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Suggested Citation:"Part III." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Part III

Part III of this report presents the evidence the committee reviewed to derive the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for sodium. Based on the committee’s review of the evidence on indicators of adequacy, toxicity, and chronic disease as they relate to sodium, the committee provides its recommendations. This part of the report consists of four chapters.

Chapter 8 follows steps 1 and 2 of the DRI organizing framework, provides the committee’s review of the evidence on indicators of sodium adequacy, and presents the committee’s rationale for updating some of the previously established Adequate Intake values.

Chapter 9 follows steps 1 and 2 of the DRI organizing framework, provides the committee’s review of the evidence on indicators of sodium toxicity, and presents this committee’s rationale for not establishing a Tolerable Upper Intake Level under the expanded DRI model.

Chapter 10 follows steps 1 and 2 of the DRI organizing framework, provides the committee’s review of the evidence on the relationship between sodium intake and chronic disease risk, and provides the committee’s rationale for establishing the sodium Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes.

Chapter 11 follows steps 3 and 4 of the DRI organizing framework by characterizing risk in the U.S. and Canadian populations and by describing special considerations and public health implications, as they relate to the revised sodium DRI values.

Suggested Citation:"Part III." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Suggested Citation:"Part III." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Page 205
Suggested Citation:"Part III." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Page 206
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As essential nutrients, sodium and potassium contribute to the fundamentals of physiology and pathology of human health and disease. In clinical settings, these are two important blood electrolytes, are frequently measured and influence care decisions. Yet, blood electrolyte concentrations are usually not influenced by dietary intake, as kidney and hormone systems carefully regulate blood values.

Over the years, increasing evidence suggests that sodium and potassium intake patterns of children and adults influence long-term population health mostly through complex relationships among dietary intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular health. The public health importance of understanding these relationships, based upon the best available evidence and establishing recommendations to support the development of population clinical practice guidelines and medical care of patients is clear.

This report reviews evidence on the relationship between sodium and potassium intakes and indicators of adequacy, toxicity, and chronic disease. It updates the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) using an expanded DRI model that includes consideration of chronic disease endpoints, and outlines research gaps to address the uncertainties identified in the process of deriving the reference values and evaluating public health implications.

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