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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Pilot Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Pilot Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Pilot Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Pilot Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Pilot Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Pilot Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Pilot Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Pilot Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Pilot Studies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25341.
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88 Introduction An important part of NCHRP Project 08-106 was the development of pilot studies representing promising opportunities to implement effective urban freight transportation strategies. The goal was to develop three pilot studies that were geographically diverse (western, central, and eastern United States) as well as strategy diverse. The objectives of the pilot studies were to • Test UFIT in real situations so as to confirm that UFIT outputs would be plausible freight strategies to address real and current urban freight problems. • Identify top facilitators of and barriers to implementation based on UFIT-suggested strategies. The research team identified three possible pilot studies, which are described in this chapter. They are located in the general areas of Dallas, Texas; St. Louis, Missouri; and Tampa, Florida. The pilot study chapter is structured as follows for each pilot study: • Pilot study description • Application of UFIT • Implementation guidance • Conclusions Pilot Study of Dallas, Texas The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) aims to use truck incentives to mitigate truck congestion in the Texas Triangle (the geographic area generally bounded by Dallas– Ft. Worth to the north, Houston to the southeast, and San Antonio to the west). One of the freight congestion mitigation strategies proposed is off-peak-hour delivery to the Southwestern/ Parkland-Dallas hospital area. The aim is to create a 24/7 freight operation that is anticipated to maximize the efficiency of deliveries to the hospital area. Pilot Study Description To achieve this goal, TxDOT plans to work with the hospitals to identify their supply chains, investigate the opportunity to move the freight deliveries to off-peak hours, and incorporate small truck deliveries to reduce congestion in the surrounding area. The idea is that moving deliveries to off-peak hours will ease truck congestion on the roadways maintained by TxDOT near the hospital area. C H A P T E R 5 Pilot Studies

Pilot Studies 89 Application of UFIT The research team investigated which strategies might address this freight congestion problem by entering the problem into UFIT. In addition, because of the interest in the specific off-peak- hour delivery strategy, the research team input the freight demand management strategy, of which off-peak-hour delivery is an example, directly into UFIT. The result was the retrieval of specific implementation suggestions and information regarding implementation of off-peak- hour delivery. The challenges identified in the Dallas pilot study fall within the UFIT problem group related to logistics operational issues. When the research team input logistics operational issues into UFIT, UFIT identified and ranked 10 strategies by importance of factors to implementation as the following: 1. Urban Freight Villages (a defined area within which all activities relating to transport, logistics, and the distribution of goods are carried out by various operators). 2. Certification Programs (a defined set of training courses that prove that the attendees have achieved a measured level of knowledge within a designated timeline). 3. Parking Restrictions (parking prohibitions for loading and unloading on certain roads/ sections of road during periods of high traffic demand). 4. Geometric Modifications (any changes in roadway infrastructure design that facilitate freight movement). 5. Intermodal Logistics Center (enables the transfer of freight from one mode to another with other value-added logistics activities and is typically located near a seaport or airport). 6. Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution [use of varied modes of transportation (and associated transloads) for urban freight distribution]. 7. Intelligent Transportation System (operational system of various technologies that provides innovative services/improvements related to transportation and traffic management). 8. Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles (use of several types of vehicles within the same transportation mode). 9. Contractual Freight Partnerships (foster formal working relationships between private-sector and public-sector groups with the specific intent of implementing practices that reduce the negative impacts of freight activity). 10. Freight Demand Management [seeks to influence the demand generator (i.e., receivers) to achieve urban freight systems that increase economic productivity and efficiency]. The research team determined that the strategies suggested by UFIT appeared to focus on the following five areas: 1. Infrastructure, which targets the management of essential infrastructure components. 2. Traffic management, which focuses on improving traffic conditions. 3. Technology, which relies on advanced technologies or information technologies. 4. Logistics, which impact logistics and supply chain operations. 5. Planning, which aims to improve the freight planning process. Table 11 documents the facilitators and barriers associated with the corresponding strategies output from UFIT for the Dallas pilot study. Implementation Guidance The fact sheet for the freight demand management strategy indicates that increasing economic productivity, improving logistics efficiency, and enhancing environmental sustainability can facilitate the implementation of the strategy. Moderate implementation time and higher implementation costs are strategy barriers.

