National Academies Press: OpenBook

Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research (2019)

Chapter: Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee

« Previous: Appendix D: Bibliography of Previous Studies Consulted by the Committee
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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E

Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee

Fusion energy science is an active research area as evident from the significant number of scientific and technical publications. Since the 2004 report of the Burning Plasma Assessment Committee, over 1,200 scientific publications have appeared authored or co-authored by scientists supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and reporting advancements in magnetic fusion research. As noted in the committee’s interim report, the Nuclear Fusion Award has been given annually since 2006, and 8 of the 12 Nuclear Fusion Awards were presented to U.S. scientists working on scenarios, transport, stability, transient control, boundary, and pedestal physics. U.S. award recipients are Tim Luce (2006, General Atomics), Todd Evans (2008, General Atomics), Steve Sabbagh (2009, Columbia University), John Rice (2010, MIT), Pat Diamond (2012, University of California, San Diego), Dennis Whyte (2013, MIT), Phil Snyder (2014, General Atomics), and Rob Goldston (2015, Princeton University). The significant fraction of all articles published in magnetic fusion energy research are authored or co-authored by U.S. researchers. This included publication of the Progress in the ITER Physics Basis (PIPB) comprehensive document authored by the international community in 2007.1

This report cites more than 300 technical publications documenting progress in fusion energy science since the 2004 Burning Plasma Assessment. These references are listed below.

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1 M. Shimada, et al., 2007, Chapter 1: Overview and summary, Nuclear Fusion 47:S1, http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/47/6/S01.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Bader, A., et al. 2017. HSX as an example of a resilient non-resonant divertor. Physics of Plasmas 24:032506. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4978494.

Bakhtiari, M., et al. 2011. Using mixed gases for massive gas injection disruption mitigation on Alcator C-Mod. Nuclear Fusion 51:063007. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/51/6/063007.

Baldwin, M.J., and R.P. Doerner. 2008. Helium induced nanoscopic morphology on tungsten under fusion relevant plasma conditions. Nuclear Fusion 4:035001. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/48/3/035001.

Belova, E., et al. 2017. Nonlinear simulations of beam-driven compressional Alfvén eigenmodes in NSTX. Physics of Plasmas 24:042505. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4979278.

Berkery, J.W. 2014. Measured improvement of global magnetohydrodynamic mode stability at high-beta, and in reduced collisionality spherical torus plasmas. Physics of Plasmas 21:056112. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4876610.

Berkery, J.W., et al. 2017. A reduced resistive wall mode kinetic stability model for disruption forecasting. Physics of Plasmas 24:056103. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4977464.

Boozer, A.H. 1983. Transport and isomorphic equilibria. Physics of Fluids 26:496. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.864166.

Bornschein, B., et al. 2013. Tritium management and safety issues in ITER and DEMO breeding blankets. Fusion Engineering and Design 88:466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2013.03.032.

Bortolon, A., et al. 2016. High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of lithium granules in DIII-D H-mode discharges. Nuclear Fusion 56:056008. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/56/5/056008.

Bosch, H.-S., et al. 2013. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X. Nuclear Fusion 53:126001. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/53/12/126001.

Boyle, D.P., et al. 2017. Observation of flat electron temperature profiles in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment. Physical Review Letters 119:015001. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.015001.

Calabrò, G., et al. 2015. EAST alternative magnetic configurations: Modelling and first experiments. Nuclear Fusion 55:083005. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/55/8/083005.

Canik, J.M. 2010. On demand triggering of edge localized instabilities using external nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbations in toroidal plasmas. Physical Review Letters 104:045001. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.045001.

Chan, V.S., et al. 2010. Physics basis of a fusion development facility utilizing the tokamak approach. Fusion Science and Technology 57:66. https://doi.org/10.13182/FST10-A9269.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Chang, C.S., et al. 2017. Fast low-to-high confinement mode bifurcation dynamics in a tokamak edge plasma gyrokinetic simulation. Physical Review Letters 118:175001. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.175001.

Chang, C.S., et al. 2017. Gyrokinetic projection of the divertor heat-flux width from present tokamaks to ITER. Nuclear Fusion 57:116023. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa7efb.

Chen, X., et al. 2017. Stationary QH-mode plasmas with high and wide pedestal at low rotation on DIII-D. Nuclear Fusion 57:022007. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/57/2/022007.

