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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT OF
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
for the Department of Energy’s
Defense Environmental
Cleanup Program

Committee on Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy’s Defense Environmental Cleanup Program

Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by award DE-EM0001172/NAS Proposal Number 10003493 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48775-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48775-7
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25338

Cover: This report identifies seven types of technologies and alternative approaches that have the potential to substantially reduce long-term cleanup costs; accelerate cleanup schedules; and mitigate uncertainties, vulnerabilities, or risks, or otherwise significantly improve the Department of Energy’s Defense Environmental Cleanup Program for former nuclear weapons sites. These technologies and alternative approaches are posed as “knobs” that can be “turned” through a properly organized and focused science and technology development and deployment effort.

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy’s Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25338.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

COMMITTEE ON INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY’S DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP PROGRAM

PATRICIA J. CULLIGAN (Chair), Columbia University, New York, New York

M. JOHN PLODINEC (Vice Chair), Community and Regional Resilience Institute, Aiken, South Carolina

SUE B. CLARK, Washington State University/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

PAUL T. DICKMAN, Argonne National Laboratories, Washington, DC

BARBARA L. HAMRICK, University of California, Irvine

ROBERT T. JUBIN, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

WILLIAM LEE, Imperial College London/Bangor University, Gwynedd, United Kingdom

ALEXANDRA NAVROTSKY, University of California, Davis

JAMES A. RISPOLI, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

REBECCA A. ROBBINS, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria

ROBIN D. ROGERS, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

POL D. SPANOS, Rice University, Houston, Texas

Staff

OURANIA KOSTI, Study Director

KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Senior Advisor

TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate

MICHAEL B. HUDSON, Senior Program Assistant

JORGE MENDOZA-TORRES, Senior Research Librarian

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

NUCLEAR AND RADIATION STUDIES BOARD

GEORGE APOSTOLAKIS (Chair), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (emeritus), Los Angeles, California

JAMES A. BRINK (Vice Chair), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston

STEVEN M. BECKER, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia

AMY BERRINGTON DE GONZÁLEZ, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland

DAVID J. BRENNER, Columbia University, New York, New York

MARGARET S. Y. CHU, M.S. Chu + Associates, LLC, New York, New York

TISSA H. ILLANGASEKARE, Colorado School of Mines, Golden

CAROL M. JANTZEN, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina

NANCY JO NICHOLAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico

HENRY D. ROYAL, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri

DANIEL O. STRAM, University of Southern California, Los Angeles

WILLIAM H. TOBEY, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

SERGEY V. YUDINTSEV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Staff

CHARLES D. FERGUSON, Director

JENNIFER HEIMBERG, Senior Program Officer

OURANIA KOSTI, Senior Program Officer

KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Senior Advisor

TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate

LAURA D. LLANOS, Administrative and Financial Associate

DARLENE GROS, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

Acknowledgments

The successful completion of this study would not have been possible without the cooperation and assistance of many organizations and individuals. The committee would especially like to acknowledge and thank the following organizations and individuals for their support:

Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), which sponsored the study and provided information on the office’s activities in support of technology development for the cleanup program. Ms. Beth Moore served ably as the agency’s liaison to the committee and was effective in coordinating, together with Mr. Rodrigo V. Rimando, Jr., the committee’s visits to DOE sites. Mr. Rimando also responded to the committee’s numerous requests for information related to the DOE-EM Technology Development Office’s processes for selecting and prioritizing technologies for development and deployment. He remained flexible and available to assist the committee with information gathering and fact checking despite his transfer to another position within DOE-EM in October 2018. The committee and staff applaud his professionalism and commitment during the study process.

DOE’s Hanford, Idaho, Oak Ridge, Portsmouth, and Savannah River sites for hosting the committee’s visits and for providing information on the sites’ cleanup work and associated challenges, science and technology applications and needs, and available resources. Special thanks are given to the following individuals for organizing the committee’s site visits and for lining up the experts to brief the committee: Ms. Elaine Diaz, Dr. Vicky Freedman, Ms. Naomi Jaschke, and Ms. Karen Sinclair for the site visit to Hanford and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Mr. Joel Case and Ms. Danielle

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

Miller for the site visit to Idaho; Ms. Staci Monroe, Ms. Elizabeth Phillips, and Dr. Eric Pierce for the site visit to Oak Ridge; Ms. Elizabeth Scott for the site visit to Portsmouth; and Mr. Andrew Fellinger and Mr. Tony Polk for the site visit to Savannah River. The committee also thanks the site DOE representatives, contractors, and other support staff listed in Appendix D, who briefed the committee.

Stakeholders of the Hanford, Idaho, Oak Ridge, Portsmouth, and Savannah River sites who provided presentations or comments on their role in selecting technologies considered for development or deployment at the sites.

Other individuals and invited participants who provided information and support for this study. Their names are listed in Appendix D.

The committee also thanks staff at the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board (NRSB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies) for organizing and facilitating this study. Study director Dr. Ourania Kosti organized the committee meetings and site visits and assisted the committee with collecting the information it needed to write its report. Ms. Toni Greenleaf and Mr. Michael Hudson managed the logistics of the meetings, report review, and publication. NRSB director Dr. Charles Ferguson escorted a small group of committee members during the site visit to Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

The committee and the study director are indebted to Dr. Kevin Crowley, advisor to the NRSB (and former NRSB director), who provided valuable technical and policy insights throughout the study as well as valuable historical perspectives on the DOE-EM science and technology program and the National Academies’ work to advise DOE-EM. Dr. Crowley was also instrumental in assisting the committee with report writing and review.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Drs. George Hornberger, Vanderbilt University, and Cindy Atkins-Duffin, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×

List of Common Acronyms

AI artificial intelligence
ARPA-E Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CRESP Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation
D&D decontamination and demolition (DOE-EM usage) or decontamination and decommissioning (general usage)
DOE Department of Energy
DOE-EM Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management
DWPF Defense Waste Processing Facility
EFCOG Energy Facility Contractors Group
EMAB Environmental Management Advisory Board
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
FY fiscal year
GAO U.S. Government Accountability Office
HLW high-level radioactive waste
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×
INTEC Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center
IPABS-IS Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System–Information System
IWTU Integrated Waste Treatment Unit
LCC lifecycle cost
LLW low-level waste
NAS National Academy of Sciences
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NRSB Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board
NSF National Science Foundation
ORP Office of River Protection
PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
R&D research and development
RL Richland Operations Office
S&T science and technology
SEAB Secretary of Energy Advisory Board
SRS Savannah River Site
SSAB Site-Specific Advisory Board
TCCR Tank Closure Cesium Removal
TRU Transuranic
VOC volatile organic compound
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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The National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2017 contained a request for a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine review and assessment of science and technology development efforts within the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). This technical report is the result of the review and presents findings and recommendations.

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