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Suggested Citation:"Part I." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Part I

Part I of this report presents background information about the study and a description of the methodological considerations reviewed by the committee in its approach to establish Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for potassium and sodium. This part of the report consists of three chapters.

Chapter 1 provides context for the study. The chapter includes an introduction to the DRIs, the DRI organizing framework, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality systematic review, Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks. The chapter also presents the Statement of Task for this study and a brief overview of the committee’s approach to its task.

Chapter 2 presents an overview of how the committee applied guidance from the 2017 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report Guiding Principles for Developing Dietary Reference Intakes Based on Chronic Disease to its derivation of DRIs based on chronic disease.

Chapter 3 presents the methodological considerations related to assessing the evidence on potassium and sodium intake. The chapter discusses the application of the evidence to the decisions that informed the committee’s approach to establishing DRIs for potassium and sodium.

Suggested Citation:"Part I." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Suggested Citation:"Part I." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Page 17
Suggested Citation:"Part I." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25353.
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Page 18
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As essential nutrients, sodium and potassium contribute to the fundamentals of physiology and pathology of human health and disease. In clinical settings, these are two important blood electrolytes, are frequently measured and influence care decisions. Yet, blood electrolyte concentrations are usually not influenced by dietary intake, as kidney and hormone systems carefully regulate blood values.

Over the years, increasing evidence suggests that sodium and potassium intake patterns of children and adults influence long-term population health mostly through complex relationships among dietary intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular health. The public health importance of understanding these relationships, based upon the best available evidence and establishing recommendations to support the development of population clinical practice guidelines and medical care of patients is clear.

This report reviews evidence on the relationship between sodium and potassium intakes and indicators of adequacy, toxicity, and chronic disease. It updates the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) using an expanded DRI model that includes consideration of chronic disease endpoints, and outlines research gaps to address the uncertainties identified in the process of deriving the reference values and evaluating public health implications.

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