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Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies (2018)

Chapter: Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Approach and Findings." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
×
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

6 In this chapter, the research team summarizes the state-of-the-practice approach and relevant findings and practices already implemented or being implemented to facilitate urban freight transportation. The researchers identified the state of the practice using a two-stage literature review, a survey of industry professionals, and a peer-exchange workshop. Literature Review Approach This subsection details the sources of the literature, a general description of the literature and other experiences reviewed, and brief descriptions of those resources of particular relevance. The research team searched the literature to investigate effective and/or innovative urban freight strategies currently implemented for metropolitan freight transportation. Researchers initially identified over 1,000 potential references. The literature search involved an analytical review of hundreds of the most relevant resources, particularly those pertaining to implementing strategies for metropolitan freight transportation (whether successful or unsuccessful). The research team conducted searches using the Transportation Research Information Service (TRIS) database. However, the researchers did not rely solely on database searching because databases often lag several months behind current efforts. In addition, databases do not include some documents prepared by transportation agencies. To supplement the database searches, the research team also included recent or current metropolitan freight transportation strategy implementation efforts with which the team members have been (or are currently) involved. Researchers contacted governmental agency personnel, professional colleagues, and others who are familiar with implementing metropolitan freight transportation strategies to identify current practitioner efforts. When the research team prepared the interim report for NCHRP Project 08-106, the literature search had resulted in 123 urban freight resources. Researchers input all of these resources into an MS Excel spreadsheet, the SRM, which summarizes the most important information for each of the most relevant urban freight strategies. After a peer-exchange workshop held in May 2017 at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California, the research team recognized the need for a literature “re-review” based upon interest in particular additional strategy information. This re-review not only increased the number of resources (due to the rapidly growing field of urban freight research) but also was used to capture additional strategy and resource characteristics for inclusion in the SRM. The research team evaluated all the resources to determine the status of strategy implemen- tation (implemented or not implemented), transportation mode, and strategy effectiveness. Researchers added effectiveness scores along with performance measures to demonstrate the performance of the specific strategies. C H A P T E R 2 State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies— Approach and Findings

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 7 In another search in the TRIS database, the research team identified 66 new resources to review. Out of the 66 new resources, researchers deemed only 29 to be relevant enough for addition to the SRM, and they were included along with the 123 previous resources. Thus, the final version of the SRM includes 152 resources on effective and/or innovative urban freight strategies implemented for metropolitan freight transportation. Survey Development and Administration Approach and Results This subsection summarizes the survey process, including the survey instrument and dis- tribution, survey respondents’ profiles, and survey responses. Survey Instrument and Distribution From the inception of NCHRP Project 08-106, researchers planned to collect data through a survey of state and local agencies (public) as well as private companies representing the broad range of potential stakeholders (shippers, carriers, receivers, policy makers, academics, planners, engineers, etc.). The survey consisted of between 9 and 30 questions, depending on each respondent’s demographic profile and responses. Most questions included an opportunity for the respondent to explain an answer in narrative format (open-ended questions). Researchers designed the survey to allow for partial completion, saving, and being able to return to the “left-off point” later. This approach allowed respondents to consult with colleagues or retrieve any necessary material to complete the survey, and in return, the research team expected this approach to increase survey responses. The survey was conducted entirely online using Qualtrics, a widely used online survey software. A dedicated website (see Figure 2) was established for the survey, and all publicity materials (emails, handouts, etc.) directed users to this website. Researchers conducted testing to accommodate various web browser types in order to provide an optimal viewing experience Figure 2. Home page of survey website.

8 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies across a wide range of devices, including smartphones. The entire survey site, including ques- tionnaires, used a responsive web design approach. The research team drafted questions based on the literature review, experience with related practice, and consultation with experts (including the project panel). After researchers drafted a set of questions, they recruited an initial group of beta testers (including the project panel) to test and comment on the survey for design, content, and any unintended bias. Researchers then finalized the survey according to the feedback received from all beta testers. The final survey is included in Appendix A of this report (Appendix A is available on the TRB website by searching on “NCHRP Research Report 897”). The research team conducted the survey in two phases. In Phase 1, the research team reached out to potential respondents through direct email. In Phase 2, researchers asked all of the May 2017 workshop participants as well as any freight professionals designated by the workshop participants to take the survey. For Phase 1, the survey data collection period lasted from January 3 to January 30, 2017, which allowed for solicitation of input during the Transportation Research Board 2017 Annual Meeting. Researchers recruited respondents through several avenues. The survey distribution approach included an advance email informing the prospective survey takers of the distribution timing of the survey, followed within a week by an email invitation to participate in the survey. During the period, the survey link was open and accepting responses, and researchers sent three reminder emails to the prospective survey participants to maximize survey response. The most effective method in obtaining participant feedback was direct email appeal. Researchers also provided notices of the survey for distribution in newsletters and through various organizations, including the following: • TRB Marine Group • TRB Freight Group • FHWA Freight Planning Listserv • Transportation Communications Newsletter • State departments of transportation (DOTs) through freight/metropolitan contacts • Ontario and British Columbia (Canada) provincial contacts • Project panel • Membership of the Coalition for America’s Gateways and Trade Corridors • Project technical advisors • Individuals on the Department of Commerce Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness • Texas Trucking Organization • Trucking community outreach • Private-sector companies. • Pooled-fund members from University of Wisconsin, Mid-America Freight Coalition • Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association • Metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) through freight/metropolitan contacts For Phase 2 of data collection, researchers asked all of the May 2017 workshop participants to complete the survey, and the survey remained open until the end of May 2017. During Phase 2, researchers received 15 additional completed surveys. Survey Respondents’ Demographics At the end of the survey cycle (May 31, 2017), a total of 157 responses was received. This includes 152 fully completed and 5 partially completed responses. Table 1 illustrates response