90 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies Strategy Facilitators Barriers Urban Freight Villages • Relocate distribution facilities from sensitive districts • Reduce environmental impacts • Positive effects on urban logistics • Require highly developed infrastructure • Require multiple modes of transportation • Require high-level public-private partnerships Certification Programs • Improve environmental sustainability • Enhance livability • Flexible and adaptable incentives • Require consensus between public and private sectors • Require interagency collaboration • Require stakeholder engagement Parking Restrictions • Regulate illegal freight parking • Mitigate traffic congestion • Protect the right of way of other road users • Limited parking availability • Limited time windows • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Geometric Modifications • Improve performance through freight operations • Improve mobility through freight operations • Improve safety through freight operations • Require context-sensitive solutions • Require emerging techniques • Require considerations for other vulnerable road users Intermodal Logistics Center • Provide reliable and flexible logistics services • Reduce environmental impacts • Positive impacts on transportation corridor industrial property value • Competitive pressures • Overall costs • Limited facilities Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Improve environmental sustainability • Economically competitive for freight operators • Reduce traffic disturbance in urban areas • Require multiple modes of transportation • Limitations of freight operations • Require high-level coordination among stakeholders Intelligent Transportation Systems • Provide innovative services related to freight transportation • Facilitate freight demand management • Inform freight vehicle operators to make smarter choices • Require emerging techniques • Require highly developed infrastructure • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles • Improve environmental sustainability • Economically competitive for freight operators • Energy efficient for freight operators • Lack of advanced technology • Lack of available or reliable infrastructure • Lack of mature market Contractual Freight Partnerships • Interactive engagement from stakeholders • Effective coordination between agencies • Break long-standing barriers between public and private sectors • Limited influence of public authority • Political risk of private partners • Require high-level coordination among stakeholders Freight Demand Management • Increase economic productivity • Improve logistics efficiency • Enhance environmental sustainability • Require a moderate time frame to implement • Expect higher costs to provide incentives • Require stakeholder collaboration and engagement Table 11. Facilitators and barriers for the pilot study in Dallas, Texas. The practitioner can review the citation notes for further details on references providing information on off-peak-hour deliveries. Conclusions The primary finding of this pilot study is that given the problem of logistics operational issues, UFIT identified the freight demand management strategy, which includes off-peak-hour delivery programs as a possible solution (among others). Because hospitals operate 24/7 and their schedules would not have to be augmented heavily to meet off-peak-hour delivery demands, they are well-suited for a pilot study of off-peak-hour deliveries. Implementing this freight congestion mitigation strategy could reduce the amount of trucks in congested local areas without affecting hospital hours of operation. If the hospitals in the Southwestern/Parkland-Dallas area also served as centralized receiving facilities, that would allow for an interesting opportunity to study the effects of delivery consolidation in off-peak-hour periods because the focus area is located near a major interstate thoroughfare and a large regional airport.

Pilot Studies 91 By coupling the implementation of off-peak-period deliveries with truck count measurement on nearby arterial and regional highways, possible positive correlations could be found between the strategy and traffic in the area. Pilot Study of St. Louis, Missouri Initiated by the East-West Gateway Council of Governments and funded by the Missouri Department of Transportation and the Illinois Department of Transportation, AECOM Tech- nical Services, Inc., completed the St. Louis Regional Freight Study in 2013 along with its project partners, Civil Design, IHS Global Insight, and Vector Communications. Twenty-three specific areas in the St. Louis region where transportation modes align with industrial land use were targeted in the study analysis. The 2013 St. Louis Regional Freight Study states that “the intent of the study is to clarify the current status of freight movement through the region and predict the future ability of freight infrastructure within the region to accommodate the growth in freight industry jobs and economic development opportunities for the region.” The study identified the following focus areas for improving the efficiency of freight movement in the region: 1. Through truck traffic 2. Local intermodal growth 3. Bridge project investment 4. Transloading facility framework 5. Rail and truck connections 6. Through traffic value Pilot Study Description The 2013 St. Louis Regional Freight Study identified the following challenges associated with the six focus areas provided above: 1. Urbanization leads to encroachment of non-compatible land uses, particularly the impact of truck traffic and use of otherwise highly desirable riverfronts. 2. Growing freight volumes and congestion create conflicts. 3. While “freight doesn’t vote,” it impacts lives and creates unique challenges. 4. Transportation planning does not fully account for freight impacts and vice versa. 5. Economic development and transportation planning are disconnected. 6. The connection between freight movement, land use, and climate change is increasingly important, with growing awareness of air quality impacts on adjacent/at-risk populations. For the pilot study, the research team used UFIT to address these challenges, obtaining and assessing proposed metropolitan freight strategies and recommendations on regional implementation. Application of UFIT The research team determined that the six challenges listed in the “Pilot Study Description” section above aligned with the following urban freight problem categories in UFIT: land use problems, logistics operational issues, social problems, institutional problems, economic problems, and environmental problems.

