertainty should not be treated differ- ently from other uncertainties. Rely first on common tactics for reducing uncertainty, such as using a wide range of data and identifying which modeling assumptions may need refin- ing over time. Climate projections can also provide a level of likelihood and probability for helping define risk: – Qualitative probabilities can give a basic understanding of how likely a projection result is. For example, ACROS provides a low, moderate, and high confidence rating for different model outputs. You can develop similar methods for grouping and prioritizing hazards on the basis of a qualitative likelihood (e.g., more likely than not, likely, extremely likely). – Quantitative probabilities are sometimes attached to certain climate hazards. You may have familiarity with these probabilities in the historical context, such as storm occurrence prob- abilities (e.g., a 5-year storm reflects a 1 in 5 chance of occurring in any given year). Climate projections will give you a range of outputs for these probabilities and will allow you to sort and quantify uncertainty for some climate hazards. B. Develop risk response plans (mitigation strategies): incorporate climate risks into existing mitigation strategies, or develop new strategies Your airport then typically generates mitigation strategies based on the analysis per- formed during the risk identification step. Your airport can incorporate this information into existing mitigation efforts or develop new strategies for climate risks not currently accounted for. With the climate risks identified and incorporated into the risk assessment, you can move on to developing mitigation strategies for reducing the current and future impacts from climate risks. •  Share risk information to coordinate mitigation efforts. Many management systems will need to review and revise existing protocols to incorporate climate risks. Asset management, emergency management, and safety management systems all could immediately benefit from the climate projection data obtained in the risk identification process. Determine methods for communicating the most valuable data to planners in different parts of your airport. •  Seek low-cost options for mitigating climate risks in the short term. Your airport’s ongoing efforts in design, construction, or procurement may be able to support climate risk mitigation through small changes with little added cost. For example, if you identify extreme precipita- tion as a current and future risk and your airport is actively revamping stormwater controls, suggest small design or active construction modifications, such as a larger stormwater reten- tion pond, that could help mitigate climate risks.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 35 •  Identify insurance plans and providers that address climate risks. Many insurance pro- viders have unique methods for incorporating climate risks into policies and may be able to assist you in selecting policies that address your identified climate hazards and risks while reducing your future financial risks. Your efforts in managing climate risks could help reduce insurance expenses as well, as new insurance frameworks for catastrophe bonds (i.e., natural disaster insurance) may provide rebates for investments in climate risk management projects (Re:focus Partners 2015). •  Develop a Business Continuity Plan (BCP) or Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP). BCP, also known as continuity of operations planning for many public-sector organizations, is “the process of developing a roadmap for continuing operations under adverse conditions and during disruptions caused by all types of incidents, emergencies, and crises” (ACRP 2013). This plan is a “natural adjunct” to enterprise risk management. A BCP is considered a good business practice and a strategic way to manage risks of all kinds. Changing climate hazards and climate risks further increase the value proposition for incorporating business continuity planning at your airport. For additional information about developing a BCP, see ACRP Report 93: Operational and Busi- ness Continuity Planning for Prolonged Airport Disruptions (ACRP 2013). Small airports may also refer to ACRP Synthesis 78: Continuity of Operations Planning for Small Airports (ACRP 2016a). C. Secure funding and implement plan: identify funding sources for climate risk management activities Implementing your risk management plan requires the coordination of many parties and financial supports. If internal funding is unavailable, external sources for climate risk manage- ment may be available and can help you in implementation. Your airport may have significant climate risks, and you should integrate these new risks with your risk management spending models to maximize the use of available internal funding. Climate risk management costs can vary: some climate risk mitigation may be small-scale, such as a small addition to a develop- ing facility design, and some may be large infrastructure projects. For the larger projects, you may not have the needed available internal funding. Seeking external resources may fill this funding gap. For more information on assessing climate risk costs and project funding, see the section on capital planning strategies (Section 4.5). •  Federal resources. Work with your contacts at FAA and other federal agencies [e.g., Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA), FHWA, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)] to understand better what funding may be available to support your climate risk management goals. Infrastructure funding opportunities can be diverse and spread across many federal agencies. Consultants may be a helpful resource in writing grant applications and perfor- mance analyses for this funding, as these tasks may be difficult to accomplish with airport personnel. •  State and local resources. Depending on your region, local and state resources may be avail- able. For example, California state agencies often offer grant funding to municipal agencies and entities to help comply with state climate risk management goals. D. Provide enterprise risk management training: update training protocols Update your training protocols to include the identified climate risks, risk assessment results, and modified or new mitigation strategies. Consider that airport personnel may have little experience with climate hazards and risks. Addressing your airport’s climate risks will require collaboration and contributions at all levels of airport operations and management. Use this opportunity to increase climate risk awareness, educate about the threats and impacts of

36 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk climate risks, solicit feedback on risk mitigation, and garner support. See Chapter 3 for more information. Leverage training resources from existing reports or local efforts to help develop these new training protocols. For example, the City of Fort Lauderdale launched a climate change training program for all city employees (Dreaming Green 2015). E. Monitor and measure progress: monitor climate risk-related performance indicators Monitor and measure service disruptions, personnel and stakeholder safety, and financial costs related to identified climate hazards and risks. Track how current performance compares with historical data, with a focus on specific mitigation strategies implemented to reduce these impacts. See Section 4.8 and Appendix C. F. Continuously Improve: reevaluate climate risk data and mitigation strategies over time This step allows you to reevaluate how climate hazards and risks are being incorporated into your enterprise risk management process. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. Important questions to consider follow: •  Are new climate modeling data available? •  Do new hazards need to be considered? •  How have we performed in relation to specific climate hazards (e.g., extreme heat, increased frequency of severe storms)? •  Has our climate risk management progress matched airport-wide objectives? G. Integrate with decision-making: continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making Integration with decision-making ensures that your identified climate risks are being consid- ered at all levels of enterprise risk management. Continuously coordinate with risk management personnel to help overcome barriers that may arise when incorporating climate risk consider- ations. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. 4.4 Safety Management Strategies A safety management system (SMS) is a process to manage safety risks through systematic procedures, practices, and policies including safety risk management, safety policy, safety assur- ance, and safety promotion (FAA 2007).The SMS is a proactive process to improve communica- tion and minimize safety risks (ACRP 2007a). The SMS provides a way to manage climate-related safety risks to employees, contractors, and the general public. If climate-related safety hazards are not incorporated into an SMS, the airport may be unprepared for extreme weather conditions that create new or increased safety risks such as heat stress to outdoor workers. Some examples for mitigating climate risk through an SMS include •  Shifting construction schedules to reduce heat exposure for outdoor workers during a period of extreme heat; •  Acquiring more snow equipment to minimize safety risks to passengers, workers, and aircraft during more frequent or more severe winter storm events; and •  Identifying areas of the airport facility prone to flooding in advance of a heavy rain event, along with any potential environmental contamination risks due to flooding.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 37 4.4.1 Climate Risk Management Overview There are six entry points for integrating climate risk into existing asset management processes, as shown in Figure 14. Not all entry points are necessary for any climate risk management to occur, but your airport can build on each entry point to successively increase the level to which you manage climate risks to infrastructure. The entry points, in recommended priority order, follow: a. Identify risks/hazards. b. Provide SMS training. c. Design SMS. d. Monitor and measure progress. e. Continuously improve. f. Integrate with decision-making. The next section explains how your airport can take advantage of each entry point for integrating climate risk. 4.4.2 Climate Risk Management Steps A. Identify risks/hazards: include risks from climate change and extreme weather events in risk/hazard identification In this step, your airport conducts safety risk assessments to evaluate the level of risk associated with a particular hazard and to prioritize their highest risks (ACRP 2007b). A safety risk assess- ment typically consists of a risk matrix evaluating levels of severity and likelihood to produce a final risk assessment code or value, which can be used to identify the greatest risks. Identify climate-related safety risks in your safety risk assess- ment, starting with those identified in the self-assessment (Section 2.2 and Appendix A). This process is similar to deter- mining local climate change hazards using the 5M model used Example: Managing Climate Risk Through Safety Management A Midwestern airport is planning to start a major construction project over the summer and is conducting a safety risk assessment. For the past 10 years, extreme heat has not been identified as a potential safety risk during construction projects. However, the airport realizes that past risks are not representative of future risks. Therefore, the airport reviews recent weather station records and determines that hazardous working conditions (e.g., days with a dangerous heat index) have become more frequent in recent years. The safety risk assessment process updates the expected likelihood of extreme heat conditions accordingly. Because extreme heat is identified as a risk during the safety risk assessment, the airport then identifies strate- gies to mitigate that risk in the event of a heat wave, such as establishing a heat plan to inform workers of the signs of heat stress, creating cooling or hydration stations on site, and adjusting the construction schedule for more work to be completed overnight. Links to Other Management Systems Airport management systems are inter-related. For example, Safety management informs – Enterprise risk management, – Emergency management, – Strategic planning, and – Capital planning and Safety management is informed by – Strategic planning, – Enterprise risk management, and – Emergency management. The 5M Model 5M Elements Self-Assessment Risk Categories Mission Operational and business impacts (Hu)Man/ person Safety and security impacts Machine Physical impacts, operational and business impacts Management Operational and business impacts Media Environment