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 9 rates for different organizational affiliations in the public and private sectors. The responses obtained on the survey were intuitive, with a larger portion coming from the public sector. As shown in Table 1, 83 percent (131) of responses were from the public sector and 17 percent (26) were from the private sector. As expected, about half of the public-sector responses were from state DOT or MPO representatives. Researchers asked the respondents to identify their position within the organization with which they were affiliated. Tables 2 and 3 summarize the results. Table 2 indicates that the survey responses from the public sector represented various positions within the agencies surveyed. While the research team obtained a smaller number of responses from the private sector, these responses did represent various company positions. The higher public-sector response rate for the survey may be due to the following: • The distribution mechanism focused primarily on public participants due to the nature of the email lists. • The public sector has a greater willingness and desire to address the issue of effective freight strategies. The researchers attempted to obtain a good geographic distribution of survey results from across the United States. Survey response rates were high in Ohio, Florida, Texas, California, Affiliation Count Proportion of Sector Proportion of Total Respondents Public Sector Federal government 3 2% 2% State DOT 36 27% 23% MPO/regional agency 43 33% 27% Local government 13 10% 8% Consultant (public-sector clients related to urban freight activity) 15 12% 10% University 13 10% 8% Other (please specify) 8 6% 5% Public Total 131 100%* 83% Private Sector Shipper 1 4% 1% Carrier 5 19% 3% 9 35% 6% Truck driver (company driver) 4 15% 3% Truck driver (owner-operator) 4 15% 3% Carrier, truck driver (owner-operator) 1 4% 1% Carrier, shipper, receiver 1 4% 1% Shipper, receiver 1 4% 1% Private Total 26 100%* 17% All Respondents 157 – 100%* *May not sum to 100% due to rounding. Consultant (private-sector clients related to urban freight activity) Table 1. Survey respondents by organizational affiliation and sector. Position Count Percentage Upper management 26 21% Transportation planner 49 39% Freight planner/specialist 31 25% Other 20 16% Total 126 100%* *May not sum to 100% due to rounding. Table 2. Position of survey respondents in public-sector organizations.

10 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies and Illinois, but, as Figure 3 illustrates, there were responses from across the United States (33 states were represented in all). International respondents were from the Netherlands, France, England, Singapore, and Australia. Pre-Workshop Survey Response Data and Analysis The research team acquired important data from the survey on key facilitators of and barriers to implementing an effective freight strategy. The research team then tied the survey data regarding facilitators and barriers to specific strategies. This section provides information on the approach and results related to this exercise, including the following: • Top five facilitators overall • Top five barriers overall • Top facilitators by strategy • Top barriers by strategy Respondents from both the public and private sectors were asked to rate the importance of key facilitators and barriers to implementing each strategy. The corresponding responses were Position Count Percentage Logistics manager 1 5% Operations 1 5% Route manager 2 11% Sales and marketing 1 5% Service design/engineering 6 32% Other 8 42% Total 19 100% Table 3. Position of survey respondents in private-sector organizations. Figure 3. Map showing geographical distribution of survey respondents in the United States.

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 11 recorded on a scale of 0 (not important at all) to 10 (extremely important). For detailed informa- tion on the facilitator and barrier results for all respondents as well as public and private sectors separately, refer to Appendix B (Appendix B is available on the TRB website by searching on “NCHRP Research Report 897”). Researchers then sorted the highest-ranked key facilitators and identified the top five. The top five were also sorted and identified from the public-sector and private-sector responses. Table 4 shows the results for facilitators, and Table 5 shows results for barriers. Table 4 indicates that the top five facilitators were the same for both the public- and private- sector participants. This finding points to an agreement among all participants on the key facilitators for effective freight strategies. Specifically, the results show that to have successful implementation of urban freight transportation strategies, the direct involvement of all stake- holders is extremely important. It makes sense that all stakeholders should be engaged throughout the implementation process. Similarly, having a project champion is critical for successful urban freight strategy implementation. The research team found stakeholder education to be a very important facilitator for implementing urban freight strategies. Respondents believe that if the institutions responsible for the implementation and management of these strategies are not fully committed, the strategies will not succeed. The public also has an important role because it can be affected by change. This was shown by the strength of the survey responses related to education and inclusion of the public to develop broad support. The top five key barriers in Table 5 are closely related to the facilitators identified in Table 4. Overall, the two main barriers to successful implementation of urban freight transportation Rank Overall Public 1 2 Institutional Commitment to Implementation of the Strategy Political Support and/or Project Champion 3 4 Stakeholder Education Stakeholder Education 5 Direct Stakeholder Involvement Political Support and/or Project Champion Public Outreach and Education Direct Stakeholder Involvement Institutional Commitment to Implementation of the Strategy Public Outreach and Education Private Direct Stakeholder Involvement Institutional Commitment to Implementation of the Strategy Public Outreach and Education Stakeholder Education Political Support and/or Project Champion Table 4. Top five key facilitators. Rank Overall Public Private 1 Cost and Lack of Funding 2 Staffing/Organizational Capacity 3 Right-of-Way Constraints 4 Lack of Interagency Coordination 5 Cost and Lack of Funding Lack of Policy Maker Support Lack of Interagency Coordination Neighborhood Opposition Staffing/Organizational Capacity Cost and Lack of Funding Lack of Policy Maker Support Lack of Interagency Coordination Neighborhood Opposition Staffing/Organizational Capacity Lack of Policy Maker Support Table 5. Top five key barriers.

