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Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019)

Chapter: Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Average Requirements
Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Life-Stage Group Calcium (mg/d) CHO (g/d) Protein (g/kg/d) Vitamin A (Rg/d)a Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (Rg/d) Vitamin E (mg/d)b Thiamin (mg/d) Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)c
Infants
0–6 mo
7–12 mo 1.0
Children
1–3 y 500 100 0.87 210 13 10 5 0.4 0.4 5
4–8 y 800 100 0.76 275 22 10 6 0.5 0.5 6
Males
9–13 y 1,100 100 0.76 445 39 10 9 0.7 0.8 9
14–18 y 1,100 100 0.73 630 63 10 12 1.0 1.1 12
19–30 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12
31–50 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12
51–70 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12
> 70 y 1,000 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12
Females
9–13 y 1,100 100 0.76 420 39 10 9 0.7 0.8 9
14–18 y 1,100 100 0.71 485 56 10 12 0.9 0.9 11
19–30 y 800 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11
31–50 y 800 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11
51–70 y 1,000 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11
> 70 y 1,000 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11
Pregnancy
14–18 y 1,000 135 0.88 530 66 10 12 1.2 1.2 14
19–30 y 800 135 0.88 550 70 10 12 1.2 1.2 14
31–50 y 800 135 0.88 550 70 10 12 1.2 1.2 14
Lactation
14–18 y 1,000 160 1.05 885 96 10 16 1.2 1.3 13
19–30 y 800 160 1.05 900 100 10 16 1.2 1.3 13
31–50 y 800 160 1.05 900 100 10 16 1.2 1.3 13

NOTES: An Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a group. EARs have not been established for vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, chromium, fluoride, manganese, potassium, sodium, chloride, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process.

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 Rg retinol, 12 Rg G-carotene, 24 Rg F-carotene, or 24 Rg G-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is twofold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.

bAs F-tocopherol. F-Tocopherol includes RRR-F-tocopherol, the only form of F-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of F-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-F-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of F-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-F-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (Rg/d)d Vitamin B12 (Rg/d) Copper (Rg/d) Iodine (Rg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d) Molybdenum (Rg/d) Phosphorus (mg/d) Selenium (Rg/d) Zinc (mg/d)
6.9 2.5
0.4 120 0.7 260 65 3.0 65 13 380 17 2.5
0.5 160 1.0 340 65 4.1 110 17 405 23 4.0
0.8 250 1.5 540 73 5.9 200 26 1,055 35 7.0
1.1 330 2.0 685 95 7.7 340 33 1,055 45 8.5
1.1 320 2.0 700 95 6 330 34 580 45 9.4
1.1 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4
1.4 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4
1.4 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4
0.8 250 1.5 540 73 5.7 200 26 1,055 35 7.0
1.0 330 2.0 685 95 7.9 300 33 1,055 45 7.3
1.1 320 2.0 700 95 8.1 255 34 580 45 6.8
1.1 320 2.0 700 95 8.1 265 34 580 45 6.8
1.3 320 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8
1.3 320 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8
1.6 520 2.2 785 160 23 335 40 1,055 49 10.5
1.6 520 2.2 800 160 22 290 40 580 49 9.5
1.6 520 2.2 800 160 22 300 40 580 49 9.5
1.7 450 2.4 985 209 7 300 35 1,055 59 10.9
1.7 450 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 255 36 580 59 10.4
1.7 450 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 265 36 580 59 10.4

cAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan.

dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins
Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Life-Stage Group Vitamin A (μg/d)a Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (μg/d)b,c Vitamin E (mg/d)d Vitamin K (μg/d) Thiamin (mg/d)
Infants
0–6 mo 400* 40* 10*h 4* 2.0* 0.2*
7–12 mo 500* 50* 10*h 5* 2.5* 0.3*
Children
1–3 y 300 15 15 6 30* 0.5
4–8 y 400 25 15 7 55* 0.6
Males
9–13 y 600 45 15 11 60* 0.9
14–18 y 900 75 15 15 75* 1.2
19–30 y 900 90 15 15 120* 1.2
31–50 y 900 90 15 15 120* 1.2
51–70 y 900 90 15 15 120* 1.2
> 70 y 900 90 20 15 120* 1.2
Females
9–13 y 600 45 15 11 60* 0.9
14–18 y 700 65 15 15 75* 1.0
19–30 y 700 75 15 15 90* 1.1
31–50 y 700 75 15 15 90* 1.1
51–70 y 700 75 15 15 90* 1.1
> 70 y 700 75 20 15 90* 1.1
Pregnancy
14–18 y 750 80 15 15 75* 1.4
19–30 y 770 85 15 15 90* 1.4
31–50 y 770 85 15 15 90* 1.4
Lactation
14–18 y 1,200 115 15 19 75* 1.4
19–30 y 1,300 120 15 19 90* 1.4
31–50 y 1,300 120 15 19 90* 1.4

