Acquisition Strategies for Future
Committee on Acquisition Strategies for Future Space-Based Optics
Intelligence Community Studies Board
Air Force Studies Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
A Consensus Study Report of
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This is a report of work supported by Contract 2014-14041100003-013 with the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48770-2
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48770-6
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25337
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Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Acquisition Strategies for Future Space-Based Optics: Unclassified Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25337.
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COMMITTEE ON ACQUISITION STRATEGIES FOR FUTURE SPACE-BASED OPTICS
L. ROGER MASON, JR., Peraton, Chair
ROBERT E. ERLANDSON, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
LEE FEINBERG, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
WILLIAM A. JEFFREY, SRI International
LETITIA A. LONG, Independent Consultant, Arlington, Virginia
BRIAN A. SHAW, National Defense University
JOAN FULLER, Deputy Executive Director, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
JOHN MONTGOMERY, NAE, Study Director, Consultant
STEVEN DARBES, Research Associate, Air Force Studies Board
INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY STUDIES BOARD
FREDERICK R. CHANG, NAE, Southern Methodist University, Co-Chair
ROBERT C. DYNES, NAS, University of California, San Diego, Co-Chair
JULIE BRILL, Microsoft Corporation
TOMAS DIAZ de la RUBIA, Purdue University
ROBERT A. FEIN, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School
MIRIAM E. JOHN, Independent Consultant
ANITA K. JONES, NAE, University of Virginia
ROBERT H. LATIFF (USAF, Ret.), R. Latiff Associates
MARK LOWENTHAL, Intelligence & Security Academy, LLC
MICHAEL A. MARLETTA, NAS/NAM, University of California, Berkeley
L. ROGER MASON, Jr., PERATON
WILLIAM H. PRESS, NAS, University of Texas, Austin
DAVID A. RELMAN, NAM, Stanford University
ELIZABETH RINDSKOPF Parker, State Bar of California (retired)
SAMUEL S. VISNER, MITRE Corporation; Georgetown University
ALAN SHAW, Director
CARYN LESLIE, Senior Program Officer
CHRIS JONES, Financial Manager
MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator
DIONNA ALI, Research Associate
ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Financial Assistant
NATHANIEL DEBEVOISE, Senior Program Assistant
AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD
DOUGLAS M. FRASER, Douglas Fraser, LLC, Chair
ALLISON ASTORINO-COURTOIS, National Security Innovations, Inc.
KEVIN G. BOWCUTT, NAE, The Boeing Company
TED F. BOWLDS, U.S. Air Force (retired)
CRAIG R. COONING, The Boeing Company
BLAISE J. DURANTE, U.S. Air Force (retired)
STEPHEN R. FORREST, NAE/NAS, University of Michigan
BRENDAN B. GODFREY, University of Maryland, College Park
MICHAEL A. HAMEL, U.S. Air Force (retired)
JAMES E. HUBBARD, JR., NAE, Texas A&M University
CHARLES H. JACOBY, JR., Capitol Peak Asset Management
RAYMOND E. JOHNS, JR., FlightSafety International,
ALEX MILLER, University of Tennessee
OZDEN OCHOA, Texas A&M University
HENDRICK RUCK, Edaptive Computing, Inc.
JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, National Defense University
ZACHARY TUDOR, Idaho National Lab
STARNES E. WALKER, ANDE Corporation
DEBORAH WESTPHAL, Toffler Associates
DAVID A. WHELAN, NAE, Indpendent Consultant
MICHAEL YARYMOVYCH, NAE, Sarasota Space Associates
ELLEN CHOU, Director
GEORGE COYLE, Senior Program Officer
RYAN MURPHY, Program Officer
ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Financial Assistant
MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator
STEVEN DARBES, Research Associate
CATHERINE PUMA, Research Assistant
Statement of Task and Study Approach
This study originated with congressionally directed language from the House Permanent Select Committee for Intelligence (HPSCI) in 2016 and titled “Acquisition Strategies for Future Space Based Optics”. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened an ad hoc committee of experts to conduct a study that addressed the classified statement of task as directed by Congress. In accordance with procedures established by the National Academies for classified activities, this is an unclassified summary of a classified report.
To perform the study, a committee was convened under the auspices of the Air Force Studies and Intelligence Community Studies Boards. Members of the Committee on Acquisition Strategies for Future Space-Based Optics were selected in accordance with Academies policies based on both technical experience in this highly specialized technical topic as well as holding the necessary clearances to access classified information. Before the first full meeting of the Committee, the committee chairs and staff met with the senior stakeholders within the Intelligence Community (IC) and the Department of Defense (DoD), and well as the professional staff from both the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI) and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI). Stakeholders included Office of the Director for National Intelligence (ODNI), National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA), United States Defense Intelligence (USDI), Joint Staff Capabilities and Resource Integration (J8), and Office of the Secretary of Defense Space (OSD Space). The purpose of these meetings was to discuss the study direction, tasking and schedule with the stakeholders and to gain an understanding of their perspectives in the area of future space based optics to help shape study directions and guide the committee during its deliberations.
The first full data-gathering meeting was held in IC facilities where the committee received classified briefings on both ongoing and planned programs in the area of space-based optics. At a subsequent meeting, detailed briefings were provided by industry leads working with the NRO on programs specifically related to the study of this report. In addition, ODNI provided a threat assessment briefing to provide context to the committee on the relative operational risk to current space assets. Finally, the committee heard from SpaceX and Blue Origin on their commercial activities related to space launch capabilities.
To complete the primary fact-finding activities, the committee traveled to NASA Goddard to review the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program. This programhas developed a segmented 6m telescope for astronomical research that is to be launched to Lagrange point L-2. Once successfully launched and deployed, JWST will demonstrate component technologies required for the realization of large diameter telescopes for space based earth observation.
The study findings, conclusions and recommendations were formulated by the committee based on information gained from this fact-finding process.
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
John Brock, Northrop Grumman Space Technology (ret.),
Robert H. Latiff, U.S. Air Force (Maj. Gen. ret.),
Grant H. Stokes, NAE, MIT Lincoln Laboratory,
David Van Wie, NAE, John Hopkins Applies Physics Laboratory, and
Donald C. Winter, NAE, Independent Consultant.
Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert Sproull, NAE, University of Massachusetts at Amherst. He is responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.