12 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies strategies are cost and lack of funding and lack of policy maker support. Beyond that, barriers that relate to staffing and organizational capacity, lack of interagency coordination, and location- related barriers (e.g., right-of-way constraints and neighborhood opposition) are identified. In summary, Tables 4 and 5 indicate that when it comes to the top five key facilitators of and barriers to successful implementation of urban freight transportation strategies, public- and private-sector respondents have a similar understanding and vision. They believe that the direct involvement and support of the parties involved (stakeholders, elected officials, policy makers, and the public) are essential to a successful implementation. The research team ranked the strategies as “facilitated by” the facilitator scores or “hindered by” the barrier scores. Appendix B summarizes the full results (Appendix B is available on the TRB website by searching on “NCHRP Research Report 897”). This information was valuable for the fact sheets provided as output from UFIT. The fact sheets are described in more detail in Chapter 4. Once the research team obtained and analyzed the survey results, the team performed multiple follow-up phone interviews to validate the effectiveness of the survey instrument in capturing the respondents’ answers as well as hear any additional insights from the selected respondents. Researchers selected phone interview participants from among the respondents to the freight survey. During this effort, researchers observed that the phone interview responses matched closely with the survey responses of the participants, yielding similar/identical results to the aggregate survey data. Researchers concluded that the results of the survey exercise represented a logical response of the participants, and the survey instrument design did not affect them. Peer-Exchange Workshop Overview The NCHRP Project 08-106 research team hosted a peer-exchange workshop to discuss, obtain, and clarify the state of the practice in implementing effective urban freight strategies. By the time of the workshop, the research team had substantial documentation and background material collected; therefore, the peer exchange provided an additional opportunity for face-to- face feedback on the research progress. The research team developed the workshop expected outcomes, agenda, and list of partici- pants. From there, the research team generated preliminary “pre-work” for the participants in order to familiarize them with the project and prepare them for the workshop. The researchers planned the workshop so as to facilitate small group discussion on urban freight solutions. The research team established a list of expected outcomes for the peer-exchange workshop that was largely based on the deliverables produced as part of the early tasks of the project, including documenting the state of the practice. The research team expected that the workshop outcomes would reflect the professional expertise of the workshop attendees. The workshop expected outcomes were to obtain feedback on the • Most relevant factors (barriers and/or facilitators) that influence successful implementation of urban freight transportation strategies. • Default values for weighting critical facilitators and barriers to implementation of urban freight transportation strategies for eventual use in the draft UFIT. • SRM, containing key characteristics of the literature resources. • Draft strategy toolbox for implementing effective urban freight strategies.

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 13 • Quality of UFIT and the draft user’s manual in terms of ease of use, applicability, guidance, and coverage. • Recommended Phase 3 work plan. The workshop was planned to take place over 1.5 days. The research team began the workshop by providing a short overview of NCHRP Project 08-106, describing the project purpose and the different tasks involved, and introducing the research team and project panel. Workshop participants formed small, interactive teams to discuss strategies, success factors, barriers, and accelerators related to effective implementation of metropolitan freight strategies. On the second day of the workshop, workshop attendees finished up their small group discussions and participated in a larger group discussion of UFIT and the draft user’s manual. Workshop Participants Researchers selected workshop attendees from a wide range of backgrounds with profes- sional expertise in both the public and private sectors. Participants represented federal agencies, state DOTs, MPOs, cities, counties, ports, academic institutions, consulting companies, and private companies. There were 36 attendees at the workshop, including 8 team members and 28 participants (including project panel members). Ten participants were from the private sector—five were members of the project team and five participants were from industry. Workshop Outcomes The research team obtained extensive feedback from the workshop and, based on this feedback, the research team • Updated and reorganized the metropolitan freight strategy toolbox. • Updated strategy definitions. • Updated implementation factor (facilitator and barrier) definitions. • Obtained additional survey input by opening the survey for additional input. • Consolidated workshop factor weights with pre-workshop factor weights. • Performed a literature re-review to include additional characteristics of interest. • Finalized use case flowcharts for UFIT. • Updated UFIT features and options. • Developed a schedule for completion of the Phase 3 project work. One of the more substantial outcomes of the workshop feedback was revising the strategy taxonomy and strategy definitions for increased clarity. In addition, because of the workshop feedback, the “factors” terminology was changed to the more specific “facilitator” or “barrier” terminology for clarity. This new terminology recognizes that factors may be facilitators (positive) or barriers (negative). Researchers conducted a literature re-review, which resulted in finding 29 new urban freight transportation resources that were not available when the project started. Along with adding new resources, researchers added additional information for each resource, including whether the strategy was implemented or not implemented, the relevant freight transportation modes, and strategy effectiveness. Because of the workshop, researchers obtained additional survey input from practitioners by opening the survey through the end of the month. The research team obtained 15 more survey responses after the workshop. Workshop feedback on UFIT resulted in adding advanced options to the tool menu. There was a request for clarification about some available menus, including “requirements of use,” “extent of use,” etc. This was resolved by implementing an “advanced options” menu. Researchers also implemented an overriding feature so the user can discard previous weights and input

14 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies his/her own weights. Finally, researchers developed preliminary tool output screens (fact sheets) for project panel review/approval. Combining Pre- and Post-Workshop Survey Response Data and Analysis Researchers combined the pre- and post-workshop data sets of weights for the 16 final critical factors (barriers and facilitators) for each of the 30 strategies. Researchers show the final mean values of the weights for the barriers and the facilitators in Appendix B (Appendix B is available on the TRB website by searching on “NCHRP Research Report 897”). Researchers then converted the quantitative values (means) into a qualitative level of importance for use as default weights in UFIT. Researchers developed the qualitative level of importance ratings to assist the user in identifying and understanding the performance of each factor related to the respective strategy. Table 6 shows the conversion criteria of quantitative values to qualitative level of importance. Tables 7 and 8 show the qualitative mean values of combined pre- and post-workshop data sets of facilitators and barriers by qualitative level of importance. Default values were used to power UFIT for the sketch-planning assessment described in Chapter 4. Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies— Current State of Practice The research team investigated the current state of practice of implementing strategies for metropolitan freight transportation. This investigation included an electronic search of the literature, an online survey, and a peer-exchange workshop. From these sources, the research team developed an updated taxonomy of 30 urban freight strategies. Some strategies aim to solve urban area issues caused by freight activities while other strategies focus on providing new solutions for sustainable freight transportation. Five of the metropolitan freight strategies most widely discussed in the literature and referred to in the survey responses are discussed below, followed by the complete strategy taxonomy. Designated truck routes/lanes are truck-only routes and/or lanes to guide heavy vehicles and hazardous materials toward roadways that are equipped to accommodate them. This strategy focuses on solving freight-related environmental issues through congestion mitigation and efficiency improvement of freight vehicle travel in urban areas. Factors that may facilitate implementation of this urban freight strategy include the potential for improving mobility and safety and reducing maintenance requirements. Possible barriers to implementing this strategy include the need for desirable geometric conditions, effective enforcement by local authorities, and consistent traffic control by transportation agencies. Actions that can accelerate adoption of this strategy are collaborating closely with private and public stakeholders, engaging metro- politan jurisdictions, examining regulations including zoning, and considering applying traffic flow technology to enhance efficiency. Weight Less than 1 1 to less than 4 4 to less than 7 Greater than or equal to 7 Level of Importance Not important Low Medium High Table 6. Conversion criteria of quantitative values to qualitative level of importance.