38 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk Figure 14. Safety management system overlaid with climate entry points and integration actions. in aviation (FAA 2012) (see text box on the previous page). Examples of climate-related safety risks include the following: •  Extreme heat can increase the risk of heat stress for outdoor workers. •  Higher temperatures can increase the risk of infectious disease transmission. •  Ice events can create public and employee safety risks on roadways and pedestrian areas. •  Standing water from heavy rains can reduce brake performance. •  Flooding can create environmental contamination. •  Hurricanes or storm surge events can create dangerous operations conditions for employees and passengers.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 39 Use the available climate data to rate the likelihood and the severity of these climate risks for the analysis at hand. For example, when conducting a safety risk assessment for a new construc- tion project, consider realistic probabilities of heat waves during the construction period that may affect worker safety. In doing so, consider the following tips: •  Review assumptions and data on the frequency of weather events and evaluate whether your SMS is effectively accounting for projected changes in weather-related safety risks. Check what range of historical data is being used to assess and inform event frequency assump- tions. You should use the latest weather data to ensure that recent trends in heat, ice, and heavy rain are influencing the expected likelihood of events. Resources include the following: – NOAA weather station data. This resource provides access to NOAA weather station data sets. – NOAA Climate at a Glance. This tool allows the user to create time series graphs for user- defined climate parameters, time periods, time scales, and locations in the United States. – NOAA Climate Data Online. This resource provides access to the National Climate Data Center’s archive of global historical weather and climate data and station history information. – NOAA Climate Prediction Center outlook maps. This resource provides seasonal climate outlook maps for 1 to 13 months in the future as well as extended range outlook maps for 6 to 10 and 8 to 14 days. This resource also produces special outlook products such as excessive heat index, wind chill index, and Palmer drought outlooks. – NOAA severe weather climatology. This resource uses historical severe weather data to map the historical probability of severe weather across the United States at a specified time of year. For these maps, severe weather is defined as tornadoes, thunderstorm winds greater than 58 miles per hour, and hail larger than three-quarters of an inch in diameter. – NOAA state annual and seasonal time series. This resource depicts historical temperature averages for U.S. states since 1895. Graphics are available for minimum, mean, and maxi- mum temperatures and for each individual state. Decadal averages for the United States are also available for minimum, mean, and maximum temperatures. – NOAA North American Climate Extremes Monitoring. This resource uses historical data to produce data and analysis for eight indices (e.g., frost days, extreme temperatures). An interactive maps allow users to view results for a specific month, season, or year. Time series data can also be selected by weather station. – NOAA snowfall extremes. This resource provides 1-, 2-, and 3-day snowfall maximums for each county in the United States. – NOAA Climate Extremes Index. This resource uses historical temperature, precipitation, drought, and tropical storm data to calculate the climate extreme index for the contiguous United States. Regional data are also available. – NOAA Heat Stress Index. This resource provides a variety of datasets and documentation for heat stress. – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Nonstationarity Detection Tool. This tool uses statistical analysis to determine whether there have been statistically significant changes in peak flows for any U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage site in the United States with more than 30 years of annual instanta- neous peak streamflow records. It may be difficult to translate climate risks directly into the probability and severity register used in your safety risk assessment. You may need to collect additional data beyond what is available from the self-assessment (see Appendix D). Alter- natively, use professional judgment to assign probability and Example: Translating Climate Information into a Likelihood Index Your airport has received data on the pro- jected number of days above 90°F by 2060. Using a likelihood index, you should evalu- ate the risk of injury due to the number of extreme heat days. Risks could include heat exhaustion and dehydration. The risk can be categorized as probable, remote, extremely remote, or extremely improbable. Depending on your rating, you may need to take action to reduce safety risks from high heat days.