Commaux, N., et al. 2016. First demonstration of rapid shutdown using neon shattered pellet injection for thermal quench mitigation on DIII-D. Nuclear Fusion 56:046007. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/56/4/046007.

Day, C., et al. 2014. Development of advanced exhaust pumping technology for a DT fusion power plant. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 42(4):1058-1071. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2014.2307435.

de Vries, P.C., et al. 2011. Survey of disruption causes at JET. Nuclear Fusion 51:053018. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/51/5/053018.

Diamond, P.H., et al. 2005. Zonal flows in plasma—A review. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 47:R35. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/47/5/R01.

Duckworth, P.C., et al. 2012. Development and demonstration of a supercritical helium-cooled cryogenic viscous compressor prototype for the ITER vacuum system. Advances in Cryogenic Engineering 57A-5B:1234. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4707046.

Ekedahl, A., et al. 2011. Long pulse operation with the ITER-relevant LHCD antenna in Tore Supra. AIP Conference Proceedings 1406:399. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3665002.

Evans, T.E., et al. 2008. RMP ELM suppression in DIII-D plasmas with ITER similar shapes and collisionalities. Nuclear Fusion 48:024002. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/48/2/024002.

Federici, G., et al. 2017. European DEMO design strategy and consequences for materials. Nuclear Fusion 57:092002. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/57/9/092002.

Ferraro, N., et al. 2016. Multi-region approach to free-boundary three-dimensional tokamak equilibria and resistive wall instabilities. Physics of Plasmas 23:056114. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4948722.

Fietz, W.H., et al. 2013. Prospects of high temperature superconductors for fusion magnets and power applications. Fusion Engineering and Design 88:440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2013.03.059.

Fishpool, G., et al. 2013. MAST-upgrade divertor facility and assessing performance of long-legged divertors. Journal of Nuclear Materials 438:S356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2013.01.067.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Fredrickson, E.D., et al. 2018. Global Alfvén eigenmode scaling and suppression: Experiment and theory. 2018 Nuclear Fusion 58:082022. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aac64c.

Garcinuno, B., et al. 2017. Design and fabrication of a permeator against vacuum prototype for small scale testing at lead-lithium facility. Fusion Engineering and Design 124:871-875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2017.02.060.

Garrison, L.M., et al. 2016. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite. Journal of Nuclear Materials 481:134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2016.09.020.

Gates, D.A., et al. 2018. Stellarator research opportunities: A report of the National Stellarator Coordinating Committee. Journal of Fusion Energy 37:51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10894-018-0152-7.

Gerhardt,S.P.,et al.2013.Detection of disruptions in the high-β spherical torus NSTX. Nuclear Fusion 53:063021. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/53/6/063021.

Giancarli, L.M., et al. 2012. Overview of the ITER TBM Program. Fusion Engineering and Design 87:395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2011.11.005.

Girard, J.-Ph., et al. 2007. ITER, safety and licensing. Fusion Engineering and Design 82:506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2007.03.017.

Goerler, T., and Jenko, F. 2008. Scale separation between electron and ion thermal transport. Physical Review Letters 100:185002. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.185002.

Gong, X., et al. 2017. Realization of minute-long steady-state H-mode discharges on EAST. Plasma Science and Technology 19:032001. https://doi.org/10.1088/2058-6272/19/3/032001.

Gorelenkov, N.N., et al. 2012. 1.5D quasilinear model and its application on beams interacting with Alfvén eigenmodes in DIII-D. Physics of Plasmas 19:092511. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4752011.

Gormezano, C., et al. 2007. Chapter 6: Steady state operation. Nuclear Fusion 47:S285. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/47/6/S06.

Guo, H.Y., et al. 2007. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks. Nuclear Fusion 57:044001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa5b46.

Guo, Z., et al. 2018. Control of runaway electron energy using externally injected whistler waves. Physics of Plasmas 25:032504. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5019381.

Guttenfelder, W., et al. 2012. Scaling of linear microtearing stability for a high collisionality National Spherical Torus Experiment discharge. Physics of Plasmas 19:022506. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3685698.

Guttenfelder, W., et al. 2012. Simulation of microtearing turbulence in national spherical torus experiment. Physics of Plasmas 19:056119. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3694104.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Hartwell, C.J., et al. 2017. Design, construction, and operation of the compact toroidal hybrid. Fusion Science and Technology 72:76. https://doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2017.1291046.