NOTES: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breastfed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 Rg retinol, 12 Rg G-carotene, 24 Rg F-carotene, or 24 Rg G-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.

bAs cholecalciferol. 1 μg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.

cUnder the assumption of minimal sunlight.

dAs F-tocopherol. F-Tocopherol includes RRR-F-tocopherol, the only form of F-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of F-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-Ftocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of F-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-F-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

eAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

fAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)e Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (μg/d)f Vitamin B12 (μg/d) Pantothenic Acid (mg/d) Biotin (μg/d) Choline (mg/d)g
0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 1.7* 5* 125*
0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 1.8* 6* 150*
0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 2* 8* 200*
0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 3* 12* 250*
0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375*
1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 25* 550*
1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550*
1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550*
1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4i 5* 30* 550*
1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4i 5* 30* 550*
0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4* 20* 375*
1.0 14 1.2 400j 2.4 5* 25* 400*
1.1 14 1.3 400j 2.4 5* 30* 425*
1.1 14 1.3 400j 2.4 5* 30* 425*
1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4i 5* 30* 425*
1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4i 5* 30* 425*
1.4 18 1.9 600k 2.6 6* 30* 450*
1.4 18 1.9 600k 2.6 6* 30* 450*
1.4 18 1.9 600k 2.6 6* 30* 450*
1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550*
1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550*
1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550*

gAlthough AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

hLife-stage groups for infants were 0–5.9 and 6–11.9 months.

iBecause 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

jIn view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

kIt is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements
Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Life-Stage Group Calcium (mg/d) Chromium (μg/d) Copper (μg/d) Fluoride (mg/d) Iodine (μg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d)
Infants
0–6 mo 200*a 0.2* 200* 0.01* 110* 0.27* 30*
7–12 mo 260*a 5.5* 220* 0.5* 130* 11 75*
Children
1–3 y 700 11* 340 0.7* 90 7 80
4–8 y 1,000 15* 440 1* 90 10 130
Males
9–13 y 1,300 25* 700 2* 120 8 240
14–18 y 1,300 35* 890 3* 150 11 410
19–30 y 1,000 35* 900 4* 150 8 400
31–50 y 1,000 35* 900 4* 150 8 420
51–70 y 1,000 30* 900 4* 150 8 420
> 70 y 1,200 30* 900 4* 150 8 420
Females
9–13 y 1,300 21* 700 2* 120 8 240
14–18 y 1,300 24* 890 3* 150 15 360
19–30 y 1,000 25* 900 3* 150 18 310
31–50 y 1,000 25* 900 3* 150 18 320
51–70 y 1,200 20* 900 3* 150 8 320
> 70 y 1,200 20* 900 3* 150 8 320
Pregnancy
14–18 y 1,300 29* 1,000 3* 220 27 400
19–30 y 1,000 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 350
31–50 y 1,000 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 360
Lactation
14–18 y 1,300 44* 1,300 3* 290 10 360
19–30 y 1,000 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 310
31–50 y 1,000 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 320

NOTES: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breastfed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Manganese (mg/d) Molybdenum (μg/d) Phosphorus (mg/d) Selenium (μg/d) Zinc (mg/d) Potassium (mg/d) Sodium (mg/d) Chloride (g/d)
0.003* 2* 100* 15* 2* 400* 110* 0.18*
0.6* 3* 275* 20* 3 860* 370* 0.57*
1.2* 17 460 20 3 2,000* 800* 1.5*
1.5* 22 500 30 5 2,300* 1,000* 1.9*
1.9* 34 1,250 40 8 2,500* 1,200* 2.3*
2.2* 43 1,250 55 11 3,000* 1,500* 2.3*
2.3* 45 700 55 11 3,400* 1,500* 2.3*
2.3* 45 700 55 11 3,400* 1,500* 2.3*
2.3* 45 700 55 11 3,400* 1,500* 2.0*
2.3* 45 700 55 11 3,400* 1,500* 1.8*
1.6* 34 1,250 40 8 2,300* 1,200* 2.3*
1.6* 43 1,250 55 9 2,300* 1,500* 2.3*
1.8* 45 700 55 8 2,600* 1,500* 2.3*
1.8* 45 700 55 8 2,600* 1,500* 2.3*
1.8* 45 700 55 8 2,600* 1,500* 2.0*
1.8* 45 700 55 8 2,600* 1,500* 1.8*
2.0* 50 1,250 60 12 2,600* 1,500* 2.3*
2.0* 50 700 60 11 2,900* 1,500* 2.3*
2.0* 50 700 60 11 2,900* 1,500* 2.3*
2.6* 50 1,250 70 13 2,500* 1,500* 2.3*
2.6* 50 700 70 12 2,800* 1,500* 2.3*
2.6* 50 700 70 12 2,800* 1,500* 2.3*

aLife-stage groups for infants were 0–5.9 and 6–11.9 months.

SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Total Water and Macronutrients
Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Life-Stage Group Total Watera (L/d) Carbohydrate (g/d) Total Fiber (g/d) Fat (g/d) Linoleic Acid (g/d) α-Linolenic Acid (g/d) Proteinb (g/d)
Infants
0–6 mo 0.7* 60* ND 31* 4.4* 0.5* 9.1*
7–12 mo 0.8* 95* ND 30* 4.6* 0.5* 11.0
Children
1–3 y 1.3* 130 19* NDc 7* 0.7* 13
4–8 y 1.7* 130 25* ND 10* 0.9* 19
Males
9–13 y 2.4* 130 31* ND 12* 1.2* 34
14–18 y 3.3* 130 38* ND 16* 1.6* 52
19–30 y 3.7* 130 38* ND 17* 1.6* 56
31–50 y 3.7* 130 38* ND 17* 1.6* 56
51–70 y 3.7* 130 30* ND 14* 1.6* 56
> 70 y 3.7* 130 30* ND 14* 1.6* 56
Females
9–13 y 2.1* 130 26* ND 10* 1.0* 34
14–18 y 2.3* 130 26* ND 11* 1.1* 46
19–30 y 2.7* 130 25* ND 12* 1.1* 46
31–50 y 2.7* 130 25* ND 12* 1.1* 46
51–70 y 2.7* 130 21* ND 11* 1.1* 46
> 70 y 2.7* 130 21* ND 11* 1.1* 46
Pregnancy
14–18 y 3.0* 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71
19–30 y 3.0* 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71
31–50 y 3.0* 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71
Lactation
14–18 y 3.8* 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71
19–30 y 3.8* 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71
31–50 y 3.8* 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71

NOTES: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breastfed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

aTotal water includes all water contained in food, beverages, and drinking water.

bBased on g protein per kg of body weight for the reference body weight (e.g., for adults 0.8 g/kg body weight for the reference body weight).

cNot determined. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005) and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Macronutrient Range (percent of energy)
Children,
1–3 y
Children,
4–18 y
Adults
Fat 30–40 25–35 20–35
n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acidsa (linoleic acid) 5–10 5–10 5–10
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsa (α-linolenic acid) 0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2
Carbohydrate 45–65 45–65 45–65
Protein 5–20 10–30 10–35

aApproximately 10 percent of the total can come from longer-chain n-3 or n-6 fatty acids.

SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Additional Macronutrient Recommendations
Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Macronutrient Recommendation
Dietary cholesterol As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet
Trans fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet
Saturated fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet
Added sugarsa Limit to no more than 25% of total energy

aNot a recommended intake. A daily intake of added sugars that individuals should aim for to achieve a healthful diet was not set.

SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes
Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Nutrient Population Group Recommendation
Sodium Children, 1–3 y Reduce intakes if above 1,200 mg/daya
Children, 4–8 y Reduce intakes if above 1,500 mg/daya
Adolescents, 9–13 y Reduce intakes if above 1,800 mg/daya
Adolescents, 14–18 y Reduce intakes if above 2,300 mg/daya
Adults, ≥ 19 y Reduce intakes if above 2,300 mg/day

aExtrapolated from the adult Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake (CDRR) based on sedentary Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs).

SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins
Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Life-Stage Group Vitamin A (μg/d)a Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (Rg/d) Vitamin E (mg/d)b,c Vitamin K Thiamin Riboflavin
Infants
0–6 mo 600 NDe 25f ND ND ND ND
7–12 mo 600 ND 38f ND ND ND ND
Children
1–3 y 600 400 63 200 ND ND ND
4–8 y 900 650 75 300 ND ND ND
Males
9–13 y 1,700 1,200 100 600 ND ND ND
14–18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND
19–30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
31–50 y 3 000 2 000 100 1 000 ND ND ND
51–70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
> 70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
Females
9–13 y 1,700 1,200 100 600 ND ND ND
14–18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND
19–30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
31–50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
51–70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
> 70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
Pregnancy
14–18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND
19–30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
31–50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
Lactation
14–18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND
19–30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND
31–50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND

NOTES: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Because of a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

aAs preformed vitamin A only.

bAs F-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental F-tocopherol.

cThe ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Niacin (mg/d)c Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (Rg/d)c Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin Choline (g/d) Carotenoidsd
ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
10 30 300 ND ND ND 1.0 ND
15 40 400 ND ND ND 1.0 ND
20 60 600 ND ND ND 2.0 ND
30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
35 100 1 000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
20 60 600 ND ND ND 2.0 ND
30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND
35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND

dG-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency.

eND = Not determinable owing to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.

fLife-stage groups for infants were 0–5.9 and 6–11.9 months. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements
Food and Nutrition Board, National Academies

Life-Stage Group Arsenica Boron (mg/d) Calcium (mg/d) Chromium Copper (μg/d) Fluoride (mg/d) Iodine (μg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d)b Manganese (mg/d)
Infants
0–6 mo NDf ND 1,000g ND ND 0.7 ND 40 ND ND
7–12 mo ND ND 1,500g ND ND 0.9 ND 40 ND ND
Children
1–3 y ND 3 2,500 ND 1,000 1.3 200 40 65 2
4–8 y ND 6 2,500 ND 3,000 2.2 300 40 110 3
Males
9–13 y ND 11 3,000 ND 5,000 10 600 40 350 6
14–18 y ND 17 3 000 ND 8 000 10 900 45 350 9
19–30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
31–50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
51–70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
> 70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
Females
9–13 y ND 11 3,000 ND 5,000 10 600 40 350 6
14–18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9
19–30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
31–50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
51–70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
> 70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
Pregnancy
14–18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9
19–30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
31–50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
Lactation
14–18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 9
19–30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11
31−50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 11

NOTES: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Because of a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for arsenic, chromium, potassium, silicon, sulfate, or sodium. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

aAlthough the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements.

bThe ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water.

cAlthough silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements.

dAlthough vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×
Molybdenum (μg/d) Nickel (mg/d) Phosphorus (g/d) Potassium Selenium (μg/d) Siliconc Sulfate Vanadium (mg/d)d Zinc (mg/d) Sodiume Chloride (g/d)
ND ND ND NDh 45 ND ND ND 4 NDh ND
ND ND ND NDh 60 ND ND ND 5 NDh ND
300 0.2 3 NDh 90 ND ND ND 7 NDh 2.3
600 0.3 3 NDh 150 ND ND ND 12 NDh 2.9
1,100 0.6 4 NDh 280 ND ND ND 23 NDh 3.4
1 700 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 34 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 3 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
1,100 0.6 4 NDh 280 ND ND ND 23 NDh 3.4
1,700 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 34 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 3 NDh 400 ND ND 1.8 40 NDh 3.6
1,700 1.0 3.5 NDh 400 ND ND ND 34 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 3.5 NDh 400 ND ND ND 40 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 3.5 NDh 400 ND ND ND 40 NDh 3.6
1,700 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 34 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 40 NDh 3.6
2,000 1.0 4 NDh 400 ND ND ND 40 NDh 3.6

based on adverse effects in laboratory animals, and this data could be used to set a UL for adults but not children and adolescents.

eThe lowest level of intake for which there was sufficient strength of evidence to characterize a chronic disease risk reduction was used to derive the sodium Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intake (CDRR) values.

fND = Not determinable owing to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.

gLife-stage groups for infants were 0–5.9 and 6–11.9 months.

hND = Not determinable owing to a lack of data of a specific toxicological adverse effect. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Dietary Reference Intakes Summary Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium Get This Book
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As essential nutrients, sodium and potassium contribute to the fundamentals of physiology and pathology of human health and disease. In clinical settings, these are two important blood electrolytes, are frequently measured and influence care decisions. Yet, blood electrolyte concentrations are usually not influenced by dietary intake, as kidney and hormone systems carefully regulate blood values.

Over the years, increasing evidence suggests that sodium and potassium intake patterns of children and adults influence long-term population health mostly through complex relationships among dietary intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular health. The public health importance of understanding these relationships, based upon the best available evidence and establishing recommendations to support the development of population clinical practice guidelines and medical care of patients is clear.

This report reviews evidence on the relationship between sodium and potassium intakes and indicators of adequacy, toxicity, and chronic disease. It updates the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) using an expanded DRI model that includes consideration of chronic disease endpoints, and outlines research gaps to address the uncertainties identified in the process of deriving the reference values and evaluating public health implications.

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