40 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk severity ratings informed by the best available data. You could consider working with a climate science expert from your municipality or university or a consultant to aid in the evaluation. •  Establish a policy to review weather frequency assumptions. To make the above process more systematic, establish a policy to review assumptions on weather frequencies. Pair this with airport-specific guidance about the procedure for doing so. B. Provide SMS training: incorporate climate change into SMS procedure trainings This step is used to provide SMS training to staff. Appropriate staff identified in the SMS program should periodically receive training on SMS procedures, and more advanced members of the staff should also receive training on risk management (ACRP 2007b). The step provides an opportunity to introduce your staff to potential safety risks from climate hazards. If airports choose to provide SMS training, this could occur before the safety risk assessments. Addressing your airport’s climate risks will require collaboration and contributions at all levels of airport operations and management. SMS training should be given to staff within SMS and across multiple disciplines such as operations, maintenance, and emergency management. Multidiscipline training is important, as it will require a coordinated effort across departments to address most safety risks, including climate risks (FHWA 2015). The following steps can help you integrate climate change into your SMS training: •  Update training to include climate hazard information. Update your training protocols to include the identified climate risks, risk assessment results, and modified or new mitigation strat- egies. Consider that personnel may have little experience with climate hazards and risks. Use this opportunity to increase climate risk awareness, educate about the threats and impacts of climate risks, solicit feedback on risk mitigation, and garner support. See Chapter 3 for more information. •  Update training to include reviewing recent weather trends. For specific SMS staff, provide an updated training that includes the steps for tracking and reviewing recent weather trends. It is likely that your airport is already tracking weather trends. You can also leverage training resources from existing reports or local efforts to help develop these new training protocols. For example, the City of Fort Lauderdale launched a climate change training program for all city employees (Dreaming Green 2015). Your SMS staff should be able to review these data to identify any recent weather trends that may affect risk and hazard identification. C. Design SMS: identify climate change as a safety risk This step provides an opportunity to incorporate climate risks systematically into your SMS. In the design of your SMS, establish a policy to identify climate change as a safety risk. Safety risks exacerbated by climate change could include heat exposure or flooded runway. With this designation, the effects of future climate conditions on the frequency and the severity of safety risks are more likely to be considered in your safety risk management process. For example, designating climate change as a safety risk may result in changes to personal protective equip- ment requirements, such as lighter or less clothing during extreme heat events to lessen heat stress on workers. D. Monitor and measure progress: monitor weather trends and climate-related metrics This step allows you to monitor recent weather trends that may affect worker or passenger safety. See Section 4.8 and Appendix C. Example metrics may include •  Number of days per year with rainfall above a specified amount, •  Consecutive number of high-heat days, •  Number of weather-related safety incidents reported per year,

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 41 •  Number of ozone response days, •  Amount of water needed for hydration during extreme heat events, and •  Number and amount of workman’s compensation related to weather incidents. E. Continuously improve: reevaluate and modify climate-related safety risks As you would for any other hazard or safety risk, continuously improve your management of climate-related safety risks. This action is particularly important in the context of climate risks because your understanding of the risks will change over time. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. F. Integrate with decision-making: continuously integrate new climate risk information into risk assessment This step allows you to integrate new climate risk information continuously into decision-making. As you would for any other hazard or safety risk, periodically review data on climate hazard risks and recent weather trends to understand better how safety may be affected. After a review, refine your identified risks and hazards or SMS trainings as needed to ensure you are meeting the objectives of your SMS. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. 4.5 Capital Planning Strategies Airports identify needs and plan for expenditures through cap- ital planning. Through this management system, airports allo- cate funding for projects that may focus on meeting service level objectives, expanding airport operations through new facilities, and rehabilitating or replacing existing facilities and assets. Accounting for climate change in capital planning can miti- gate future climate risks to facility and infrastructure develop- ments. Climate hazards could threaten planned facilities or assets. Incorporating these hazards into capital planning may allow for a reduction of life-cycle costs due to savings in rehabilitation and maintenance needs. Examples of mitigating climate risk through capital planning include the following: •  Identifying climate risks that could threaten existing or planned infrastructure, •  Incorporating climate change projection data into infrastruc- ture and other asset design processes, and •  Prioritizing the allocation of funding to facilities and assets most vulnerable to climate risks. 4.5.1 Climate Risk Management Overview There are ten entry points for integrating climate risk into existing capital planning processes, as shown in Figure 15. Not all entry points are necessary for any climate risk management to Example: Managing Climate Risk Through Capital Planning An airport is seeking to reduce total life-cycle costs of a planned stormwater collection and treatment system. The airport realizes that climate change may increase the frequency and severity of heavy rainfall events, and needs to incorporate these changes into design and cost estimation. The airport can use climate projection data for heavy rainfall return periods to determine if certain design parameters warrant revising. For example, if the likelihood of high flows exceeds current designs often enough, engi- neers may want to increase the capacity of the stormwater system. Links to Other Management Systems Airport management systems are inter-related. For example, Capital planning informs – Strategic planning and – Master planning and Capital planning is informed by – Strategic planning, – Enterprise risk management, – Asset management, – Safety management, and – Master planning.

42 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk Figure 15. Capital planning system overlaid with climate entry points and integration actions.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 43 occur, but your airport can build on each entry point to successively increase the level to which you manage climate risks to infrastructure. The entry points are listed in recommended priority order: a. Design project. b. Evaluate project. c. Rank project. d. Manage capital plan. e. Secure funding and implement plan. f. Develop airport capital planning policy. g. Close out and evaluate project. h. Monitor and measure. i. Continuously improve. j. Integrate with decision-making. The next section explains how your airport can take advantage of each entry point for inte- grating climate risk. 4.5.2 Climate Risk Management Steps A. Design project: integrate climate change projection data into design practices At this point in the capital planning process, your airport’s engineers or your contractors plan and design selected projects. Your existing architectural and engineering design practices, whether led by airport engineers or contractors, may not account for climate hazards and risks. Your airport may currently associate climate risks with extreme events, but your designers and planners should use climate data to determine how average design criteria and parameters (e.g., temperature, precipitation) will be impacted by climate change. This step of the process is an opportunity to ensure that your projects are planned and designed with climate change in mind. Further, it is the opportunity to prioritize projects on the basis of climate risk. Therefore, using climate change projection data when designing assets will help you manage climate risk. See Appendix D for more information on accessing projection data. A growing body of practice exists on incorporating climate risk into project design and engi- neering. Your engineers can incorporate climate projection data into design parameters with- out overhauling the entire design process (FHWA 2017). FHWA’s Synthesis of Approaches for Addressing Resilience in Project Development summarizes the state of the practice and establishes the adaptation decision-making assessment process (ADAP) (FHWA 2017). Key points include the following: •  Establish tiers of analysis. You may not need extensive climate analysis when integrating climate data into your project design. Your project may not be exposed to climate risks, it may be a temporary project without long-term implications, or it may not present significant consequences in failure. By looking at these project characteristics, you can use your resources for the projects that need analysis most. •  Require contractors to build to manage climate risks. When partnering with contractors in design (or achieving project design through other business mechanisms, such as public– private partnership discussed in Part E, “Secure Project Funding”), ensure that your climate risk management goals are met by creating general design guidelines that incorporate climate change data. For example, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) requires climate risk assessments for new designs (MBTA 2016).

