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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy's Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25338.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY for the Department of Energy’s Defense Environmental Cleanup Program Committee on Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy’s Defense Environmental Cleanup Program Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS  500 Fifth Street, NW  Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by award DE-EM0001172/NAS Proposal Number 10003493 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of E ­ nergy’s Office of Environmental Management. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25338 Cover: This report identifies seven types of technologies and alternative approaches that have the potential to substantially reduce long-term cleanup costs; accelerate cleanup schedules; and mitigate uncertainties, vulnerabilities, or risks, or otherwise ­ significantly improve the Department of Energy’s Defense Environmental Cleanup Program for former nuclear weapons sites. These technologies and alternative a ­ pproaches are posed as “knobs” that can be “turned” through a properly orga- nized and focused science and technology development and deployment effort. Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Independent Assessment of Science and Technology for the Department of Energy’s Defense Environmental Cleanup Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25338. PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Con- gress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engi­ eering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and n a ­ dvice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medi- cine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information g ­athered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and ­ pinions o contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

COMMITTEE ON INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY’S DEFENSE ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP PROGRAM PATRICIA J. CULLIGAN (Chair), Columbia University, New York, New York M. JOHN PLODINEC (Vice Chair), Community and Regional Resilience Institute, Aiken, South Carolina SUE B. CLARK, Washington State University/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington PAUL T. DICKMAN, Argonne National Laboratories, Washington, DC BARBARA L. HAMRICK, University of California, Irvine ROBERT T. JUBIN, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, Tennessee WILLIAM LEE, Imperial College London/Bangor University, Gwynedd, United Kingdom ALEXANDRA NAVROTSKY, University of California, Davis JAMES A. RISPOLI, North Carolina State University, Raleigh REBECCA A. ROBBINS, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria ROBIN D. ROGERS, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa POL D. SPANOS, Rice University, Houston, Texas Staff OURANIA KOSTI, Study Director KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Senior Advisor TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate MICHAEL B. HUDSON, Senior Program Assistant JORGE MENDOZA-TORRES, Senior Research Librarian v PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

NUCLEAR AND RADIATION STUDIES BOARD GEORGE APOSTOLAKIS (Chair), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (emeritus), Los Angeles, California JAMES A. BRINK (Vice Chair), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston STEVEN M. BECKER, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia AMY BERRINGTON DE GONZÁLEZ, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland DAVID J. BRENNER, Columbia University, New York, New York MARGARET S. Y. CHU, M.S. Chu + Associates, LLC, New York, New York TISSA H. ILLANGASEKARE, Colorado School of Mines, Golden CAROL M. JANTZEN, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina NANCY JO NICHOLAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico HENRY D. ROYAL, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri DANIEL O. STRAM, University of Southern California, Los Angeles WILLIAM H. TOBEY, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts SERGEY V. YUDINTSEV, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Staff CHARLES D. FERGUSON, Director JENNIFER HEIMBERG, Senior Program Officer OURANIA KOSTI, Senior Program Officer KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Senior Advisor TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate LAURA D. LLANOS, Administrative and Financial Associate DARLENE GROS, Senior Program Assistant vi PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