92 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies The research team used UFIT to search on these six urban freight problem categories and show relevant strategies. UFIT identified and ranked nine strategies by importance of factors to implementation as the following: 1. Urban Freight Villages (a defined area within which all activities relating to transport, logistics, and the distribution of goods are carried out by various operators). 2. Certification Programs (a defined set of training courses that prove that the attendees have achieved a measured level of knowledge within a designated timeline). 3. Parking Restrictions (parking prohibitions for loading and unloading on certain roads/ sections of road during periods of high traffic demand). 4. Geometric Modifications (any changes in roadway infrastructure design that facilitate freight movement). 5. Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution [use of varied modes of transportation (and associated transloads) for urban freight distribution]. 6. Intelligent Transportation System (operational system of various technologies that provides innovative services/improvements related to transportation and traffic management). 7. Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles (use of several types of vehicles within the same transportation mode). 8. Contractual Freight Partnerships (foster formal working relationships between private-sector and public-sector groups with the specific intent of implementing practices that reduce the negative impacts of freight activity). 9. Freight Demand Management [seeks to influence the demand generator (i.e., receivers) to achieve urban freight systems that increase economic productivity and efficiency]. The research team concluded that the recommended strategies from UFIT mainly focused on the following five areas: 1. Infrastructure, which targets the management of essential infrastructure components. 2. Traffic management, which focuses on improving traffic conditions. 3. Technology, which relies on advanced technologies or information technologies. 4. Logistics, which impacts logistics and supply chain operations. 5. Planning, which aims to improve the freight planning process. Table 12 documents the facilitators and barriers associated with the corresponding strategies indicated by UFIT for the St. Louis region. Implementation Guidance The 2013 St. Louis Regional Freight Study recommendations for meeting the challenges identified in the study are as follows: 1. The region needs to implement a regional freight transportation district that can work effectively on both sides of the river. The clear goal is an organization that can see the big picture, track the details, and sustain implementation over time for freight transportation infrastructure and repurposing industrial land use. 2. Given the region’s success with the plant and life sciences, similar pursuit of a sector champion strategy for freight and logistics is needed. 3. Given the volume of freight that moves through the region both now and into the future, being able to align economic development with supply chains will be essential. 4. The existing advantage that the region currently enjoys for bulk transportation movement should be enhanced by increasing freight velocity and railroad network access. This guidance from the study generally follows the identified strategies from UFIT. The next step in practice would be to review the implementation notes and recommendations for the