44 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk •  Use existing tools to translate climate model outputs into design parameters. Your self- assessment will act as a starting point for climate hazards and risks, but the design stage may require you to conduct project-specific climate risk assessments. Standard climate projections may not provide raw data suitable for design. These data, like daily temperatures, can be con- verted into variables such as annual/daily minimum and maximum temperatures for use in design. You can make these conversions with existing resources, such as the U.S. DOT climate data processing tool (USDOT 2016). •  Consider a range of projection scenarios. Climate models will offer a range of projections based on greenhouse gas emission scenarios. It may be tempting to select average scenarios or to select a more favorable scenario. Consider using variations of a parameter (e.g., for pre- cipitation, wetter and drier variations), capturing the range of possible effects to gauge your risks and risk tolerances. •  Plan for uncertainty by using flexible design practices. Climate risk projections will always have associated uncertainty (see Section 4.3.2), making initial design decisions difficult. You can minimize the impacts of these uncertainties by incorporating flexibility into your designs to allow for low-cost adaptation in the future. For example, living shorelines use natural systems to control flooding, prevent erosion, and treat runoff (NOAA 2017b). These shorelines can be added to or manipulated after construction to suit changes better in precipitation or sea levels. •  Consider establishing design standards for climate risk. To simplify the process and to reduce the burden on individual project managers and engineers, establish policy-level design standards for any new infrastructure. For example, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) Engineering Department established climate resilience design guidelines. These guidelines establish specific temperature, precipitation, and flooding projections to be designed for at port authority facilities (PANYNJ 2015). Use these design standards to address any barriers that your designers may have with local or national building codes hindering the integration of climate risk data. At first, incorporating climate risk into your project design may occur on a project-by-project basis or only for the most critical and long-lived projects. A more comprehensive approach would establish standard operating practices or design standards. B. Evaluate project: screen projects for climate risks Before projects enter the design phase, your airport evaluates a list of projects. The evaluation stage is an opportunity to use climate change data for identifying exposure to climate risks and the probability and consequences of project failure. Use the results from your self-assessment to do a high-level screening of what projects may be vulnerable to your airport’s climate risks. •  Downscale climate risks to specific projects. Not all projects will have the same level of exposure to your identified climate risks from the self-assessment. You may need to obtain a greater level of detail to determine risks specific to each project. Use readily available climate data tools to help determine project climate risk, such as NOAA’s sea level rise viewer for projecting inundation risks for flood-prone areas (NOAA 2017a). Other projects, such as pavement designs, may need a stronger focus on temperature projections. •  Select and apply evaluation criteria. You can select and apply specific criteria for evaluating all potential projects. Creating consistent criteria will also allow you to readily compare projects in future capital planning steps. Criteria could include capital costs, risk of failure, project service life, and operational benefits. For example, the City of Philadelphia selected four criteria for evaluating climate risk management strategies: capital costs, operational costs, capacity for change in opera- tions, and co-benefits (e.g., social, economic, environmental benefits) (City of Philadelphia 2015). •  Generate cost–benefit studies. Leverage your capital planning life-cycle cost evaluations to create a cost–benefit comparison between projects. This step is an important opportunity to

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 45 communicate clearly to airport executives the value of doing or not doing a project. Costs should represent initial capital investments, and benefits should represent life-cycle costs post project construction. Climate risk cost–benefit analyses can be time-intensive and expensive; some direct benefits of climate risk management will be harder to quantify than others. For example, expected reductions in service disruptions from enhanced stormwater controls may have a clear associated cost, but increasing water conservation to alleviate drought impacts is difficult to quantify. You may need to rely on internal stakeholders to create valuations for some benefits that you have identified. Using existing research and case studies can also help overcome hurdles in cost–benefit analyses: – ACRP (02-78) and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) (20-101) have forthcoming reports designed to guide efforts in climate risk management cost–benefit analyses for airports and transportation (TRB 2015, TRB 2017). – Miami–Dade County created a cost–benefit curve (i.e., graphical plot of costs versus ben- efits) to compare visually the economic feasibility of different climate risk management projects (Miami–Dade County 2016). – The Resilience Dividend Valuation Model provides a framework for determining the net benefits of a resilience project compared to the status quo (i.e., business as usual), with several case study applications to follow (RAND 2017). – For flood risk analyses, a recent New Jersey case study following Hurricane Sandy used FEMA’s benefit–cost tool in analyzing flood resilience upgrades for the community (Cooper et al. 2016). C. Rank project: include climate risk management as a criterion for project ranking Within the programming process, your airport may develop project rankings as a final step before deciding which projects will be included in the capital plan. Use the results of your life- cycle cost analysis, project evaluation, and financial modeling to help determine which projects can reduce your financial risks the most. You can integrate climate change into this process to help prioritize projects to reduce the impacts of climate risks. Climate change will affect potential projects differently, and potential projects may have different effects on your airport’s overall risk. Some may be needed more than others to increase airport resilience. Using your project evaluation results, particularly any cost– benefit analysis results, determine which projects are a greater priority than others in reducing climate risks. •  Collaborate with stakeholders to develop a rating system. If cost–benefit analyses cannot be performed because of capacity, data, or cost constraints, you may find it difficult to rank projects when using several criteria in project evaluation. You can determine how much your organization values each criterion to create an easier comparison between projects. This determination could involve working with different internal stakeholders who will be affected by a given project. While this process will not provide a single score for any given project, it will help give better insights for what may be more valuable to your airport. D. Manage capital plan: consider climate risk management needs in development of project request list In this step, your planners identify current and future airport needs and begin to develop alternatives for addressing these needs. This step offers another key opportunity to identify needs related to climate risks and propose projects that can address those needs. •  Identify facilities, assets, and infrastructure vulnerable to climate risks. Using the self- assessment results, determine what existing or planned facilities, assets, and infrastructure

46 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk maybe be impacted by climate risks. This action could have varying levels of detail. You may do a brief qualitative assessment, grouping each facility into exposure categories (e.g., “safe,” “some impact,” “large impact”), or you may decide to do more detailed vulnerability assess- ments (following, for example, the ADAP process) (FHWA 2017). •  Generate project request list. As you generate your project request list, consider projects that will help mitigate your climate risks that you may have not previously thought of. These projects should cover a wide range of applications to give you a better idea of how risk mitigation potential and capital costs will vary. For example, flooding controls could range from constructing a sea-wall to creating an emergency pumping system to digging a retention pond. Resources such as ACROS and FHWA’s climate change adaptation guide provide detailed lists of adaptation options for you to draw from (ACRP 2015b; FHWA 2015). E. Secure funding and implement plan: allocate funding for climate risk management projects Implementing your capital plan requires the coordination of many parties and sources of financial support. If internal funding is unavailable, external sources for climate risk manage- ment may be available and can help you in implementation. Project costs can vary: some climate risk mitigation, such as an incremental change to a devel- oping facility design, may be small-scale, and some may be new, large infrastructure projects. Incremental costs will likely need to be covered within existing capital budgets. For the larger projects, you may not have the needed internal funding available. Securing external resources may be able to fill this funding gap. Be aware that costs may change after design; build in buffers to absorb these variations. Potential external sources for climate risk management projects include the following: •  Federal resources. Work with your contacts at FAA and other federal agencies (e.g., EPA, FHWA) to understand better what funding may be available to support your climate risk management goals. Infrastructure funding opportunities can be diverse and spread across many federal agencies. Consultants may also be a helpful resource in writing grant applica- tions and performance analyses for this funding, as these tasks may be difficult to accomplish with internal personnel. •  State and local resources. Depending on your region, local and state resources may also be available. For example, California state agencies often offer grant funding to municipal agen- cies and entities to help comply with state climate risk management goals. •  Public–private partnerships. Public–private partnerships are an alternative for bridg- ing funding gaps for climate risk management. These risk-sharing partnerships to fund infrastructure development present investment advantages to both public and private organizations, but traditional frameworks for public–private partnerships may need to be restructured to ensure that both parties are aligned in climate risk identification and mitigation goals early in the project design process (PPIAF 2016). The Environmental Defense Fund recently published a framework for overcoming public–private partnership investment challenges for climate-resilient and sustainable infrastructure in its Unlock- ing Private Capital to Finance Sustainable Infrastructure report (Environmental Defense Fund 2017). •  Resilience bonds. Your efforts in reducing climate risks could help reduce insurance expenses as well, as new insurance frameworks for catastrophe bonds (i.e., natural disaster insurance), also referred to as resilience bonds, may provide rebates for investments in climate risk man- agement projects (Re:focus Partners 2015).