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 15 Strategies Costs Energy Environmental Funding Geographical Geometric Modifications Med Not Important Med Not Important Not Important Designated Truck Routes/Lanes Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important On-street Parking and Loading Zones Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes High Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Parking Restrictions Low Low Low Not Important Not Important Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Med Med Not Important Not Important Not Important Autonomous Vehicles/ Connected Vehicles Med Med Med Low Not Important Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Freight Demand Management Med Low Low Low Low Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution Med Low Low Not Important Low Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) Med Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Urban Freight Villages High Not Important Not Important High High Urban Logistics Services Med Low Low Med Low Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations Low Low Low Not Important Low Certification Programs Med Not Important Med Not Important Not Important Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles High Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Vehicle Access Control Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Truck Side Guards Low Low Low Not Important Not Important Preferential Parking Med Med Not Important Not Important Not Important Preferential Zoning Med Med Med Low Not Important Taxation and Fees Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process Med Low Low Low Low Developing an Urban Freight Plan Med Low Low Not Important Low Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) Med Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Contractual Freight Partnerships Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Integrating Freight and Economic Policies High Not Important Not Important High High Table 7. Qualitative results for key facilitators of implementation of freight strategies. (continued on next page)

16 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Strategies Implementation Time Infrastructure Labor Operational Organizational/ Institutional Geometric Modifications Med Med Med Med Med Designated Truck Routes/Lanes Not Important High Low Med Med On-street Parking and Loading Zones Not Important High Med Med Med Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes Not Important Med Low Low Med Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements Not Important High Med Med Med Parking Restrictions Low High Med Med High Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Med High Med High High Autonomous Vehicles/ Connected Vehicles Not Important Low Med Low Low Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems Med Med Low Med Med Freight Demand Management Low Low Med Med Med Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution Not Important Med Med Med High Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) Not Important Med Med Med High Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) Not Important Low Low Med Med Urban Freight Villages Med High Med Med High Urban Logistics Services Low Low Low Med Med Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations Low Low Med Med High Certification Programs Med Med Med Med Med Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations Not Important High Low Med Med Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center Not Important High Med Med Med Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles Not Important Med Low Low Med Vehicle Access Control Not Important High Med Med Med Truck Side Guards Low High Med Med High Preferential Parking Med High Med High High Preferential Zoning Not Important Low Med Low Low Taxation and Fees Med Med Low Med Med Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process Low Low Med Med Med Developing an Urban Freight Plan Not Important Med Med Med High Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) Not Important Med Med Med High Contractual Freight Partnerships Not Important Low Low Med Med Integrating Freight and Economic Policies Med High Med Med High Table 7. (Continued).

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 17 Strategies Political Regulatory Safety Societal Technological Traffic Geometric Modifications High Med Low Med Med Low Designated Truck Routes/Lanes High Med Low Med Low Not Important On-street Parking and Loading Zones Med High Not Important Med Low Not Important Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes High Med Not Important Med Low Not Important Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements Low High Not Important Low Low Not Important Parking Restrictions High High Low High Med Med Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) High Med Low Med High Not Important Autonomous Vehicles/ Connected Vehicles Low Med Low Low Not Important Med Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems Med Med Not Important Med Med Not Important Freight Demand Management Med Med Low Med Med Low Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution High Low Not Important Med Med Not Important Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) High Med Not Important High Med Not Important Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) Med Low Not Important Low Med Low Urban Freight Villages Low High Not Important Not Important High High Urban Logistics Services Med Low Not Important Not Important Low Low Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations High Low Not Important Med Low Low Certification Programs High Med Low Med Med Low Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations High Med Low Med Low Not Important Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center Med High Not Important Med Low Not Important Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles High Med Not Important Med Low Not Important Vehicle Access Control Low High Not Important Low Low Not Important Truck Side Guards High High Low High Med Med Preferential Parking High Med Low Med High Not Important Preferential Zoning Low Med Low Low Not Important Med Taxation and Fees Med Med Not Important Med Med Not Important Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process Med Med Low Med Med Low Developing an Urban Freight Plan High Low Not Important Med Med Not Important Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) High Med Not Important High Med Not Important Contractual Freight Partnerships Med Low Not Important Low Med Low Integrating Freight and Economic Policies Low High Not Important Not Important High High Table 7. (Continued).

18 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Strategies Costs Energy Environmental Funding Geographical Geometric Modifications High Not Important Med High Not Important Designated Truck Routes/Lanes Med Not Important Med Med Not Important On-street Parking and Loading Zones Med Not Important Low Med Not Important Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes High Not Important Med High Not Important Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements Low Not Important Low Low Med Parking Restrictions Med Not Important Low Med Not Important Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) High Not Important Low High Not Important Autonomous Vehicles/ Connected Vehicles Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems Low Not Important Low Low Med Freight Demand Management Med Not Important Low Med Low Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution High Not Important Med High Low Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) High Not Important Med High Low Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) High Not Important Not Important High Not Important Urban Freight Villages Med Not Important Low High High Urban Logistics Services High Low Not Important High Low Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations Low Low Low Low Not Important Certification Programs High Not Important Not Important High Not Important Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important High Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles High Not Important Low High Not Important Vehicle Access Control Low Not Important Low Low Not Important Truck Side Guards High Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Preferential Parking Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Preferential Zoning Not Important Not Important Low Med Med Taxation and Fees Med Not Important Low Med Low Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process Low Not Important Low Low High Developing an Urban Freight Plan Med Not Important Low Med Not Important Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) Low Not Important Low Low Not Important Contractual Freight Partnerships Med Med Low Med Low Integrating Freight and Economic Policies Med Not Important Low Med Not Important Table 8. Qualitative results for barriers to implementation of freight strategies.