Pilot Studies 93 identified UFIT strategies. The practitioner should give particular credence to the top facilitators and barriers identified in Table 12 for a given strategy. The citation notes provide further details about the strategies of possible interest output by UFIT. Conclusions The results provided by the UFIT sketch-planning tool generally concurred with the rec- ommendations provided by the 2013 St. Louis Regional Freight Study. UFIT also offered some additional alternatives for consideration. The fact sheets, SRM, and citation notes provide further details for the interested practitioner to review during the sketch-planning portion of the strategy selection process. Pilot Study of Tampa, Florida Pilot Study Description SR 580/584 in Hillsborough and Pinellas Counties in Florida (Tampa Bay Region) between Curlew Road and Dale Mabry Highway traverses a diverse urbanized area and is used by tourists, transit, commuters, local traffic, bicyclists, and pedestrians as well as for national, Strategy Facilitators Barriers Urban Freight Villages • Relocate distribution facilities from sensitive districts • Reduce environmental impacts • Positive effects on urban logistics • Require highly developed infrastructure • Require multiple modes of transportation • Require high-level public-private partnerships Certification Programs • Improve environmental sustainability • Enhance livability • Flexible and adaptable incentives • Require consensus between public and private sectors • Require interagency collaboration • Require stakeholder engagement Parking Restrictions • Regulate illegal freight parking • Mitigate traffic congestion • Protect the right of way of other road users • Limited parking availability • Limited time windows • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Geometric Modifications • Improve performance through freight operations • Improve mobility through freight operations • Improve safety through freight operations • Require context-sensitive solutions • Require emerging techniques • Require considerations for other vulnerable road users Multimodal/Intermodal Urban Distribution • Improve environmental sustainability • Economically competitive for freight operators • Reduce traffic disturbance in urban areas • Require multiple modes of transportation • Limitations of freight operations • Require high-level coordination among stakeholders Intelligent Transportation Systems • Provide innovative services related to freight transportation • Facilitate freight demand management • Inform freight vehicle operators to make smarter choices • Require emerging techniques • Require highly developed infrastructure • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles • Improve environmental sustainability • Economically competitive for freight operators • Energy efficient for freight operators • Lack of advanced technology • Lack of available or reliable infrastructure • Lack of mature market Contractual Freight Partnerships • Interactive engagement from stakeholders • Effective coordination between agencies • Break long-standing barriers between public and private sectors • Limited influence of public authority • Political risk of private partners • Require high-level coordination among stakeholders Freight Demand Management • Increase economic productivity • Improve logistics efficiency • Enhance environmental sustainability • Require a moderate time frame to implement • Expect higher costs to provide initiatives • Require stakeholder collaboration and engagement Table 12. Facilitators and barriers for the pilot study in St. Louis, Missouri.

94 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies regional, and local goods movement. The facility also serves (to the south) as the primary access road for Tampa International Airport’s Air Cargo Facilities, which houses UPS, FedEx, and Amazon as well as a CSX Rail–based auto-processing yard (to the north). The surrounding land use is residential, office, and industrial, including defense- and technology-related businesses that generate relatively high economic value freight activity. Table 13 identifies the services provided by SR 580/584. The variety in travel demand in this area has significant impacts on all modes of travel, creating challenges for residents, commercial vehicle operators, industrial developers, manufacturers, beneficial cargo owners, local distributors, air cargo operators, commuters, transportation plan- ners, and engineers. District Seven of the Florida Department of Transportation is interested in identifying principles and strategies that integrate freight mobility needs into the region while improving safety and reliability for all roadway users and considering the needs of adjacent property owners. The research team used some previously identified issues with SR 580/584, as well as inter- sections and segments on SR 580/584 that provide challenges for commercial vehicle operators as input for UFIT. Application of UFIT The research team determined that the previously identified issues with SR 580/584 and the challenges to commercial vehicle operators presented by some intersections and segments on SR 580/584 aligned with the following urban freight problem categories in UFIT: land use problems, stakeholder-involved challenges, and infrastructure problems. When the research team searched in UFIT on the urban freight problem categories listed above, UFIT identified and ranked eight strategies by importance of factors to implementation: 1. Urban Freight Villages (a defined area within which all activities relating to transport, logistics, and the distribution of goods are carried out by various operators). 2. Parking Restrictions (parking prohibitions for loading and unloading on certain roads/ sections of road during periods of high traffic demand). 3. Geometric Modifications (any changes in roadway infrastructure design that facilitate freight movement). 4. Intermodal Logistics Center (a center that enables the transfer of freight from one mode to another with other value-added logistics activities and is typically located near a seaport or airport). 5. Intelligent Transportation System (operational system of various technologies that provides innovative services/improvements related to transportation and traffic management). 6. Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles (use of several types of vehicles within the same transportation mode). 7. Contractual Freight Partnerships (foster formal working relationships between private-sector and public-sector groups with the specific intent of implementing practices that reduce the negative impacts of freight activity). 8. Freight Demand Management [seeks to influence the demand generator (i.e., receivers) to achieve urban freight systems that increase economic productivity and efficiency]. Description Services Warehouse and Distribution To the south: primary access road for Tampa International Airport cargo facilities. To the north: UPS, FedEx, and Amazon as well as a CSX Rail–based auto-processing yard. Existing Land Uses Residential, office, and industrial (includes defense and technology businesses). Table 13. Services provided by SR 580/584.

