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TransiT CooperaTive researCh program Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration 2018 TCrp annUaL reporT oF progress
TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR Paul C. Jablonski San Diego Metropolitan Transit System VICE CHAIR Doran J. Barnes Foothill Transit SECRETARY TREASURER Mortimer L. Downey III Mort Downey Consulting LLC MEMBERS Jeffrey Arndt VIA Metropolitan Transit Authority Jameson Auten Kansas City Area Transportation Authority Mallory R. Avis Michigan Department of Transportation Paul J. Ballard Fort Worth Transportation Authority Alva Carrasco Sacramento Regional Transit District Dorval Ronald Carter, Jr. Chicago Transit Authority Francis âBuddyâ Coleman Clever Devices Ltd. Ryan I. Daniel St. Cloud Metro Bus Katharine Eagan Hillsborough Area RTA Suzie Edrington San Antonio VIA Betsy Kachmar Citilink/Fort Wayne Public Transportation Corporation John Lewis Charlotte Area Transit System Sherry Little Cardinal Infrastructure Kris Lyon Lane Transit District W.H. (Bill) McCloud McCloud Transport Associates Jonathan H. McDonald CH2M E. Susan Meyer Spokane Transit Authority Daniel J. Raudebaugh Center for Transportation and the Environment T.J. Ross PACE Vicki L. Shotland Greater Hartford Transit District Gary Thomas Dallas Area Rapid Transit Denise Tyler Delaware Transit Corporation Ed Watt Amalgamated Transit Union David C. Wilcock Vanasse Hangen Brustlin, Inc. K. Jane Williams Federal Transit Administration EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Brandye Hendrickson FHWA Neil J. Pedersen TRB Richard A. White APTA Frederick G. (Bud) Wright AASHTO TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Arthur L. Guzzetti APTA SECRETARY Christopher J. Hedges TRB TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2018 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS Chair: Katherine F. Turnbull, Executive Associate Director and Research Scientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station ViCe Chair: Victoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center; Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director, Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. exeCutiVe DireCtor: Neil J. Pedersen, Transportation Research Board MEMBERS Scott E. Bennett, Director, Arkansas Department of Transportation, Little Rock Carlos Braceras, Executive Director, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City Ginger Evans, President, Tower Consulting, LLC, Arlington, VA Nathaniel P. Ford Sr., Executive DirectorâCEO, Jacksonville Transportation Authority, Jacksonville, FL A. Stewart Fotheringham, Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe Susan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA Steve Heminger, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco, CA Chris T. Hendrickson, Hamerschlag University Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Jeffrey D. Holt, Managing Director, BMO Capital Markets, NY S. Jack Hu, Vice President for Research and J. Reid and Polly Anderson Professor of Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Roger B. Huff, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI Geraldine Knatz, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles Melinda McGrath, Executive Director, Mississippi Department of Transportation, Jackson Patrick K. McKenna, Director, Missouri Department of Transportation, Jefferson City Brian Ness, Director, Idaho Transportation Department, Boise James P. Redeker, Commissioner, Connecticut Department of Transportation, Newington Leslie Richards, Secretary, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg Mark L. Rosenberg, Executive Director, The Task Force for Global Health, Inc., Decatur, GA Gary C. Thomas, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX Pat Thomas, Senior Vice President of State Government Affairs, United Parcel Service, Washington, D.C. (Retired) James M. Tien, Distinguished Professor and Dean Emeritus, College of Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL Dean H. Wise, Consultant, Dean Wise LLC, Winchester, MA Charles A. Zelle, Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Transportation, Saint Paul EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Ronald Batory, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Mary R. Brooks, Professor Emerita, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and Chair, TRB Marine Board Mark H. Buzby (Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy), Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Steven Chalk, Deputy Assistant for Secretary for Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy Steven Cliff, Deputy Executive Officer, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento Howard R. Elliott, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Daniel K. Elwell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Audrey Farley, Associate Administrator for Administration, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Washington, D.C. LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. Brandye Hendrickson, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Nikola Ivanov, Director of Operations, Center for Advanced Transportation Technology Laboratory, University of Maryland, College Park, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council Donald Jackson (Major General, U.S. Army), Deputy Commanding General for Civil and Emergency Operations, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. Heidi King, Deputy Administrator and Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Raymond Martinez, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, D.C. Keith Nelson, Senior Advisor to the Secretary, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, U.S. Department of Transportation Craig A. Rutland, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL Karl Schultz (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard Karl Simon, Director, Transportation and Climate Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Paul Skoutelas, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis K. Jane Williams, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Frederick G. (Bud) Wright, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. * Membership as of October 2018.* Membership as of November 2017.