Acknowledgments The successful completion of this study would not have been possible without the cooperation and assistance of many organizations and indi­ viduals. The committee would especially like to acknowledge and thank the following organizations and individuals for their support: Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (­ OE-EM), D which sponsored the study and provided information on the office’s activi­ ies t in support of technology development for the cleanup program. Ms. Beth Moore served ably as the agency’s liaison to the committee and was effective in coordinating, together with Mr. Rodrigo V. Rimando, Jr., the commit- tee’s visits to DOE sites. Mr. Rimando also responded to the committee’s numerous requests for information related to the DOE-EM Technology Development Office’s processes for selecting and prioritizing technologies for development and deployment. He remained flexible and available to assist the committee with information gathering and fact-checking despite his transfer to another position within DOE-EM in October 2018. The committee and staff applaud his professionalism and commitment during the study process. DOE’s Hanford, Idaho, Oak Ridge, Portsmouth, and Savannah River sites for hosting the committee’s visits and for providing information on the sites’ cleanup work and associated challenges, science and technol- ogy applications and needs, and available resources. Special thanks are given to the following individuals for organizing the committee’s site visits and for lining up the experts to brief the committee: Ms. Naomi Jaschke, Ms. Elaine Diaz, Ms. Karen Sinclair, and Dr. Vicky Freedman for the site visit to Hanford and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Mr. Joel Case ­ vii PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS and Ms. Danielle Miller for the site visit to Idaho; Ms. Elizabeth Phillips, Ms. Staci Monroe, and Dr. Eric Pierce for the site visit to Oak Ridge; Ms. Elizabeth Scott for the site visit to Portsmouth; and Mr. Tony Polk and Mr. Andrew Fellinger for the site visit to Savannah River. The committee also thanks the site DOE representatives, contractors, and other support staff listed in Appendix D, who briefed the committee. Stakeholders of the Hanford, Idaho, Oak Ridge, Portsmouth, and S ­ avannah River sites who provided presentations or comments on their role in selecting technologies considered for development or deployment at the sites. Other individuals and invited participants who provided information and support for this study. Their names are listed in Appendix D. The committee also thanks staff at the Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board (NRSB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies) for organizing and facilitating this study. Study director Dr. Ourania Kosti organized the committee meetings and site visits and assisted the committee with collecting the information it needed to write its report. Mr. Michael Hudson and Ms. Toni Greenleaf managed the logistics of the meetings, report review, and publication. NRSB director Dr. Charles Ferguson escorted a small group of committee mem- bers to the site visit to Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The committee and the study director are indebted to Dr. Kevin ­ rowley, C advisor to the NRSB (and former NRSB director) who provided valuable technical and policy insights throughout the study as well as valuable his­ torical perspectives on the DOE-EM science and technology program and the National Academies’ work to advise DOE-EM. Dr. Crowley was also instrumental in assisting the committee with report writing and review. PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by indi­ iduals v chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manu- script remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Gordon E. Brown, Jr., Stanford University Melanie Brownridge, Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, United Kingdom Glen T. Daigger, University of Michigan Steven L. Krahn, Vanderbilt University M. David Maloney, Jacobs Engineering Group Raymond L. Orbach, The University of Texas at Austin Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Drs. George ­Hornberger, Vanderbilt University, and Cindy Atkins-Duffin, Lawrence Livermore Na- tional Laboratory. They were responsible for making certain that an inde- pendent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the ix PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

x ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

Contents LIST OF COMMON ACRONYMS xiii SYNOPSIS 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 1 BACKGROUND AND STUDY TASK 7 1.1 DOE-EM Mission, 7 1.2 S&T Development in the Cleanup Program, 10 1.3 Approach for Carrying Out This Study, 12 1.3.1 Committee Interpretation of Congressional Request, 12 1.3.2 Committee Work Plan, 16 2 REVIEW OF DOE-EM TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS 17 2.1 Science and Technology in DOE-EM, 18 2.1.1 Site-Directed S&T, 20 2.1.2 Headquarters-Managed S&T, 25 2.2 DOE-EM Leadership Views on S&T, 34 2.3 Findings and Recommendations, 36 3 REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES 47 3.1 Technologies and Alternative Approaches, 48 3.2 Application of Technologies and Alternative Approaches, 55 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

xii CONTENTS REFERENCES 75 APPENDIXES A CONGRESSIONAL REQUEST FOR THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES’ STUDY 79 B AJOR NATIONAL ACADEMIES REPORTS ON WASTE M MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS COMPLEX 81 C COMMITTEE AND STAFF BIOGRAPHIES 89 D PRESENTATIONS AND SITE VISITS 97 E DOE SITES VISITED BY THE COMMITTEE 103 PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

List of Common Acronyms AI artificial intelligence ARPA-E Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act CRESP Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation D&D decontamination and demolition (DOE-EM usage) or decontamination and decommissioning (general usage) DOE Department of Energy DOE-EM Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management DWPF Defense Waste Processing Facility EFCOG Energy Facility Contractors Group EMAB Environmental Management Advisory Board EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FY fiscal year GAO U.S. Government Accountability Office HLW high-level radioactive waste xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

xiv LIST OF COMMON ACRONYMS INTEC Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center IPABS-IS Integrated Planning, Accountability, and Budgeting System– Information System IWTU Integrated Waste Treatment Unit LCC lifecycle cost LLW low-level waste METI Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry NAS National Academy of Sciences NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NRSB Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board NSF National Science Foundation ORP Office of River Protection PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory R&D research and development RL Richland Operations Office S&T science and technology SEAB Secretary of Energy Advisory Board SRS Savannah River Site SSAB Site-Specific Advisory Board TCCR Tank Closure Cesium Removal TRU Transuranic VOC volatile organic compound PREPUBLICATION COPY­ Uncorrected Proofs —

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The National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2017 contained a request for a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine review and assessment of science and technology development efforts within the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). This technical report is the result of the review and presents findings and recommendations.

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