Hatch, D.R., et al. 2015. Gyrokinetic study of ASDEX Upgrade inter-ELM pedestal profile evolution. Nuclear Fusion 55:063028. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/55/6/063028.

Hatch, D.R., et al. 2016. Microtearing turbulence limiting the JET-ILW pedestal. Nuclear Fusion 56:104003. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/56/10/104003.

Hatch, D.R., et al. 2017. A gyrokinetic perspective on the JET-ILW pedestal. Nuclear Fusion 57:036020. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa51e1.

Hawryluk, R., et al. 2009. Principal physics developments evaluated in the ITER design review. Nuclear Fusion 49:065012. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/49/6/065012.

Heidbrink, W.W., et al. 2017. Fast-ion transport by Alfvén eigenmodes above a critical gradient threshold. Physics of Plasmas 24:056109. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4977535.

Hernandez, F., et al. 2017. A new HCPB breeding blanket for the EU DEMO: Evolution, rationale and preliminary performances. Fusion Engineering and Design 124:882-886. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2017.02.008.

Holland,C.,etal.2012.ProgressinGYROvalidationstudiesofDIII-DH-modeplasmas. Nuclear Fusion 52:114007. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/52/11/114007.

Howard, N., et al. 2016. Multi-scale gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak plasmas: Enhanced heat loss due to cross-scale coupling of plasma turbulence. Nuclear Fusion 56:014004. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/56/1/014004.

Hu, J.S., et al. 2016. First results of the use of a continuously flowing lithium limiter in high performance discharges in the EAST device. Nuclear Fusion 56:046011. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/56/4/046011.

Hughes, J.W., et al. 2018. Access to pedestal pressure relevant to burning plasmas on the high magnetic field tokamak Alcator C-Mod. Nuclear Fusion 58:112003. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aabc8a.

Izzo, V.A., et al. 2015. The role of MHD in 3D aspects of massive gas injection. Nuclear Fusion 55:073032. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/55/7/073032.

Jacquinot, J. 1999. ITER Physics Expert Group on energetic particles, heating and current drive and ITER physics basis editors. Nuclear Fusion 39:2495. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/39/12/306.

Kaye, S.M., et al. 1988. Characteristics of low-q disruptions in PBX. Nuclear Fusion 28:1963. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/28/11/004.

Kessel, C.E., et al. 2015. The ARIES advanced and conservative tokamak power plant study. Fusion Science and Technology 67:1. https://doi.org/10.13182/FST14-794.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Kessel, C.E., et al. 2015. The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility, the critical step in the pathway to fusion energy. Fusion Science and Technology 68(2):225-236. https://doi.org/10.13182/FST14-953.

Kikuchi,M.,andM.Azumi.2012.Steady-statetokamakresearch:Corephysics.Reviews of Modern Physics 84:1807. https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.84.1807.

Kinsey, J.E., et al. 2011. ITER predictions using the GYRO verified and experimentally validated trapped gyro-Landau fluid transport model. Nuclear Fusion 51:083001. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/51/8/083001.

Kirk, A., et al. 2010. Resonant magnetic perturbation experiments on MAST using external and internal coils for ELM control. Nuclear Fusion 50:034008. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/50/3/034008.

Klein, J.E., et al. 2015. Development of fusion fuel cycles: Large deviations from US defense program systems. Fusion Engineering and Design 96-97:113-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2015.02.031.

Kotschenreuther, M., et al. 2007. On heat loading, novel divertors, and fusion reactors. Physics of Plasmas 14:072502. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2739422.

Ku, S., et al. 2016. A new hybrid-Lagrangian numerical scheme for gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak edge plasma. Journal of Computational Physics 315:467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2016.03.062.

Kugel, H.W., et al. 2008. The effect of lithium surface coatings on plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Physics of Plasmas 15:056118. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2906260.

LaBombard, B., et al. 2015. ADX: A high field, high power density, advanced divertor and RF tokamak. Nuclear Fusion 55:053020. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/55/5/053020.

Lang, P.T., et al. 2011. ELM pacing investigations at JET with the new pellet launcher. Nuclear Fusion 51:033010. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/51/3/033010.

Lang, P.T., et al. 2014. ELM pacing and high-density operation using pellet injection in the ASDEX Upgrade all-metal-wall tokamak. Nuclear Fusion 54:083009. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/54/8/083009.