TransiT CooperaTive researCh program 2018 TCrp annUaL reporT oF progress 2018 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is nec- essary to solve operating problems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit indus- try can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recog- nized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transpor- tation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), reauthorized in June 1998 by the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), again reauthorized in August 2005 by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), reauthorized again in 2012 by Mov- ing Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21), and reauthorized in 2015 by the Fixing Americaâs Sur- face Transportation (FAST) Act. On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies of Sci- ences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Tran- sit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the indepen- dent governing board, designated as the TCRP Over- sight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. This memorandum agreement was updated on January 12, 1999. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Com- mittee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evalua- tion, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contrac- tors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and select- ing research agencies has been used by TRB in man- aging cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. For additional information, go to www.trb.org/ TCRP. ADDRESS INFORMATION TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD Cooperative Research Programs 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20001 Phone: 202-334-3224 www.trb.org ON THE COVER Cover photograph: Liberty Ferry by Westphalia. Cover design by the National Academies Press.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF Director Christopher J. Hedges Deputy Director and NCHRP Manager Lori L. Sundstrom ACRP Manager Michael R. Salamone TCRP Manager Gwen Chisholm Smith Senior Program Officers Velvet Basemera-Fitzpatrick Mark S. Bush Camille Crichton-Sumners Waseem Dekelbab B. Ray Derr Mariela Garcia-Colberg Jo Allen Gause Lawrence D. Goldstein Marci A. Greenberger Amir N. Hanna Edward T. Harrigan Ann M. Hartell Inam Jawed Andrew C. Lemer Sid Mohan Joseph D. Navarrete Stephan A. Parker William C. Rogers Theresia H. Schatz Dianne S. Schwager Gail R. Staba Administrative Coordinator Joseph J. Snell Administrative Associate Cynthia E. Butler Program Coordinators Keyara Dorn Deborah Irvin Brittany Summerlin-Azeez Program Associate Sheila A. Moore Travel Specialists Daniel J. Magnolia Robert Turner II Senior Program Assistants Anthony P. Avery Megan A. Chamberlain Cheryl Keith Thu M. Le Jarrel McAfee Hana Vagnerova Demisha Williams Program Assistant Stephanie L. Campbell Director of Publications Eileen P. Delaney Associate Director of Publications Natalie Barnes Senior Editors Ellen M. Chafee Linda A. Dziobek Doug English Hilary Freer Margaret B. Hagood Scott E. Hitchcock Janet M. McNaughton Ann E. Petty Editors Kami Cabral Lea Camarda Sharon Lamberton Sreyashi Roy Heidi Willis Assistant Editor Jennifer Correro Senior Editorial Assistant Kathleen Mion Systems Analyst Roy N. Mesler Web Developer Natassja K. Linzau Synthesis Program Contractors Thomas Helms Tanya M. Zwahlen
CONTENTS Annual Report of Progress, 1 Introduction, 1 How TCRP Programs Are Formulated, 1 Research Program, 3 Financing the Program, 4 How TCRP Is Organized to Administer Research Programs, 4 Project Panels, 6 How Projects Are Placed Under Contract, 7 Monitoring Research in Progress, 8 Promoting Dissemination and Application of Research Results, 8 Current Status, 9 Accomplishments in 2018, 10 FY 2019 Program, 12 Policies on Bias and Conflict of Interest, 13 Summary, 14 Publications of the Transit Cooperative Research Program, 15 Summary of Project Status, 35 Summary of Project D-7 Status, 74 Summary of Project J-4 Status, 76 Summary of Project J-5 Status, 83 Summary of Project J-6 Status, 88 Summary of Project J-7 Status, 95 Summary of Project J-9 Status, 108 Summary of Project J-10 Status, 109 Summary of Project J-11 Status, 111 New Projects and Continuations, 114 Notice to Readers, 115 How to Order, 115