Pilot Studies 95 Table 14 lists the facilitators and barriers associated with the corresponding strategies indicated by UFIT for the Tampa Region. Implementation Guidance Implementation guidance is in the form of information on the relevant fact sheets, includ- ing implementation recommendations and implementation notes. Practitioners can also obtain further information about specific strategies from the citation notes. Conclusions Researchers found that the UFIT sketch-planning assessment was successful in identifying possible strategies to mitigate the urban freight problems framed for this pilot study. Conclusions from the Pilot Studies This chapter summarizes the three pilot studies used to evaluate the performance of UFIT for metropolitan freight sketch-planning assessments. Researchers identified and entered the challenges and/or problems for each unique case into UFIT, and UFIT identified strategies that could improve urban freight transportation. Along with the strategies, recommendations Strategy Facilitators Barriers Urban Freight Villages • Relocate distribution facilities from sensitive districts • Reduce environmental impacts • Positive effects on urban logistics • Require highly developed infrastructure • Require multiple modes of transportation • Require high-level public-private partnerships Parking Restrictions • Regulate illegal freight parking • Mitigate traffic congestion • Protect the right of way of other road users • Limited parking availability • Limited time windows • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Geometric Modifications • Improve performance through freight operations • Improve mobility through freight operations • Improve safety through freight operations • Require context-sensitive solutions • Require emerging techniques • Require considerations for other vulnerable road users Intermodal Logistics Center • Provide reliable and flexible logistics services • Reduce environmental impacts • Positive impacts on transportation corridor industrial property value • Competitive pressures • Overall costs • Limited facilities Intelligent Transportation Systems • Provide innovative services related to freight transportation • Facilitate freight demand management • Inform freight vehicle operators to make smarter choices • Require emerging techniques • Require highly developed infrastructure • Require effective enforcement by local authorities Urban Distribution Using Multiple Types of Vehicles • Improve environmental sustainability • Economically competitive for freight operators • Energy efficient for freight operators • Lack of advanced technology • Lack of available or reliable infrastructure • Lack of mature market Contractual Freight Partnerships • Interactive engagement from stakeholders • Effective coordination between agencies • Break long-standing barriers between public and private sectors • Limited influence of public authority • Political risk of private partners • Require high-level coordination among stakeholders Freight Demand Management • Increase economic productivity • Improve logistics efficiency • Enhance environmental sustainability • Require a moderate time frame to implement • Expect higher costs to provide initiatives • Require stakeholder collaboration and engagement Table 14. Facilitators and barriers for the pilot study of Tampa, Florida.

96 Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies for each case were made through the UFIT outputs, including the fact sheets and citation notes. The research team concluded the following: • For the three pilot studies conducted, UFIT appears to be an effective way to obtain a relatively quick sketch-planning assessment of metropolitan freight strategies to address problems. • UFIT output was aligned with the strategies being considered by the agencies looking to solve the identified problems. • UFIT’s citation notes and fact sheets (including implementation notes, recommendations for implementation, etc.) provide valuable guidance from which practitioners can further analyze and vet the UFIT-identified strategies.

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TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 897: Tools to Facilitate Implementation of Effective Metropolitan Freight Transportation Strategies provides transportation practitioners and decision makers with guidance for implementing effective metropolitan freight transportation strategies. The report outlines thirty strategies that are tailored to the specific circumstances that are found in local areas. It also identifies and describes sixteen factors that impact implementation.

The report includes three appendices, a Powerpoint presentation, and an Excel tool.

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