Lehnen, M., et al. 2011. Disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in JET. Nuclear Fusion 51:123010. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/51/12/123010.

Leonard, A.W. 2018. Plasma detachment in divertor tokamaks. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 60:044001. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6587/aaa7a9.

Liang, Y., et al. 2007. Active control of type-I edge-localized modes with n = 1 perturbation fields in the JET tokamak. Physical Review Letters 98:265004. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.265004.

Libeyre, P., et al. 2016. Starting manufacture of the ITER central solenoid. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 26:4203305. https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2016.2545104.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Lyttle, M.S., et al. 2017.Tritium challenges and plans for ITER pellet fueling and disruption mitigation systems. Fusion Science and Technology 71:251. https://doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2017.1290969.

Maeyama, S., et al. 2015. Cross-scale interactions between electron and ion scale turbulence in a tokamak plasma. Physical Review Letters 114:255002. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.255002.

Maingi, R., et al. 2009. De-localized-mode suppression through density-profile modification with lithium-wall coatings in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Physical Review Letters 103:075001. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.075001.

Maingi, R., et al. 2018. ELM elimination with Li powder injection in EAST discharges using the tungsten upper divertor. Nuclear Fusion 58:024003. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa9e3f.

Mansfield, D.K. 2010. A simple apparatus for the injection of lithium aerosol into the scrape-off layer of fusion research devices. Fusion Engineering and Design 85:890. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2010.08.033.

Mansfield, D.K., et al. 2013. First observations of ELM triggering by injected lithium granules in EAST. Nuclear Fusion 53:113023. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/53/11/113023.

Menard, J.E., et al. 2011. Prospects for pilot plants based on the tokamak, spherical tokamak and stellarator. Nuclear Fusion 51:103014. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/51/10/103014.

Meneghini, O., et al. 2016. Integrated fusion simulation with self-consistent core-pedestal coupling. Physics of Plasmas 23:042507. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4947204.

Merrill, B.J. 2016. Recent development and application of a new safety analysis code for fusion reactors. Fusion Engineering and Design 109-111:970-974. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2016.01.041.

Merrill, B.J., et al. 2018. Recent accomplishments of the fusion safety program at the Idaho National Laboratory. Fusion Engineering and Design 136:1106-1111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.04.081.

Mitchell, N., and A. Devred. 2017. The ITER magnet system: Configuration and construction status. Fusion Engineering and Design 123:17-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2017.02.085.

Morgan, T.W., et al. 2018. Liquid metals as a divertor plasma-facing material explored using the Pilot-PSI and Magnum-PSI linear devices. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 60:014025. https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6587/aa86cd.

Morisaki, T., et al. 2006. Review of divertor studies in LHD. Plasma Science and Technology 8:14. https://doi.org/10.1088/1009-0630/8/1/4.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Mutoh, T. 2017. Long-pulse operation and high-energy particle confinement study in ICRF heating of LHD. Fusion Science and Technology 46(1):175-183. https://doi.org/10.13182/FST04-A553.

Mynick, H.E., et al. 2010. Optimizing stellarators for turbulent transport. Physical Review Letters 105:095004. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.095004.

Parish, C.M., et al. 2017. Helium sequestration at nanoparticle-matrix interfaces in helium plus heavy ion irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys. Journal of Nuclear Materials 483:21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2016.10.038.

Park, J.K., et al. 2013. Rotational resonance of nonaxisymmetric magnetic braking in the KSTAR tokamak. Physical Review Letters 111:095002. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.095002.

Pautasso, G., et al. 2002. On-line prediction and mitigation of disruptions in ASDEX Upgrade. Nuclear Fusion 42:100. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/42/1/314.

Pedersen, T.S., et al. 2017. Key results from the first plasma operation phase and outlook for future performance in Wendelstein 7-X. Physics of Plasmas 24:055503. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4983629.

Perevezentsev, A.N., et al. 2017. Study of outgassing and removal of tritium from metallic construction materials of ITER vacuum vessel components. Fusion Science and Technology 72:1. https://doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2016.1273659.

Podesta, M., et al. 2014. A reduced fast ion transport model for the tokamak transport code TRANSP. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 56:055003. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/56/5/055003.