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 19 Strategies Implementation Time Infrastructure Labor Operational Organizational/ Institutional Geometric Modifications Low Med Not Important Not Important Med Designated Truck Routes/Lanes Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Med On-street Parking and Loading Zones Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Med Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Med Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Parking Restrictions Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important High Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Med Autonomous Vehicles/ Connected Vehicles Not Important Low Low Low Low Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Freight Demand Management Not Important Med Low Low Med Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution Not Important Low Not Important Not Important Med Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) Not Important Med Low Not Important Med Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Urban Freight Villages Not Important High High High High Urban Logistics Services Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations Not Important Low Not Important Low Med Certification Programs High Not Important Not Important Med High Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles Not Important High Low Low Med Vehicle Access Control Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Med Truck Side Guards Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Low Preferential Parking Low Low Not Important Low High Preferential Zoning Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important High Taxation and Fees Low Low Not Important Not Important Med Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process Not Important Med Not Important Low Med Developing an Urban Freight Plan Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Med Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Med Contractual Freight Partnerships Not Important Low Med Not Important Med Integrating Freight and Economic Policies Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Med Table 8. (Continued). (continued on next page)

20 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Strategies Political Regulatory Safety Societal Technological Traffic Geometric Modifications Low Med Not Important Med Low Med Designated Truck Routes/Lanes Med Med Not Important Med Med Med On-street Parking and Loading Zones Low Med Not Important Med Med High Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes Low Med Not Important Med Med High Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements Low Low Not Important Med Low Not Important Parking Restrictions Med High Not Important High Med High Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Low Low Not Important Low Low Low Autonomous Vehicles/ Connected Vehicles Low Low Low Med Med Low Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems Med Low Not Important Med Low High Freight Demand Management Low Low Not Important Med Low Low Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution Med Med Not Important Med Low Med Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) Low Low Not Important Med Low Med Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Urban Freight Villages High High Not Important Low Not Important Med Urban Logistics Services Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Low Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Med Certification Programs Med High Not Important Not Important Med Med Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles Low Low Not Important Low Low Low Vehicle Access Control Med Med Not Important Med Low Med Truck Side Guards Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Not Important Preferential Parking Low Med Not Important High Med Low Preferential Zoning Low Med Not Important Med Not Important Low Taxation and Fees Low Low Not Important Low Low Low Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process Low Low Not Important Med Low Low Developing an Urban Freight Plan Low Low Not Important Low Low Med Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) Low Not Important Not Important Not Important Low Low Contractual Freight Partnerships Low Low Low Low Low Not Important Integrating Freight and Economic Policies Low Low Not Important Low Low Low Table 8. (Continued).

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 21 According to survey respondents, there are three levels of designated truck route implementation: 1. Building a new road specifically for trucks. 2. Using an existing road where access can be limited to just trucks. 3. Using a road currently for general-purpose traffic that trucks are encouraged to use. Responses from the survey varied on the use of this strategy. Some public-sector entities have implemented this strategy and have even experienced success with their truck routes. Other public entities have been cautious about adopting this strategy because of the push for bicycle/ pedestrian-oriented infrastructure instead of new motor-vehicle projects. Feedback and literature suggest the importance of stakeholder engagement for success in implementing truck routes. Respondents also emphasized how important data collection is for this strategy, including the collection of data to determine the routes where the trucks are concentrated. It appears that the success of this strategy varies widely based on individual metropolitan area characteristics. The survey demonstrates that this strategy is not a “fix-all” for every situation but could lead to benefits if the metropolitan area’s routing needs align with the strategy. Multimodal/intermodal urban distribution examines the use of varied modes of trans- portation (and associated transloads) for urban freight distribution. This strategy involves evaluating a wide range of freight-related issues and modes (e.g., rail to/from truck, truck to drones, or truck to walking for multiple deliveries). Factors that may facilitate implementation of this urban freight strategy include the potential for improving circulation for freight vehicles, mitigating traffic congestion, and reducing maintenance requirements. Possible barriers to implementing this strategy include increases in conflicts with other road users, increases in vulnerable road user fatalities, and the need for desirable geometric conditions. Actions that can accelerate adoption of this strategy are collaborating closely with private and public stakeholders, quantifying benefits (e.g., operational efficiency and safety, traffic flow, and environmental attainment), engaging metropolitan jurisdictions, examining regulations including zoning, and considering applying traffic flow technology to enhance efficiency. Survey responses on multimodal/intermodal urban distribution were mixed. Areas that had access to water or rail infrastructure were enthusiastic about promoting this strategy. On the other hand, areas that did not have access to the necessary multimodal infrastructure stated that such a freight project would be too costly and difficult. Many respondents expressed a lack of oppor- tunity to implement multimodal/intermodal strategies in their areas. Public-sector respondents indicated a need for federal funding if infrastructure strategies like this were to be adopted. Urban consolidation centers (UCCs) are logistics facilities where consolidation activi- ties are carried out in an area that may include complementary logistics and retail services to reduce freight traffic. This strategy addresses a variety of freight-related issues including institutional problems, technical problems, land use problems, environmental problems, stakeholder-involved challenges, and logistics operational issues in urban areas. Factors that may facilitate implementation of this urban freight strategy include the potential for improv- ing supply chain performance, reducing the negative impacts of freight transport activity, and relieving the challenges of last-mile distribution activities. Possible barriers to implementing this strategy include competitive pressures, overall costs, and limited facilities. Actions that can accelerate adoption of this strategy are identifying geographic constraints and operational requirements, confirming feasibility with active public- and private-sector participation, under- standing what benefits offset development cost, developing financing partnerships, examining both incentives and restrictions as motivators, and adopting a supportive regulatory structure. The survey outcomes gave the research team deeper insight into the use of UCCs. Public entities consistently stated that use of UCCs is a private-sector issue/opportunity, and the private