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 47 F. Develop airport capital planning policy: incorporate climate risk management as an overarching guideline The capital planning entry points mentioned could be done on an ad hoc, project-by-project basis. However, by incorporating climate risk management into your overall capital planning policy, you can ensure that climate risks are at least considered at each stage in the capital plan- ning process. •  Create a general climate risk guiding policy. California recently passed legislation to require all state infrastructure investments to consider climate change throughout a project’s life- time and to establish a working group to create guidelines for data use and best practices (California State Legislature 2016). The state bill’s general language and goals could be a helpful example when you are drafting a broad, climate risk management policy for your capital planning process. G. Close out and evaluate project: review climate risk management efforts and identify opportunities for improvement Project closeout and evaluation offer an opportunity to review lessons learned throughout your capital planning process. In this step, you can review how climate change data were used and where you could improve your climate risk management efforts. Evaluate completed projects to determine how different decisions may have altered or improved your airport’s resilience or mitigation of a given climate risk. •  Create a review protocol specific to climate risk management. To help guide future improve- ment, create a review protocol that focuses on how your capital planning process incorpo- rated climate risks. Questions to ask could include the following: – Did the climate projections that we used in design reflect our collected data? – What was the cost–benefit of our investment in the short term and long term? – Could a different design alternative been a better option in reducing risks? H. Monitor and measure progress: monitor the performance of climate risk management projects Monitor the performance of your climate risk management projects to help inform future investments. For example, measure the historical and postinvestment service dis- ruptions for a given event threshold (e.g., 8 inches of rain in 24 hours). See Section 4.8 and Appendix C. Continuously improve: reevaluate climate risk data and design protocols over time Seek out opportunities for improving your future climate risk management invest- ments on the basis of collected data. This process can apply to investments that may be underperforming and sufficiently meeting expectations. For example, new climate change data may be available from models and scenarios, or current design protocols may need to incorporate different climate hazards than before. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. I. Integrate with decision-making: continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making Continuously integrate new climate risk information and analysis into your decision-making to ensure that all steps in your capital planning process consider climate change. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management.

48 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk 4.6 Asset Management Strategies Asset management systems steer the short- and long-term invest- ments and strategies related to physical airport assets, with the goal of optimizing the assets’ performance, minimizing risks and costs, and meeting the objectives of the strategic or master plan (ACRP 2012b). Asset management offers a natural fit for incorporating cli- mate change information into the assessment of future asset performance. If climate hazards are not incorporated into asset management, overall life-cycle costs can increase due to higher- than-anticipated maintenance and replacement costs. Some examples for mitigating climate risk through asset management include the following: •   Evaluating trends in weather and climate-related asset performance, •   Maintaining a specified level of performance under various climate scenarios, •   Upgrading infrastructure to accommodate climate change hazards, and •   Developing and tracking climate-related metrics (see Appendix C). The following resources can help you integrate climate change into your asset management plan: •   American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Integrating Extreme Weather into Trans- portation Asset Management Plans (AASHTO 2015); •   World Bank, Integrating Climate Change into Road Asset Management (World Bank 2017); •   AASHTO, Transportation Asset Management Guide (AASHTO 2013); and •   AASHTO, Integrating Extreme Weather Risk into Transportation Asset Management (AASHTO 2012). 4.6.1 Climate Risk Management Overview There are seven entry points for integrating climate risk into existing asset management processes, as shown in Figure 16. Not all entry points are necessary for any climate risk management to occur, but your airport can build on each entry point to successively increase the level to which you manage climate risks to infrastructure. The entry points, in recommended priority order, follow: a. Maintain assets. b. Set target levels of service. c. Determine business risk (criticality). d. Determine existing conditions. e. Monitor and measure progress. f. Continuously improve. g. Integrate with decision-making. The next section explains how your airport can take advantage of each entry point for inte- grating climate risk. Example: Managing Climate Risk Through Asset Management An airport’s runway is susceptible to pavement deterioration. The airport realizes that climate change may increase the frequency and the severity of extreme temperatures, and the airport needs to incorporate the increased probability of pavement deterioration or failure into its risk determination. Therefore, the airport uses its asset manage- ment process to assess how the climate hazard may affect runway performance and whether changes need to be made to the maintenance schedule or life cycle and residual life evaluations of the runway. Links to Other Management Systems Airport management systems are inter-related. For example, Asset management informs – Capital planning and – Master planning and Asset management is informed by – Master planning, – Aviation forecasts and facility requirements, and – Capital planning.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 49 Figure 16. Asset management system overlaid with climate entry points and integration actions.

50 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk 4.6.2 Climate Risk Management Steps A. Maintain assets: integrate resilience into project design This step is for maintaining asset performance and allows you to use asset rehabilitation and replacement as early opportunities for managing climate risks in the design phase of proj- ects. These projects will have already been funded, but climate risk management can often be integrated at this stage without adding significant costs. For example, if excavation is already occurring for the replacement of underground storm drains or water mains, you could take the opportunity to select pipe size and thickness on the basis of projections for increased precipita- tion or stresses from extreme temperatures. B. Set target levels of service: evaluate how climate change could affect aviation forecasts or facility requirements This step is used in your asset management planning process to identify gaps in performance and to identify maintenance and operating strategies for closing performance gaps (ACRP 2012b). This step provides a key opportunity to incorporate climate change data into your level of service assessment and understand better how changes in the level of service may affect asset performance and maintenance needs. This climate entry point allows you to adjust your target levels of service, given your expected climate hazards. You should draw from climate hazard data collected during the self- assessment, existing conditions determination, and business risk determination to set or reevaluate your target level of service. Although your target level of service is set in the planning stage of asset management, that level is likely to change and therefore should be reevaluated periodically (ACRP 2012b). Climate hazards may present risks to your aviation forecasts and facility requirements. These risks may then affect your asset performance and target level of service. In some cases, climate change may result in opportunities to increase your airport’s target level of service, such as experiencing a more favorable climate for tourism in the northern latitudes. However, in many cases, climate change may create additional strains on assets that decrease asset performance, reduce design life, and affect the target level of service. The following steps can help you integrate climate considerations into your target level of service: •  Incorporate climate information into level of service forecasts. Analyze whether trends in level of service requirements, such as a decrease in winter tourism or additional strain from extreme temperatures, are influenced by climate. If asset performance and level of ser- vice requirements are sensitive to changes in climate, consider finding or commissioning an analysis to determine whether climate change would change level of service forecasts. Although some studies have tried to model how climate change may affect tourism demands, some uncertainties are associated with these models because of the complexity of the metric (Gossling et al. 2012). Gossling et al. (2012) assessed the existing literature and concluded that climate change does affect tourism, but the degree and direction of change are difficult to quantify. If you have a master plan, you may have already conducted this analysis. In addition to travel demand forecasts, asset performances can be assessed by the condition of the asset. This information can be pulled from your existing conditions determination. Once your ser- vice forecast analysis with climate data is complete, set your target level of service accordingly. •  Prioritize climate risks to existing infrastructure and aviation forecasts. After reviewing your existing conditions determination and business risk determination in the context of cli- mate change, prioritize your immediate climate risks to existing assets and aviation forecasts when setting your target level of service. As you reevaluate your target level of service over time, be sure to review and prioritize any potential climate risks on a similar time horizon

