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Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons (2019)

Chapter: Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
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C

Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information

MEMBERS

DAVID PEARCE, Chair, is a professor of environmental microbiology in the Department of Applied Sciences at Northumbria University in the United Kingdom. The underlying theme of his research is the use of microbiology to understand polar ecosystem function and the potential for shifts in biogeochemical activity that may result from environmental change. Dr. Pearce has worked with the British Antarctic Survey as a microbiologist, head of the Genomic Analysis Section of the Biological Sciences Division, and as an aquatic microbial ecologist. His research interests include microbial biodiversity, environmental microbiology, microbial ecology, molecular ecology, microbial physiology, environmental genomics, extremophiles, life in extreme environments, exploring and applying new technology, and the potential of unknown ecosystems. Dr. Pearce is a member of the British Ecological Society and the International Society for Microbial Ecology. He earned his Ph.D. in microbiology from King’s College, University of London. Dr. Pearce previously served on the joint National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine-European Science Foundation (ESF) Committee on the Review of MEPAG Report on Planetary Protection for Mars Special Regions.

ANDRÉ ANTUNES is a senior lecturer in microbial genetics and an environmental microbiology researcher at Edge Hill University. He also serves as a research consultant at the Computational Bioscience Research Center, at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. Dr. Antunes researches biological diversity and ecology, with a specialization in microbial responses to deep sea and other extreme environments. He received his Ph.D. in biochemistry at the University of Coimbra in Portugal.

ATHENA COUSTENIS is a director of research with the National Centre for Scientific Research of France and is currently based at the Paris Observatory in Meudon. Dr. Coustenis works in the field of planetology. She earned her Ph.D. in astrophysics and space techniques from the University of Paris. Her research focuses on the use of ground- and space-based observatories to study solar system bodies. Dr. Coustenis’s current interests include planetary atmospheres and surfaces, with particular emphasis on the satellites of the giant planets. She is also interested in the characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. In recent years, she has been leading efforts to define and select future space missions to be undertaken by the European Space Agency (ESA) and its international partners. Dr. Coustenis is the chair of the ESF’s European Space Science Committee, of the Committee on Space

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
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Research’s Panel for Planetary Protection, and of ESA’s Human Spaceflight and Exploration Science Advisory Committee. She has also chaired and served on numerous other ESA and NASA advisory groups.

MICHAEL J. DALY is a professor in the Department of Pathology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland. He is an expert in the study of bacteria belonging to the family Deinococcaceae, which are some of the most radiation-resistant organisms yet discovered. He received his Ph.D. at Queen Mary University of London. His National Academies service includes membership on the Committee on Planetary Protection Standards for Icy Bodies in the Outer Solar System, the Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, the Committee on the Astrophysical Context of Life, and the Task Group on the Forward Contamination of Europa.

ABIGAIL A. FRAEMAN is a research scientist in the planetary science section at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Dr. Fraeman specializes in the use of infrared spectroscopy to study the surfaces of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos. She is currently a participating scientist on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, a co-investigator on the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and deputy project scientist for the Mars Exploration Rover mission. Dr. Fraeman received her Ph.D. in Earth and planetary science from Washington University in St. Louis and her B.S. in physics and geology and geophysics from Yale University. She was selected as a participant in the Chinese Academy of Sciences-National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Forum for New Leaders in Space Science in 2015.

ANSGAR GRESHAKE is the curator of meteorite collections for the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, where he is also the head of mineralogical preparation facilities. Dr. Greshake studies the formation and classification of martian meteorites, including their phases and metamorphoses, with specific research interest in carbonaceous chondrites. He received his Ph.D. in planetology from Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster.

GUY LIBOUREL is a professor at the Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur in Nice, France. Prior to this, he was at the Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques in Nancy and an affiliated professor at the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Dr. Libourel is an experimental cosmochemist whose research focuses on understanding the formation of the first solid in the solar system using high-temperature experimental approaches. His current research is centered on thermal and mechanical properties of the regolith on small solar system bodies. He is a co-investigator on NASA’s OSIRIS-Rex and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Hayabusa 2 asteroid sample return missions. He is also the OSIRIS-REx coordinating scientist for sample analysis for mission sample science in Europe. Dr. Libourel obtained his Ph.D. at the Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse.

AKIKO M. NAKAMURA is an associate professor in the Department of Planetology at Kobe University, where she performs laboratory impact experiments to study the velocity distribution of fragments from ejecta and the ejecta from particulate layers. These experiments are designed to provide insights into the collisional evolution of small solar system bodies and regolith formation processes. Dr. Nakamura was a co-investigator on the camera system on the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science’s Hayabusa I asteroid sample return mission. Dr. Nakamura completed her B.S. in 1988, her M.S. in 1990, and her Ph.D. in 1993, all at Kyoto University.