22 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies sector shared that public support would help accelerate implementation. Like most strategies, collaboration between the public and private sectors is necessary for successful application. Many respondents expressed their concern about the lack of affordable (inner-city) space for UCCs. Noise-level issues were also a major concern expressed in responses to the survey. Regional areas expressed that there was not enough demand for a UCC because of the vast area their regions cover. Most of the respondents agreed that this strategy would be most successful in a high- density urban area. Alternate pickup/delivery locations are alternate, usually centralized, locations for pickup and delivery of freight. Such a strategy may target home deliveries by offering lockers that can be accessed at a central location (other than the post office), such as a nearby grocery store. Factors that may facilitate implementation of this urban freight strategy include the potential for improv- ing logistics efficiency and environmental sustainability, as well as mitigating traffic congestion. Possible barriers to implementing this strategy include probable increases in distribution times and labor costs, as well as a requirement for high-level coordination among stakeholders. Actions that can accelerate adoption of this strategy are quantifying savings from parking, dock utilization, and transit reliability; identifying public benefits from emission reductions, land use, and traffic flow; understanding factors that motivate system users; modifying infrastructure, regulations, and zoning to facilitate change; and adopting new technology and operations methodology. For the alternate pickup/delivery locations strategy, public entities agreed that this was a private-sector/logistical issue. Private companies had mixed reviews of alternate delivery/pickup locations. Some suggested that there is not enough need or industry support to sustain a delivery system like this. Other respondents, however, were hopeful and shared how they could look into applying a program like this in their area. Urban distribution using multiple types of vehicles examines the use of several types of vehicles (e.g., large trucks, small trucks, alternate-fuel vehicles, and bicycles) within the same transportation mode. The strategy of Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles provides potential mitigation of environmental, land use, and technical constraints. Factors that may facilitate implementation of this urban freight strategy include the potential for improving environmental sustainability, being economically competitive for freight operators, and increas- ing energy efficiency for freight operators. Possible barriers to implementation include a lack of advanced technology, a lack of available or reliable infrastructure, and a lack of a mature freight market. Actions that can accelerate the adoption of this strategy are promoting alternate vehicle types through an integrated strategy with private operators, ensuring that freight conditions and needs are accurately defined, obtaining local authorities’ support and identifying financial incen- tives, and promoting the economic efficiencies and environmental effectiveness of proposals. Survey responses to this strategy from both public and private stakeholders were encouraging. Using multiple vehicle types is a strategy that has been implemented through logistics companies with freight tricycles, electric vehicles, and alternative vehicles. According to the survey, the factor that would help accelerate implementation the most is collaboration between the public and private sectors. Political backing is also critical to implementing these types of urban freight strategies so all parties involved can accomplish mutual goals and achieve their stated intent in a cost-effective way. Stakeholders also identified barriers to this strategy, including the difficult task of establishing an industry-wide standard since many logistics companies have begun testing/ pilot studies with this urban freight strategy. Table 9 shows the complete list of the 30 strategies finalized by the research team from the extensive feedback on the strategies, definitions, and examples. The full SRM, discussed further in Chapter 3, includes a full inventory of the literature related to each strategy, including key characteristics of each strategy.

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 23 Strategy Group Definition Strategy No. Strategy Name Definition General Examples Infrastructure Strategies focused on the management of essential infrastructure components. 1 Geometric Modifications Any changes in roadway infrastructure design that facilitate freight movement. Enhancing the geometric design and physical characteristics of current roadways, railways, intermodal connectors, and intermodal terminals; new roadways, railways, etc., on new alignments. Traffic management Strategies focused on improving traffic conditions. 2 Designated Truck Routes/Lanes Routes and/or lanes designated for use by trucks to guide heavy vehicles and hazardous materials toward roadways better equipped to accommodate them in order to minimize conflicts with passenger vehicles and other roadway users. Encouraging freight vehicle drivers to use particular roads or lanes depending on circumstances, vehicle, and/or cargo (e.g., hazardous material routes, truck-only lanes); large vehicles diverted from narrow streets in a city. 3 On-street Parking and Loading Zones Designing and allocating curb space to accommodate truck loading and unloading. Streets with curbside parking exclusively for loading and unloading. 4 Multiuse Lanes or Shared Lanes Use of currently restricted road capacity for truck delivery use. Allowing delivery vehicles to use bus-only lanes to access loading zones during off-peak hours. 5 Off-street Parking and Loading Requirements Designing and allocating parking areas in places other than on the streets. Establishing off-street loading zones/bays (e.g., alleys, business loading docks). 6 Parking Restrictions Parking prohibitions for loading and unloading on certain roads/sections of road during periods of high traffic demand. Streets with prohibitions for curbside parking or stopping during peak hours (e.g., peak- hour clearways). Technological Strategies based on (or relying on) advanced technologies or information technologies. 7 Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Operational system of various technologies that provides innovative services/improvements related to transportation and traffic management. Truck platooning, signal priorities, automated tolling, etc. 8 Autonomous Vehicles/ Connected Vehicles Use of vehicles capable of sensing their environment, communicating with other vehicles or infrastructure, and/or navigating without human input. Self-driving cars, self-driving drones. 9 Vehicle Parking Reservation Systems Information technology systems that enable drivers to reserve on-street and off- street parking spaces in advance. Reserving loading/unloading parking space at a specific time and day using wireless communication technology; reserving truck parking at rest areas. Logistical Strategies impacting logistics and supply chain operations. 10 Freight Demand Management Strategies that seek to influence the demand generator (i.e., receivers) to achieve urban freight systems that increase economic productivity and efficiency. Off-hour delivery programs; staggered pickup/delivery, receiver-led consolidation, relocating large truck traffic generators. 11 Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution Use of varied modes of transportation (and associated transloads) for urban freight distribution. Rail to/from truck, truck to drones or truck to walking for multiple deliveries. Table 9. Taxonomy of 30 metropolitan freight strategies. (continued on next page)

