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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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IMPROVING THE EPA MULTI-SECTOR
GENERAL PERMIT FOR

INDUSTRIAL
STORMWATER
DISCHARGES

Committee on Improving the
Next-Generation EPA Multi-Sector General Permit
for Industrial Stormwater Discharges

Water Science and Technology Board

Division on Earth and Life Studies

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

Support for this activity was provided by the Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48846-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48846-X
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25355

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Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25355.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×

COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING THE NEXT-GENERATION EPA MULTI-SECTOR GENERAL PERMIT FOR INDUSTRIAL STORMWATER DISCHARGES

ALLEN P. DAVIS, Chair, University of Maryland, College Park

ROGER T. BANNERMAN, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison (Retired)

SHIRLEY E. CLARK, Penn State Harrisburg

L. DONALD DUKE, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers

JANET S. KIELER, Denver International Airport, Colorado

JOHN D. STARK, Washington State University, Puyallup

MICHAEL K. STENSTROM, University of California, Los Angeles

XAVIER SWAMIKANNU, University of California, Los Angeles; California Environmental Protection Agency, California Water Board, Los Angeles Region (Retired)

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff

STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Study Director, Water Science and Technology Board

CARLY BRODY, Senior Program Assistant, Water Science and Technology Board

NOTE: See Appendix G, Disclosure of Conflict of Interest.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD

CATHERINE L. KLING (NAS), Chair, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

NEWSHA K. AJAMI, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA

JONATHAN D. ARTHUR, Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee

DAVID A. DZOMBAK (NAE), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

WENDY D. GRAHAM, University of Florida, Gainesville

MARK W. LeCHEVALLIER, Dr. Water Consulting, LLC, Morrison, CO

MARGARET A. PALMER, SESYNC—University of Maryland, Annapolis

DAVID L. SEDLAK (NAE), University of California, Berkeley

DAVID L. WEGNER, Woolpert Engineering, Tucson, AZ

P. KAY WHITLOCK, Christopher B. Burke Engineering, Ltd., Rosemont, IL

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff

ELIZABETH EIDE, Director

LAURA J. EHLERS, Senior Program Officer

STEPHANIE E. JOHNSON, Senior Program Officer

M. JEANNE AQUILINO, Financial/Administrative Associate

COURTNEY R. DEVANE, Administrative Coordinator

BRENDAN R. McGOVERN, Research Assistant

CARLY BRODY, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×

Acknowledgments

We would like to express our appreciation to the following people who provided presentations or public comment to the committee.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George Hornberger (NAE), Vanderbilt University, and Michael Kavanaugh (NAE), Geosyntec Consultants. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×

Preface

Stormwater is dynamic and complex. Industrial stormwater is only a subset of the stormwater universe, yet complexity is interwoven throughout its generation and management due to the wide range of industrial classifications, the assortment of activities at specific industrial sites, the sizes of these industrial sites, and climate and weather variations. Regulation of industrial stormwater through the Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP) (EPA, 1995, 2000, 2008a, 2015d) provides federal guidelines that attempt to balance protection of the environment without leading to excess burden on industry. Concerns related to industrial stormwater and the MSGP were highlighted in a 2009 National Research Council (NRC, 2009) report on stormwater in the United States.

In 2017, a committee was created by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine through support by the Environmental Protection Agency to address several concerns related to the stormwater monitoring in the MSGP. The committee collected information from individuals and stakeholder organizations representing various interests around the United States and heard from several state industrial stormwater permit regulatory agencies. Much has changed since the first MSGP with respect to understanding the science of stormwater and stormwater treatment, pollutant quantification, and toxicity. The committee considered these advancements and the sensitive balance of environmental protection with business burden. In this report, the committee offers recommendations to address some of the challenges of industrial stormwater, its discharge, and regulation.

Allen P. Davis, Chair
Committee on Improving the Next-Generation EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

AD activity description
AIM Additional Implementation Measure
BAT best available technology
BLM Biotic Ligand Model
BM benchmark
BMP best management practice
BOD5 biochemical oxygen demand (5 day)
CCL Contaminant Candidate List
CEC cation exchange capacity
COD chemical oxygen demand
COV coefficient of variation
DMR discharge monitoring report
DOC dissolved organic carbon
ELG effluent limitation guideline
EMC event mean concentration
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
HDS hydrodynamic separator
IWTT Industrial Wastewater Treatment Technology Database
MS4 municipal separate storm sewer system
MSGP Multi-Sector General Permit
NAICS North American Industrial Classification System
NAL numeric action level
NEL numeric effluent limitation
NELAP National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program
NetDMR Network Discharge Monitoring Report
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NURP Nationwide Urban Runoff Program
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon
PCB polychlorinated biphenyl
QA/QC quality assurance and quality control
QISP Qualified Industrial Stormwater Practitioner
SCM stormwater control measure
SIC standard industrial classification
SMC Stormwater Monitoring Coalition
SSC suspended sediment concentration
SWPPP stormwater pollution prevention plan
TBEL technology-based effluent limit
TDS total dissolved solids
TMDL total maximum daily load
TOC total organic carbon
TSS total suspended solids
WQBEL water quality-based effluent limit
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Improving the EPA Multi-Sector General Permit for Industrial Stormwater Discharges. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25355.
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Industrial stormwater is derived from precipitation and/or runoff that comes in contact with industrial manufacturing, processing, storage, or material overburden and then runs offsite and enters drainage systems or receiving waters. In 1987, Congress significantly expanded the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program through amendments to the Clean Water Act to include industrial stormwater runoff conveyed through outfalls directly to receiving waters or indirectly through municipal separate storm sewer systems.

The added regulation of stormwater in the NPDES program has been challenging. Stormwater is produced throughout a developed landscape, and its production and delivery are episodic. In 2009, the National Research Council released a comprehensive report on the Environmental Protection Agency’s Stormwater Program that covered all sectors of the program. This study builds on that report, with a focus on industrial stormwater monitoring and management.

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