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 51 to your level of service determination. You should consider whether any changes need to be made in the short or long term. •  Create a plan for critical assets in advance of an event. Before an impending weather event, establish a review, inspection, and maintenance plan for your critical assets. For example, if a hurricane is expected to hit in the coming week, you can refer to this plan to identify your critical assets and to determine how you will maintain them during the course of the hur- ricane. Each event also gives you an opportunity to review the effectiveness of the plan and make adjustments as needed. Boston (Massport) uses this strategy for snow equipment in advance of a snowstorm. C. Determine business risk (criticality): consider the impacts of climate risks This step is used to evaluate your asset risks and identify the greatest business risks (ACRP 2012b). Asset risks include asset failure, or an inability to function at a desired level (ACRP 2012b). Business risks are risks to the organization, including the financial impacts of asset failure (ACRP 2012b). With the information and analysis from the existing conditions determination, this step requires you to associate a risk with a given asset or collection of assets. This step provides a key opportunity to integrate climate risks into your assessment. This climate entry point allows you to identify critical assets that are defined as high cost or likely to significantly decrease levels of service if they fail (ACRP 2012b). You should draw from climate hazard data collected during the self-assessment or from other sources as part of the risk exposure calculations for specific assets. After incorporating the climate hazard data into the business risk determinations, you will be able to better compare and prioritize the greatest risks to your airport. Climate impacts can increase the risk of asset deterioration or failure. Climate risk con- siderations may affect the life-cycle and replacement cost calculations of your business risk determination. The following step can help you integrate climate risk into your business risk determination. •  Evaluate the probability and consequences of asset failure under climate change condi- tions. Risk exposure is a product of the probability of failure and the consequences of fail- ure. To determine risk exposure for each asset, you should use the self-assessment results to evaluate how climate hazards may affect the probability of failure and the degree of consequences. Consequences of failure may include injury to airport workers, airline staff or passengers, damage to aircraft, and disruption to service (ACRP 2012b). D. Determine existing conditions: evaluate how climate change could affect asset performance This step focuses on data collection and analysis to determine the current condition and pro- jected maintenance needs of your existing infrastructure. The existing conditions determination is an opportunity to identify maintenance and rehabilitation needs as well as climate-related data and trends early in the asset management planning process. This step offers a key opportunity to evaluate how climate change could affect asset performance. This climate entry point allows you to evaluate how climate change could affect the per- formance, residual-life, life-cycle, and replacement costs of your assets, as existing infra- structure often may not be suited for the additional strains associated with climate change. You should draw from climate hazard data collected during the self-assessment or from other sources to develop climate-related metrics to better monitor asset conditions. In addi- tion to assessing climate change-related impacts, compare these findings to other potential

52 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk impacts to help you prioritize or coordinate your efforts, and then conduct additional analysis if needed. Climate change has the potential to decrease asset performance under extreme conditions. Examples of climate change impacts that may affect assets include the following: •  Extreme temperatures can exacerbate deterioration of critical assets such as runways. •  Heavy precipitation events can limit the capacity of stormwater drainage systems and increase flood frequency or culvert maintenance needs. •  Snow events can change asset maintenance, snow removal, and deicing needs. •  Sea level rise can increase the flood frequency of low-lying areas. •  Hurricanes and storm surge can cause erosion, scouring, and undermining of pavement. The following steps can help you integrate climate considerations into your existing condi- tions determination: •  Evaluate hazards identified in the self-assessment. Use the self-assessment to understand how climate change could affect your existing conditions, such as normal temperature range, frequency of different hazards, and travel demand. •  Update scheduling, prioritization, and asset condition analysis. Update your existing con- ditions process to incorporate the relevant hazards identified in the self-assessment. You may find that you need to schedule maintenance more frequently or that the residual life of an asset has changed and may need to be prioritized above other assets. Updating asset modeling and scheduling needs has been a common entry point for incorporating climate change for U.S. transportation authorities (FHWA 2012). •  Develop metrics for events that exceed thresholds. Develop and track climate-related met- rics to identify trends. Your airport likely has unique asset thresholds where performance is compromised or failure can occur, such as flooding from overloaded storm drains or pave- ment cracking from high heat. Tracking these types of metrics over time may reveal trends, or they can be coupled with climate scenario projections to better communicate climate risks and how to manage them to personnel. •  Use event expense codes. Use event-specific expense codes (also known as work order num- bers, failure codes, or charge codes) to track the costs and impacts associated with a specific extreme event. Assign and disseminate the code at the first sign of the event, and use it to track labor, materials, and other costs associated with event preparation, response, and recovery. By assigning a code to a specific weather event, you can assess the severity of the impacts and costs and easily compare the event to others. E. Monitor and measure progress: monitor climate resilience metrics This step allows you to develop specific metrics to monitor and measure the performance of your assets under increasing climate risks. See Section 4.8 and Appendix C. Examples of perfor- mance measures include the following: •  Identify the water level or temperature at which an asset would be compromised. •  Minimize disruptions from extreme events to fewer than a certain number of hours per event. •  Maintain critical infrastructure integrity under various climate scenarios. F. Continuously improve: reevaluate and modify existing conditions determination This step allows you to evaluate your collected data continuously for changes in performance and to identify ways to improve your methodology for integrating and tracking climate risk and asset performance. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 53 G. Integrate with decision-making: continuously integrate new climate risk information into decision-making This step allows you to integrate new climate risk information and analysis continuously into your decision-making process, focusing specifically on your previously identified risks and criti- cal assets. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. 4.7 Emergency Management Strategies Emergency management is the method that airports use to plan a response to emergency situations, including severe weather-related emergencies. FAA requires that airports iden- tify many types of hazards during the emergency management process, including natural hazards. Climate change could affect the nature and type of emergency events—particularly extreme weather events—that airports face. Emergency management systems will be the front lines of an air- port’s climate change response if the airport experiences extreme events such as flooding, hurricanes, or wildfire. It may also be the first management system used to address climate risk at airports that are not facing existential threats from climate change. Integrating climate risk into emergency management planning involves reviewing existing plans in light of expected climate risks to determine whether the existing plans are sufficient or whether proactive changes are needed. Examples of mitigating climate risk through emergency man- agement systems include the following: •  Developing an emergency response plan for ice storms in a location where more winter precipitation is falling as rain or ice rather than snow and •  Evaluating extreme event trends in light of climate change as part of postevent evaluation activities. 4.7.1 Climate Risk Management Overview There are five entry points for integrating climate risk into existing asset management processes, as shown in Figure 17. Not all entry points are necessary for any climate risk management to occur, but your airport can build on each entry point to suc- cessively increase the level to which you manage climate risks to infrastructure. The entry points, in recommended priority order, follow: a. Identify risks. b. Develop risk response processes/mitigation strategies. c. Conduct management review. d. Continuously improve. e. Integrate with decision-making. The next section explains how your airport can take advantage of each entry point with respect to climate risk. Example: Managing Climate Risk Through Emergency Management An airport experiences two back-to-back flooding events, straining emergency response resources. After the events, the airport examines recent trends and climate change projections and decides that this type of compound event could recur in the future. Therefore, the airport updates its emergency management plan to adjust its supplies and other preparation activities accordingly. Links to Other Management Systems Airport management systems are inter- related. For example, Emergency management informs – Airport emergency planning and – Safety management and Emergency management is informed by – Safety management, – Enterprise risk management, and – Airport emergency planning.

