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Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019)

Chapter: Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Appendix H

Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures

In Chapters 7 and 11, the committee compared the potassium and sodium Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values established in this report to reported usual intakes in U.S. and Canadian populations. Figures in this appendix, which supplement the information presented in those chapters, use data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2014 and the Canadian Community Health Survey–Nutrition 2015 (CCHS Nutrition 2015) (for additional details about these data sources, see Appendix G). The figures contained in this appendix are as follows:

  • FIGURE H-1 Median and 75th percentile of usual potassium intakes among U.S. and Canadian children and adolescents 1–18 years of age, by DRI age, sex, and life-stage group.
  • FIGURE H-2 Median and 75th percentile of usual potassium intakes among U.S. and Canadian adults 19 years of age and older, by DRI age, sex, and life-stage group.
  • FIGURE H-3 Fifth percentile and median usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian children and adolescents 1–18 years of age, as compared to the sodium DRIs.
  • FIGURE H-4 Usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian children and adolescents 1–18 years of age and older, as compared to the sodium DRIs and select intake levels.
  • FIGURE H-5 Fifth percentile and median usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian adults 19 years of age and older, as compared to the sodium DRIs.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
  • FIGURE H-6 Usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian males 19 years of age and older, as compared to the sodium DRIs and select intake levels.
  • FIGURE H-7 Usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian females 19 years of age and older, as compared to the sodium DRIs and select intake levels.
Image
FIGURE H-1 Median and 75th percentile of usual potassium intakes among U.S. and Canadian children and adolescents 1–18 years of age, by DRI age, sex, and life-stage group.
NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; CA = Canada; CCHS Nutrition 2015 = Canadian Community Health Survey–Nutrition 2015; mg/d = milligrams per day; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; U.S. = United States.
SOURCES: CCHS Nutrition 2015 (unpublished); NHANES 2009–2014 (unpublished).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Image
FIGURE H-2 Median and 75th percentile of usual potassium intakes among U.S. and Canadian adults 19 years of age and older, by DRI age, sex, and life-stage group.
NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; CCHS Nutrition 2015 = Canadian Community Health Survey–Nutrition 2015; mg/d = milligrams per day; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
SOURCES: CCHS Nutrition 2015 (unpublished); NHANES 2009–2014 (unpublished).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Image
FIGURE H-3 Fifth percentile and median usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian children and adolescents 1–18 years of age, as compared to the sodium DRIs.
NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; CA = Canada; CCHS Nutrition 2015 = Canadian Community Health Survey–Nutrition 2015; CDRR = Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake; mg/d = milligrams per day; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; U.S. = United States.
SOURCES: CCHS Nutrition 2015 (unpublished); NHANES 2009–2014 (unpublished).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Image
FIGURE H-4 Usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian children and adolescents 1–18 years of age and older, as compared to the sodium DRIs and select intake levels.
NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; CA = Canada; CDRR = Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake; mg/d = milligrams per day; U.S. = United States.
SOURCES: CCHS Nutrition 2015 (unpublished); NHANES 2009–2014 (unpublished).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Image
FIGURE H-5 Fifth percentile and median usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian adults 19 years of age and older, as compared to the sodium DRIs.
NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; CCHS Nutrition 2015 = Canadian Community Health Survey–Nutrition 2015; CDRR = Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake; mg/d = milligrams per day; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
SOURCES: CCHS Nutrition 2015 (unpublished); NHANES 2009–2014 (unpublished).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Image
FIGURE H-6 Usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian males 19 years of age and older, as compared to the sodium DRIs and select intake levels.
NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; CA = Canada; CDRR = Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake; mg/d = milligrams per day; U.S. = United States.
SOURCES: CCHS Nutrition 2015 (unpublished); NHANES 2009–2014 (unpublished).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Image
FIGURE H-7 Usual sodium intakes among U.S. and Canadian females 19 years of age and older, as compared to the sodium DRIs and select intake levels.
NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; CA = Canada; CDRR = Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake; mg/d = milligrams per day; U.S. = United States.
SOURCES: CCHS Nutrition 2015 (unpublished); NHANES 2009–2014 (unpublished).
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 549
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 550
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 551
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 552
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 553
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 554
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 555
Suggested Citation:"Appendix H: Supplemental Risk Characterization Figures." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Page 556
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As essential nutrients, sodium and potassium contribute to the fundamentals of physiology and pathology of human health and disease. In clinical settings, these are two important blood electrolytes, are frequently measured and influence care decisions. Yet, blood electrolyte concentrations are usually not influenced by dietary intake, as kidney and hormone systems carefully regulate blood values.

Over the years, increasing evidence suggests that sodium and potassium intake patterns of children and adults influence long-term population health mostly through complex relationships among dietary intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular health. The public health importance of understanding these relationships, based upon the best available evidence and establishing recommendations to support the development of population clinical practice guidelines and medical care of patients is clear.

This report reviews evidence on the relationship between sodium and potassium intakes and indicators of adequacy, toxicity, and chronic disease. It updates the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) using an expanded DRI model that includes consideration of chronic disease endpoints, and outlines research gaps to address the uncertainties identified in the process of deriving the reference values and evaluating public health implications.

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