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NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program ANNUAL REPORT 2018
TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2018 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE** OFFICERS CHAIR: Katherine F. Turnbull, Executive Associate Director and Research Scientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station VICE CHAIR: Victoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center; Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director, Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law enter, Washington, D.C. EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Neil J. Pedersen, Transportation Research Board MEMBERS Scott E. Bennett, Director, Arkansas Department of Transportation, Little Rock Carlos Braceras, Executive Director, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City Ginger Evans, President, Tower Consulting, LLC, Arlington, VA Nathaniel P. Ford Sr., Executive DirectorâCEO, Jacksonville Transportation Authority, Jacksonville, FL A. Stewart Fotheringham, Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe Susan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA Steve Heminger, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco, CA Chris T. Hendrickson, Hamerschlag University Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Jeffrey D. Holt, Managing Director, BMO Capital Markets, NY S. Jack Hu, Vice President for Research and J. Reid and Polly Anderson Professor of Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Roger B. Huff, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI Geraldine Knatz, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles Melinda McGrath, Executive Director, Mississippi Department of Transportation, Jackson Patrick K. McKenna, Director, Missouri Department of Transportation, Jefferson City Brian Ness, Director, Idaho Transportation Department, Boise James P. Redeker, Commissioner, Connecticut Department of Transportation, Newington Leslie Richards, Secretary, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Harrisburg Mark L. Rosenberg, Executive Director, The Task Force for Global Health, Inc., Decatur, GA Gary C. Thomas, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX Pat Thomas, Senior Vice President of State Government Affairs, United Parcel Service, Washington, D.C. (Retired) James M. Tien, Distinguished Professor and Dean Emeritus, College of Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL Dean H. Wise, Consultant, Dean Wise LLC, Winchester, MA Charles A. Zelle, Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Transportation, Saint Paul EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Ronald Batory, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Mary R. Brooks, Professor Emerita, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and Chair, TRB Marine Board Mark H. Buzby (Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy), Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Steven Chalk, Deputy Assistant for Secretary for Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy Steven Cliff, Deputy Executive Officer, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento Howard R. Elliott, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Daniel K. Elwell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Audrey Farley, Associate Administrator for Administration, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, Washington, D.C. LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. Brandye Hendrickson, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Nikola Ivanov, Director of Operations, Center for Advanced Transportation Technology Laboratory, University of Maryland, College Park, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council Donald Jackson (Major General, U.S. Army), Deputy Commanding General for Civil and Emergency Operations, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. Heidi King, Deputy Administrator and Acting Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Raymond Martinez, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, D.C. Keith Nelson, Senior Advisor to the Secretary, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, U.S. Department of Transportation Craig A. Rutland, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL Karl Schultz (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard Karl Simon, Director, Transportation and Climate Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Paul Skoutelas, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis K. Jane Williams, Acting Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation Frederick G. (Bud) Wright, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. **Membership as of October 2018 AASHTO SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH AND INNOVATION* CHAIR Brian W. Ness VICE CHAIR Dale H. Peabody Maine DOT AASHTO DIRECTOR Frederick G. Wright Executive Director AASHTO STAFF James T. McDonnell Program Director for Engineering Glenn Page Associate Program Director for Project Delivery SECRETARY Christopher J. Hedges TRB MEMBERS Darryll Dockstader Florida DOT Tanisha Hall Tennessee DOT Peter A. Healey Rhode Island DOT David Jared Georgia DOT Cameron Kergaye Utah DOT Peggi S. Knight Iowa DOT Timothy McDowell Wyoming DOT John C. Milton Washington State DOT Tommy E. Nantung Indiana DOT Rodger D. Rochelle North Carolina DOT Robert L. Sack New York State DOT Steve Takigawa Caltrans Richard Y. Woo Maryland DOT AFFILIATE MEMBERS Anne-Marie Leclerc Quebec Ministry of Transportation EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Kimberly Lynn Avery Michigan DOT Nathaniel Beuse NHTSA Anthony Furst FHWA Hari Kalla FHWA Timothy A. Klein Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology Todd L. Ripley Maritime Administration Ann Scholz New Hampshire DOT Vincent Valdes FTA Mark A. Van Port Fleet Michigan DOT Martin Walker FMCSA Jean Wallace Minnesota DOT *Membership as of October 2018