54 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk 4.7.2 Climate Risk Management Steps A. Identify risks: review and update risk register in light of climate risks At this stage of emergency management planning, your airport identifies potential risks and develops a risk register to inform you of the types of events that may need your response. This stage should include identifying ways in which climate change may affect the type of emergency events your airport needs to plan for. This process could include the following: •  Possibility of new types of events (e.g., floods, heat waves, hurricanes, ice storms). For example, climate change could mean that your airport experiences heat events that are cur- rently rare. Similarly, an increase in extreme precipitation events could bring flooding to areas not currently flood prone. Figure 17. Emergency management system overlaid with climate entry points and integration actions.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 55 •  Increased severity of existing types of events. You may be no stranger to heat waves or flood- ing events, but climate change could mean that events reach levels not previously experienced or occur with more frequency. Such changes could affect the resources that your airport has available to respond. •  Changing risks associated with other risk management activities at the airport. Any actions taken at the airport can affect emergency management planning. To the extent that the airport builds any infrastructure or makes other changes to reduce climate risks, emer- gency managers should review and mitigate for any potential ripple effects. For example, the Allegheny County Airport Authority recently installed a white roof on the Pittsburgh International Airport’s (PIT’s) terminal building. First responders and operations personnel periodically access the roof as part of typical safety and maintenance procedures. Because of the slippery and highly reflective new roofing material, new maintenance protocols and personal protective equipment were required. The additional staff time and the capital costs associated with the emergency management and operations departments were addressed after the installation of the roof as part of an adaptive response to the infrastructure change. Start with the climate risks identified in the self-assessment process. Key questions to ask yourself include the following: 1. Does my existing emergency management plan cover all types of risks that my airport may experience in the near term, including those from climate change? The ACRP Airport Weather Advanced Readiness (AWARE) Toolkit, which accompanies ACRP Report 160, can provide some information to answer this question (ACRP 2016b). The toolkit’s exposure information module provides information on how frequently dif- ferent weather events occur in an airport’s location and which of those are “rare but plausible” (Figure 18). “Rare but plausible” events are those for which airport managers are typically least prepared (ACRP 2016b). The toolkit includes the following 15 extreme weather event types: flooding, heavy rain, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, lightning, hail, heavy winds, extreme heat, extreme cold, snow, blizzards, ice, dense fog, dense smoke, and dust storms. The kit also provides information (on the page with detailed results) about whether those events are expected to become more or less frequent because of climate change (Figure 19). The toolkit also includes best practices for managing each type of the extreme weather events, explained further below. Figure 18. Example AWARE toolkit output of the exposure information module.

56 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk 2. Are any changes necessary to my existing emergency management plan if extreme weather events become more frequent or severe? •  Would anything need to change in the emergency management plan or response actions if your airport experiences flooding two years in a row? Or is the worst case scenario flood that you are planning for still the worst case possible? •  With higher temperatures, workers may be able to work fewer continuous hours or have less productivity. What does this mean for staffing? Do you need additional facilities and hydration stations to shelter from heat? Are alternate shifts needed? Should your airport change the standard gear or uniforms issued to staff? •  With higher temperatures, is it necessary to make changes in drop-off areas or parking garages to ensure passenger comfort and safety? •  Higher temperatures and more extreme weather could compromise infrastructure and equipment integrity and could require emergency repairs at increased cost. Does the reserve and replacement (i.e., emergency) fund need to grow to accommodate these changes? •  Might your airport experience different insects, which in turn bring different diseases or other risks? 3. Could climate change affect any nonweather risks in my emergency management plan? For example, increased temperature could affect the spread of infectious diseases. B. Develop risk response processes/mitigation strategies: develop risk response processes or mitigation strategies for any new climate-related risks Once risks are identified, your airport develops risk response processes or mitigation strate- gies to reduce the risks or to improve the airport’s ability to respond. For extreme weather events that your airport may not be familiar with, review the AWARE toolkit readiness modules. These modules provide best practices for preparing for each of 15 weather event types, organized and filterable by the following: •  Weather event type, •  Airport functional area (administration and finance, planning and environment, airfield operations, terminal operations, ground transportation and parking, and safety and security), Figure 19. Example AWARE Toolkit’s output of the exposure information module on projected change in event frequency.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 57 •  Implementation stage (planning, mitigation, response, recovery), and •  Best practice type (communications, equipment, funding, infrastructure, personnel, procedures). Also review FEMA’s National Response Framework for guidance on best practices for all types of disasters and emergencies (FEMA 2016). Given the dynamic nature of climate risks, it will also be particularly important for airports to debrief and update their risk register regularly for weather events. Some strategies to support this function include the following: •  Require after-action reports. Postaction reports can be compiled after extreme weather events to describe what happened, identify causes, and create clear recommendations for improvement (FHWA 2015). •  Establish collaborative debrief sessions. Debriefing sessions can be organized to discuss chal- lenges and needs associated with extreme weather and climate risks. These sessions should be multidisciplinary and include key personnel across airport management systems to identify opportunities for improvement (FHWA 2015). C. Conduct management review: review performance during each stage of the event and integrate lessons learned into the emergency management plan As always after any incident, review performance during each stage of the event. Identify and document lessons learned that can be integrated into your airport’s emergency management plan and improve performance. Additionally, you should consider the role of climate change in each event that your airport has experienced and whether your assessment of risk for other event types should be updated. Further, evaluate your airport’s emergency reserve budget. Use an annual review process to track how often your airport has to tap into the fund—which may be used for emergency Business Continuity Planning or Continuity of Operations Planning Business continuity planning, also known as continuity of operations planning for many public-sector organizations, is “the process of developing a roadmap for con- tinuing operations under adverse conditions and during disruptions caused by all types of incidents, emergencies, and crises” (ACRP 2013). This planning is distinct from emergency management planning in that business continuity planning is focused on ensuring the continuity of essential airport functions. Airports should also consider developing a BCP or COOP. Continuity planning is considered a good business practice, and climate change further increases its value proposition. For additional information about developing a BCP, see ACRP Report 93: Operational and Business Continuity Planning for Prolonged Airport Disruptions (ACRP 2013). Small airports may also refer to ACRP Synthesis 78: Continuity of Operations Planning for Small Airports (ACRP 2016a).