24 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies 12 Intermodal Logistics Center (ILC) Center that enables the transfer of freight from one mode to another with other value-added logistics activities and is typically located near a seaport or airport. Air cargo centers. 13 Urban Consolidation Center (UCC) Facilities that seek to reduce freight traffic in a target area by consolidating cargo at a terminal or consolidation depot. Reverse logistics consolidation centers such as recycling depots. 14 Urban Freight Villages Defined area within which all activities relating to transport, logistics, and distribution of goods are carried out by various operators. Relocation of different freight users, such as distribution centers, manufacturers, truck terminals, and intermodal facilities, to a specific area at the urban fringe. Logistical Strategies impacting logistics and supply chain operations. 15 Urban Logistics Services Strategies aimed at improving supporting services for the movement of materials and products in urban areas. Cross docking, consolidation of delivery trips. 16 Alternate Pickup/Delivery Locations Last-mile pickup and delivery strategy offering alternate, usually centralized, locations for delivery and pickup. Centralizing home deliveries by offering residents lockers that can be accessed at a central location other than the post office, such as a nearby grocery store; Amazon or DHL delivery lockers. 17 Certification Programs Defined set of training courses that prove that the attendees have achieved a measured level of knowledge within a designated timeline. Smart driving certification programs, logistics certification programs. 18 Low-Noise Delivery Programs/Regulations Adoption of low-noise technologies and practices. Use of electric vehicles, encouraging carriers to deliver at specific times to reduce noise pollution. 19 Freight Rail Routing through Urban Center Considers a train making stops along a route for loading and unloading. Frequent stops made at intermediate stations enable larger market area coverage by rail in a combined transport system. Similar to a passenger train, freight rail routing makes stops along the route for loading and unloading; freight on passenger rail operating similarly. Vehicle-based Strategies based on the use of specific types of vehicles or vehicle modifications. 20 Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles Use of several types of vehicles within the same transportation mode. Use of large trucks, small trucks, bicycles, alternate-fueled vehicles, etc. 21 Vehicle Access Control Allowing commercial vehicles access to certain areas that are usually restricted because of vehicle characteristics and other vehicle conditions. Vehicle access to some areas based on a combination of the size and the age of delivery vehicles, such as allowing access to polluted areas only to newer or ecologically certified vehicles. 22 Truck Side Guards Vehicle-based safety devices that cover the space between the front and rear wheels and thus keep pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists from being struck by a large truck’s rear wheels in a side- impact collision. Volpe’s (The National Transportation Business Systems Center) side guards national network. Strategy Group Definition Strategy No. Strategy Name Definition General Examples Table 9. (Continued).

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 25 23 Preferential Parking Preferential access to on- street parking for freight vehicles that meet required conditions. Providing preferential parking permits to freight vehicles that meet the strictest environmental standards, preferential parking for commercial vehicles carrying specific goods (e.g., medicines). Incentives Strategies aimed at achieving better practices by incentivizing one or more participants in the supply chain, using both monetary and non-monetary incentives. 24 Preferential Zoning Zoning regulations that encourage development that meets established freight planning goals. Zoning that offers incentives, such as increased floor area ratio, for including freight amenities in proposed developments; zoning overlays to preserve waterfront land for maritime-dependent industrial uses. 25 Taxation and Fees Managing taxes and fees to foster freight company behavior changes that will lead to public benefits. Lowering toll fees to incentivize the use of specific routes or roadways for freight movement in a given area and/or for a specific time of day, lowering taxes for the use of commercial vehicles using alternate fuels, lowering parking fees for parking at specific times of the day. 26 Integrating Freight into the Land Use Planning Process Incorporating freight considerations into the land use planning process to identify and mitigate conflicting land uses with freight activities. Designating industrial and mixed-use areas to concentrate freight activity so freight transportation needs may be more effectively served and industrial sprawl can be reduced, relocating large traffic generators through planning. 27 Developing an Urban Freight Plan Developing an urban freight plan to provide a level of freight planning within the urban area. City freight plans, mega-region plans. 28 Freight Advisory Committee (FAC) Forming a broad stakeholder advisory group to address multimodal freight planning and operations. Government and business committees that exchange ideas and recommend policies and actions to improve freight transportation. Planning Strategies to improve the freight planning process. 29 Contractual Freight Partnerships Strategy that fosters formal working relationships between private-sector and public-sector groups with the specific intent of implementing practices that reduce the negative impacts of freight activity. Any formal combination of public and private stakeholder groups bound by a contract. 30 Integrating Freight and Economic Policies Model of freight policy and practice where public- and private-sector leaders work cooperatively to create a more favorable trade environment for the economy. Developing a freight economic impact assessment to understand the link between freight activity and the economy, typically incorporating current (baseline) and future conditions. Strategy Group Definition Strategy No. Strategy Name Definition General Examples Table 9. (Continued).

26 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Facilitators of and Barriers to Successful Implementation In the literature, commonly cited facilitators of and barriers to effective and/or innovative imple- mentation of strategies for metropolitan freight transportation are regulatory, organizational/ institutional, and societal. Collaboration with the public and private sectors, public participation, and stakeholder involvement from private industries are highly encouraged. The coordination of efforts by local and regional governments is critical to the implementation of strategies. Agent- specific knowledge of the policy components is a priority for decision makers in understanding the regulatory framework. Other commonly cited facilitators and barriers related to effective and/or innovative implementation of strategies for metropolitan freight transportation are operational, infrastructure, and technical. The growing demand for infrastructure requires better use of existing infrastructure and higher quality infrastructure. The survey outcomes regarding critical facilitators and barriers reflect the literature review and research team experience. The survey respondents expressed the need for direct stakeholder involvement of the public and private sectors. Other critical facilitators mentioned most frequently were political support and/or a project champion, institutional commitment to implementation of the strategy, stakeholder education, and public outreach and education. In their responses to the survey, public-sector stakeholders expressed the need for political support and/or a project champion as the second critical facilitator, while the private-sector stakeholders expressed the need for institutional commitment to implementation of the strategy as the second critical facilitator for strategy implementation. Critical barriers to urban freight strategy implementation were also discussed in the survey. Cost/lack of funding was the most critical barrier to successful strategy implementation for both public-sector and private-sector stakeholders. Other critical barriers mentioned most frequently in the survey results were the lack of policy maker support, lack of interagency coordination, and constraints on staffing/organizational capacity. Right-of-way constraints cause major issues for private-sector stakeholders when they try to implement urban freight strategies. Chapter 4 discusses UFIT for practitioner use in sketch planning to assess urban freight transportation strategies for possible implementation based upon user inputs. UFIT compares urban freight transportation strategies to aid the practitioner in identifying the most promising strategies based on criteria, weights, and ranked relevance as defined by the user along with expert input. Table 10 includes the revised factor list, revised factor definition, and related factor character- istics that were used in UFIT to identify promising urban strategies. Table 10 is the result of the literature review, survey administration, and peer-exchange workshop. The tool user may not see all of the factor detail in Table 10 because the table is formatted for ease of viewing/understanding. In the tool, this information is shown in simplified lists and cursor hover-overs. The repetition of text throughout the Table 10 definition column is meant to focus the reader on implementation of the strategy related to the given factor, as opposed to being focused on impacts after the strategy is in place (this premise is repeated in the “General Examples” column heading). The factors are outputs from the tool that are presented in the strategy fact sheets under the heading of “Opportunities & Constraints” (also discussed in Chapter 5) to aid the practitioner in strategy implementation. The fact sheets provide guidance on how to overcome the identified barriers to implementation and enhance any identified facilitators of implementation. As mentioned previously, the “facilitators” and “barriers” terminology reflected in Table 10 recognizes that while all are indeed “factors,” they may be facilitators (positive) or barriers (negative). This is also captured in Footnotes 2 and 3 in Table 10.