Prater, R., et al. 2014. Application of very high harmonic fast waves for off-axis current drive in the DIII-D and FNSF-AT tokamaks. Nuclear Fusion 54:083024. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/54/8/083024.

Raffray, A.R., et al. 2010. High heat flux components—readiness to proceed from near term fusion systems to power plants. Fusion Engineering and Design 85:93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2009.08.002.

Ramogida, G., et al. 2017. D-shaped configurations in FTU for testing liquid lithium limiter: Preliminary studies and experiments. Nuclear Materials and Energy 12:1082. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2017.06.002.

Rapp, J., et al. 2016. The development of the Material Plasma Exposure Experiment. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 44:3456. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2016.2628326.

Reimerdes, H., et al. 2004. Measurement of the resistive-wall-mode stability in a rotating plasma using active MHD spectroscopy. Physical Review Letters 93:135002. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.135002.

Reimerdes, H., et al. 2017. TCV experiments towards the development of a plasma exhaust solution. Nuclear Fusion 57:126007. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa82c2.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Ren, Y., et al. 2017. Recent progress in understanding electron thermal transport in NSTX. Nuclear Fusion 57:072002. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa4fba.

Renner, H., et al. 2004. Physical aspects and design of the Wendelstein 7-X divertor. Fusion Science and Technology 46:318. https://doi.org/10.13182/FST04-A570.

Sabbagh, S.A., et al. 2004. The resistive wall mode and feedback control physics design in NSTX. Nuclear Fusion 44:560. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/44/4/011.

Sabbagh, S.A., et al. 2013. Overview of physics results from the conclusive operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Nuclear Fusion 53:104007. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/53/10/104007.

Sakakabira, S., et al. 2015. MHD study of the reactor-relevant high-beta regime in the Large Helical Device. Nuclear Fusion 55:083020. https://doi.org/10.1088/0741-3335/50/12/124014.

Sawan, M.E., and M.A. Abdou. 2006. Physics and technology conditions for attaining tritium self-sufficiency for the DT fuel cycle. Fusion Engineering and Design 81:1131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2005.07.035.

Shimada, M., and R.J. Pawelko. 2018. Tritium permeability measurement in hydrogen-tritium system. Fusion Engineering and Design 129:134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2018.02.033.

Shimada, M., et al. 2017. Hydrogen isotope retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated tungsten and tungsten alloys under PHENIX collaboration. Fusion Science and Technology 72:652. https://doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2017.1347468.

Shimada, M., et al. 2017. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade and improvement of surface diagnostic capabilities at STAR Facility for enhancing tritium and nuclear PMI sciences. Fusion Science and Technology 71:310. https://doi.org/10.1080/15361055.2017.1293422.

Shiraki, D., et al. 2018. Dissipation of post-disruption runaway electron plateaus by shattered pellet injection in DIII-D. Nuclear Fusion 58:056006. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aab0d6.

Sips, A.C.C., et al. 2015. Progress in preparing scenarios for operation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Physics of Plasmas 22:021804. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4904015.

Snead, L.L., et al. 2011. Silicon carbide composites as fusion power reactor structural materials. Journal of Nuclear Materials 417:330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2011.03.005.

Snyder, P.B., et al. 2011. A first-principles predictive model of the pedestal height and width: Development, testing and ITER optimization with the EPED model. Nuclear Fusion 51:103016. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/51/10/103016.

Snyder, P.B., et al. 2015. Super H-mode: Theoretical prediction and initial observations of a new high performance regime for tokamak operation. Nuclear Fusion 55:083026. https://doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/55/8/083026.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Published Technical References Consulted by the Committee." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Final Report of the Committee on a Strategic Plan for U.S. Burning Plasma Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25331.
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Fusion offers the prospect of virtually unlimited energy. The United States and many nations around the world have made enormous progress toward achieving fusion energy. With ITER scheduled to go online within a decade and demonstrate controlled fusion ten years later, now is the right time for the United States to develop plans to benefit from its investment in burning plasma research and take steps to develop fusion electricity for the nation’s future energy needs. At the request of the Department of Energy, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine organized a committee to develop a strategic plan for U.S. fusion research. The final report’s two main recommendations are: (1) The United States should remain an ITER partner as the most cost-effective way to gain experience with a burning plasma at the scale of a power plant. (2) The United States should start a national program of accompanying research and technology leading to the construction of a compact pilot plant that produces electricity from fusion at the lowest possible capital cost.

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