58 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk response, emergency infrastructure repairs, etc.—and determine whether the reserve funding amount needs to be increased. D. Continuously improve: reevaluate and modify climate-related risks This step allows you to reevaluate how climate hazards and risks are being incorporated into your emergency management process. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. Important questions to consider include the following: •  How do we expect the frequency or the severity of hazards to change? •  Have new hazards emerged that need to be considered? •  How have we performed in relation to specific climate hazards (e.g., extreme heat, increased frequency of severe storms)? This review may be particularly important after an extreme event. After the event, review recent trends and the latest climate projections to determine whether extreme events are the beginning of a potential trend, rather than a one-off. In some cases, and depending on the risk tolerance of your airport, it may make sense to prepare for future occurrences of the event. E. Integrate with decision-making: continuously integrate new climate risk information into risk assessment This step allows you to integrate continuously new climate risk information into decision- making. As you would for any other hazard, periodically review data on climate hazard risks and recent weather trends to understand better how your airport may be affected. After a review, refine your risk register to include updated climate-related risks. See Section 4.8 on adaptive management. 4.8 Cross-Cutting Adaptive Management Strategies In addition to the system-specific strategies addressed above, it is important for your airport to establish adaptive management strategies to regularly track and continuously incorporate new data and information into your airport’s decision-making processes over time. Most airports already practice adaptive management in some form, such as annual budget reviews or property condition assessments, because it can inform managers of any changes that may affect operations or performance. The value proposition for adaptive management is even stronger in light of climate change, as climate change may create changes in weather or travel pat- terns potentially influencing whether you meet your performance measures. Adaptive management strategies are appropriate for all airports, regardless of their cli- mate risks or existing management systems. Adaptive management can occur within or across management systems. Even if you are already using adaptive management, review this section to make sure that you are tracking the right variables to capture your potential climate risks. Acting now to create processes to monitor specific metrics—such as climate hazards and their associated impacts on airport costs and performance—can help your airport understand risks better over time and identify and mitigate the risks accordingly. For example, you may not have sufficient information today to make a business case for specific investments, but tracking—and analyzing—the costs associated with climate-related impacts can guide investment decisions Goal of Adaptive Management Regarding Climate Risk Begin tracking and regularly reviewing data so that you are aware of changes in trends and are ready to respond to climate risks as they become increasingly prevalent.

Take Action to Integrate Climate Risks 59 over time. These approaches can also help you monitor the effectiveness of certain climate risk management strategies, and what opportunities exist for improvement (FHWA 2015). The following strategies can help you track and monitor the appropriate data. 4.8.1 Identify Data Metrics Your airport could begin tracking a number of data metrics to detect changes in local climate conditions and understand more fully the true costs to your airport. Table 4 provides example metrics for asset performance, operations, overall expenditures, and the frequency or the inten- sity of weather events that can be useful for your adaptive management efforts. You may be tracking some of these metrics already, but not in terms of climate change. Appendix C presents a full list of example metrics. Align your data metrics with your priority climate risks and management systems identified in the self-assessment (Chapter 2). You may also wish to begin tracking metrics for long-term risks so that you are aware of any changes in asset performance, operations, expenditures, or event frequency and severity. You may need to prioritize data metrics on the basis of available resources, relevance to airport strategic priorities, and likely climate impacts at your airport (see Section 2.2). 4.8.2 Use Event Expense Codes One strategy that some airports and transportation agencies, such as the Southeastern Pennsyl- vania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), have found useful is using event codes to track the costs and the impacts associated with a specific extreme event. The code is assigned at the first sign of an event and can be used to track labor, materials, and other costs associated with event preparation, response, and recovery. For example, in advance of Hurricane Sandy, SEPTA developed a labor charge code to better capture the costs associated with the event, including work done in advance of, during, and after the storm (ICF 2013). By assigning a code to a specific weather event, you can assess the severity of the impacts and costs and easily compare the event to others. 4.8.3 Use Existing (or Create New) Annual Processes to Review Data Having some sort of process in place to track gradual changes is key, whether it is for changes in climate or operations and performance. If you are not tracking the data, you might not notice gradual changes through observation alone. Data Metric Tracking Frequency Asset Performance Duration of damage or closure (i.e., how long was asset out of service) For each event Pavement condition (such as occurrences of buckling, rutting, and cracking on runways and other paved surfaces) Annually Operations Changes in energy usage Annually Number of weather-related flight delays or cancellations Annually Overall Expenditures Quantity of staff time spent preparing for, responding to, and recovering from weather events For each event Cost of damages to infrastructure and facilities For each event Weather Event Frequency and Severity Frequency of storm events (e.g., thunderstorms, hurricanes, snow storms, other severe weather) For each event Frequency of extreme temperatures (e.g., heat waves or cold fronts) For each event Table 4. Example Data Metrics.

60 Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk You may already have an annual process in place to review data that could be modified to include the types of data metrics presented in Table 4 and Appendix C. For example, at South- west Florida International Airport (RSW), the engineering department submits an annual report to the budget director that summarizes facility conditions, maintenance and invest- ment needs, and expected useful life of facility components. A recent annual review found that jet bridges at the airport were reaching their end of life earlier than anticipated; this change was in part because of high heat and humidity. As a result, the airport developed a strategy to replace the jet bridges. In addition, include an annual review of the airport’s reserve and replacement budget for emergencies. Update the process to track how often and why the airport used the funding to determine whether the reserve funding amount needs to be increased. If you do not have an existing process in place that would fit this purpose, you could create a simple annual review process to monitor changes in trends. Annual reviews can also help bring awareness to trends in extreme weather events. After an extreme event, having this information can help you evaluate, for example, whether you should invest in a new piece of equipment to improve response to a similar future event. 4.8.4 Identify a Tipping Point As you begin tracking these metrics, identify a tipping point when your airport will begin thinking about, and planning for, long-term changes. It may be beneficial to hold a meeting with representatives from various departments, including master planning, asset management, capital planning, and safety management, to analyze scenarios and determine the appropriate tipping points for the metrics that you are tracking. The tipping point value should be reflec- tive of what your airport deems to be a significant change in the frequency or severity of events requiring a potential change in your management processes. For example, Boston (Massport) initially used flood mapping tools to identify a target flood level height for new and existing structures and has begun flood-proofing high-priority structures. However, after observing flooding in new areas during recent severe rainfall events, Massport has started to revisit its flood-proofing design standards. If your airport reaches a tipping point, you should transition from monitoring conditions to actively implementing risk strategies. The previous sections within this chapter highlight system- specific strategies that you can adopt to integrate climate risk into your planning processes.

Next: Chapter 5 - Next Steps »
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 188: Using Existing Airport Management Systems to Manage Climate Risk integrates current and projected climate change related risks into airport management systems and planning. The handbook identifies ways to reduce airport vulnerabilities to current and projected impacts of climate change, including extreme weather events. It also explores ways to minimize long-term costs to airport facilities and operations. This handbook provides a detailed guide for integration, as well as a self-assessment tool for determining the applicable systems for climate-related decision-making within the airport.

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