State of the Practice in Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies—Approach and Findings 27 Factor Group1 Factor2 (Facilitator or Barrier) Definition3 General Examples4 of specific strategy implementation factors (NOT impacts of the strategy after implementation) Guiding Question4 Ask this to help identify the factor’s relevance and impact in the context of the specific situation/problem and selected strategy Infrastructure & Freight Operations Infrastructure Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the management of fundamental facilities and systems. Existing material infrastructure availability (right of way, roads, fuel stations); existing non- material infrastructure availability (communications, signals) Does existing infrastructure and non- material infrastructure availability affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Traffic Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the conditions in which vehicles move. Existing traffic levels that impact when and/or how the strategy is implemented, traffic flow impacts during implementation of the strategy Do traffic conditions affect implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Operational Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the functioning or operation of freight. Operating hours, freight vehicle capacity, loading/unloading procedures, efficiency/productivity requirements Do existing freight operations affect implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Technological Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the application of scientific knowledge or to sophisticated machinery or equipment. Communication standards (e.g., frequency), data needs, data sources Do existing factors related to technology affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Administrative Political Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to jurisdictional control, government power, and/or leadership interests. Public or private interests, negotiations, stakeholders’ perceptions, resistance to change, elected official project champion(s) Does the existing political climate affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Regulatory Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to controlling or directing by rules, principles, or methods. Existing regulations, laws, or policies at the international, federal, state, or local levels Do existing regulations, laws, and policies affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Labor Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to employment requirements and availability. Availability of personnel, availability of skilled workers Do the existing labor pool and labor requirements affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Organizational/ Institutional Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to stakeholders’ interactions, support, or arrangements. Partnerships, coordination, outreach, project champion(s) within organization(s) Do existing organizational/institutional arrangements affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Table 10. Revised factor list and key factor characteristics. (continued on next page)

28 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Factor Group1 Factor2 (Facilitator or Barrier) Definition3 General Examples4 of specific strategy implementation factors (NOT impacts of the strategy after implementation) Guiding Question4 Ask this to help identify the factor’s relevance and impact in the context of the specific situation/problem and selected strategy Societal Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the impact on the community. Access to nearby communities/neighborhoods during implementation, real estate price changes during implementation of the strategy Do community impacts during strategy implementation affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Environment & Energy Environmental Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the impact of human activity on the condition of the natural world. Existing greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise; greenhouse gas emission, air pollution, and noise changes during strategy implementation Do factors related to the ecological environment affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Energy Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the use and management of fuel, electrical, or alternate power. Energy needs, current fuel consumption, fuel consumption changes during strategy implementation Do factors related to energy affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Safety Safety Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to conditions that are harmful to people or property. Existing collisions or injuries, injury or disease rate changes during implementation Do factors related to human safety affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Financial Costs Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the expenses incurred in the strategy implementation. Direct costs for strategy implementation activities (e.g., construction costs, fuel costs) Do costs of strategy implementation affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Funding Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the availability of monetary resources. Loans, grants, other available funds Does existing funding affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? 1The “Factor Group” was developed only to provide organization for the strategy implementation factors around these six areas for ease in communication. 2 The organization of strategy implementation factors recognizes that these are all factors related to implementation, and they can be either positive (a facilitator) or negative (a barrier) for any given strategy. 3The definitions of strategy implementation factors clarify any item that might impact implementation. The repetitious text in each definition is intentional to focus the reader on the fact that the emphasis is on the implementation of the strategy related to the given factor, and not on the impacts after the strategy is in place (this premise is repeated in the “General Examples” column heading). 4These general examples (Column 4) and questions (Column 5) guide the user in understanding whether the factor affects strategy implementation positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier). Again, the general examples and questions relate to the strategy implementation phase only—not to impacts of the strategy after it is in place—because the focus of the work is implementing the strategies. Scope & Surroundings Implementation Time Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the time taken to implement the strategy. Project implementation timeline, project implementation reliability Does the required implementation time affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Geographical Any factor that will affect the implementation of an urban freight strategy and is related to the characteristics of the location. Urban density, land use, historical context Do factors related to the geographic location affect the implementation of the strategy positively (facilitator) or negatively (barrier)? Table 10. (Continued).

Next: Chapter 3 - Strategy Resource Matrix and Urban Freight Implementation Tool Development »
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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 897: Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies provides transportation practitioners and decision makers with guidance for implementing effective metropolitan freight transportation strategies. The report outlines thirty strategies that are tailored to the specific circumstances that are found in local areas. It also identifies and describes sixteen factors that impact implementation.

The report includes three appendices, a Powerpoint presentation, and an Excel tool.

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