ANNUAL REPORT 2018 Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 initiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB), part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Directors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. ADDRESS INFORMATION TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, D.C. 20001 Phone: 202.334.3224 www.trb.org
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non-governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.trb.org.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF Director Christopher J. Hedges Deputy Director and NCHRP Manager Lori L. Sundstrom ACRP Manager Michael R. Salamone TCRP Manager Gwen Chisholm Smith Senior Program Officers Velvet Basemera-Fitzpatrick Mark S. Bush Camille Crichton-Sumners Waseem Dekelbab B. Ray Derr Mariela Garcia-Colberg Jo Allen Gause Lawrence D. Goldstein Marci A. Greenberger Amir N. Hanna Edward T. Harrigan Ann M. Hartell Inam Jawed Andrew C. Lemer Sid Mohan Joseph D. Navarrete Stephan A. Parker William C. Rogers Theresia H. Schatz Dianne S. Schwager Gail R. Staba Administrative Coordinator Joseph J. Snell Administrative Associate Cynthia E. Butler Program Coordinators Keyara Dorn Deborah Irvin Brittany Summerlin-Azeez Program Associate Sheila A. Moore Travel Specialists Daniel J. Magnolia Robert Turner II Senior Program Assistants Anthony P. Avery Megan A. Chamberlain Cheryl Keith Thu M. Le Jarrel McAfee Hana Vagnerova Demisha Williams Program Assistant Stephanie L. Campbell Director of Publications Eileen P. Delaney Associate Director of Publications Natalie Barnes Senior Editors Ellen M. Chafee Linda A. Dziobek Doug English Hilary Freer Margaret B. Hagood Scott E. Hitchcock Janet M. McNaughton Ann E. Petty Editors Kami Cabral Lea Camarda Sharon Lamberton Sreyashi Roy Heidi Willis Assistant Editor Jennifer Correro Senior Editorial Assistant Kathleen Mion Systems Analyst Roy N. Mesler Web Developer Natassja K. Linzau Synthesis Program Contractors Thomas Helms Tanya M. Zwahlen
CONTENTS Annual Report 2018 The Statesâ Highway Research Program: The Critical Role of State DOTs Why NCHRP Works: A Model for Cooperative Research NCHRP Research Areas: Topics Across the Spectrum of Highway Concerns Selecting the Best lnvestigators: A Rigorous, Competitive Process Managing the Program: The Central Role of NCHRP Professionals Research Products: Disseminating Research and Documenting Success Enabling Impacts: The Final Deliverable Publications of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program 2018 Status (as of 12/31/2018) of Projects Active or Pending During 2018 How to Obtain Publications and Other Materials, inside back cover 1 2 6 8 10 12 13 16 20 22 PHOTOGRAPH CREDITS Page 9: Top photograph courtesy of Texas A&M Transportation Institute; bottom photograph courtesy of Dan Burden, pedbikeimages. Page 19: Photograph courtesy of Virginia DOT: I-64/U.S. 15 Diverging Diamond Interchange, Louisa County, Virginia (Photo by Jack Beilhart, Virginia DOT).
Finding information on the TRB/NCHRP websites There are many points of entry to the TRB and NCHRP websites, depending on the kind of information youâre looking for. For a general search of all TRB activities on a given topic, enter keywords related to that topic in the search box on the home page of the TRB website at www.trb.org. To find specific projects, use the âFind a Projectâ option in the left-hand navigation bar at www.trb.org/NCHRP. You can restrict your search to NCHRP research by selecting NCHRP in the âProgramâ dropdown menu, or select âAllâ to include projects from our transit, aviation, freight, hazardous materials, rail, and strategic highway research programs. Enter keywords from the title, a project number, or the staff officerâs name in the appropriate box. The âResearch Areaâ dropdown menu lets you view all projects in any of 25 subject areas. If you select âAll Projectsâ in the left-hand menu bar, you will see NCHRP projects categorized by subject area dating back to 1988 when our systems were first digitized. A summary of NCHRP projects from 1962 through 1988 is available online as NCHRP Web Document 7 and can be accessed through a link on the NCHRP home page or by going to http://tinyurl.com/NCHRPWebDoc7. If you are interested in publications in a specific series, such as NCHRP Reports or Syntheses of Practice, direct links are provided on the right-hand side of the NCHRP home page. The home page also includes links to our quick-response series of projects supporting AASHTO committees. To search all TRB publications, you can visit the TRB Online Bookstore at www.mytrb.org/store. Finally, the most comprehensive source of information on transportation research globally is the TRID database, available at trid.trb.org. TRID is the worldâs largest bibliographic transportation database, which combines the records of TRBâs Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developmentâs Joint Transport Research Centreâs International Transport Research Documentation. The Research in Progress (RiP) database allows a person to check the research in progress. NCHRP Transportation research that works â¢ Objective national highway research since 1962 â¢ Managed by the Transportation Research Board â¢ Funded cooperatively by AASHTO member departments â¢ Project topics determined by state DOTs â¢ Competitive selection of investigators â¢ Oversight by technical specialists â¢ Wide dissemination of findings â¢ Focus on practical results that impact practice