FRANÇOIS POULET is an astronomer at the Institute of Space Astrophysics (IAS), a joint research unit of the French National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS) and the Université Paris-Sud. Prior to his position at the IAS, Dr. Poulet worked as a research scientist at the NASA Ames Research Center. He studies Mars and small bodies, and his work includes research on the formation and evolution of planetary surfaces. As deputy principal investigator of the MAJIS spectro-imager aboard the JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer) mission, Dr. Poulet also has experience in instrumental development. He received his Ph.D. in celestial mechanics and geodesy from the Department of Space Research at the Observatory of Paris.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×

ROBIN PUTZAR is a senior scientist in the Space Technology Group at the Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics (also known as the Ernst-Mach Institute, or EMI) in Freiburg, Germany. Mr. Putzar has led several large studies investigating the effects of hypervelocity impacts on spacecraft components and geological material, including ballistic limit analyses. His research interests include hypervelocity accelerators, and he has led the design of such accelerators at EMI. Mr. Putzar was a delegate at the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee and served on the Program Committee of the European Conference on Space Debris. He is currently chair of the Aeroballistic Range Association. Mr. Putzar has a baccalaureate degree in engineering sciences from Technology University of Berlin.

KALIAT T. RAMESH is a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Ramesh is also director of the Center for Advanced Metallic and Ceramic Systems and director of the Hopkins Extreme Materials Institute. His research interests are in high strain-rate behavior and dynamic failure of materials, nanostructured materials, injury biomechanics, and planetary-scale impact problems. He served as a visiting professor at the University of Cambridge. Dr. Ramesh has published one book, Nanomaterials: Mechanics and Mechanisms (2009). After receiving a B.E. from Bangalore University, he continued to Brown University, where he completed his M.S. in engineering. He was awarded his Ph.D. and an additional M.S. in applied mathematics from Brown University. Dr. Ramesh completed a postdoctoral fellowship with the Center of Excellence in Advanced Materials at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Ramesh previously served on the National Academies Committee on Opportunities in Protection Materials Science and Technology for Future Army Applications.

NORMAN H. SLEEP is a professor of geophysics in the School of Earth, Energy, and Environmental Sciences at Stanford University. Dr. Sleep’s research interests include studying convection at the base of the lithosphere and the interaction of the lithosphere with mantle plume material. He is also currently investigating the microphysics of friction and applying the results to nonlinear attenuation and ground damage by strong seismic waves. Dr. Sleep is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, the Geological Society of America, and the American Geophysical Union. He has received a number of awards for his work, including the James B. Macelwane award, the George P. Woollard Award from the Geological Society of America, and the 2008 Wollaston Medal from the Geological Society of London. Dr. Sleep earned a B.S. in mathematics from Michigan State University and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in geophysics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He has previously served on the National Academies Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science, the Committee on Survey of Surveys: Lessons Learned from the Decadal Survey Process, the Committee on Earth Resources, and the Committee on Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, and he currently serves as the NAS Section 15 liaison.

SHINO SUZUKI is a senior researcher at the Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology at the Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research in Japan. Dr. Suzuki has researched and published dozens of papers on microbial communities. Previously, she worked at J. Craig Venter Institute, where she collaborated with the NASA Astrobiology Institute developing and employing field, laboratory, and genomic modeling approaches aimed at detecting and characterizing subsurface microbial life. Dr. Suzuki earned her Ph.D. in molecular microbiology from the University of Tokyo.

MEGAN BRUCK SYAL is a physicist in the Design Physics Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Dr. Bruck Syal specializes in experimental and numerical simulation of planetary impacts, including hypervelocity impact experiments (with an emphasis on porous and volatile-rich materials) and modeling of impact events in a variety of shock physics codes. Her published and ongoing research includes impact delivery of carbon and volatiles to Mercury and the Moon, the excavation of Stickney Crater at Phobos, analysis of impactor- and target-derived vapor plumes using high-speed emission spectroscopy, and giant-impact formation of moons in exoplanetary systems. Additionally, Dr. Bruck Syal is very active in the field of planetary defense, supporting NASA’s DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test) mission with simulations of the planned 2022 spacecraft impact at Didymos B, NASA-Federal Emergency Management Agency Asteroid Impact Tabletop Exercises, and a NASA-National Nuclear Security Administration interagency collaboration on hazardous asteroid mitigation case

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×

studies. Her planetary defense work focuses on numerical simulation of deflection and disruption techniques, with a particular emphasis on understanding sensitivities to asteroid initial conditions. Previously, Dr. Bruck Syal was a postdoctoral researcher at LLNL (2014-2016), a Ph.D. candidate in the Geosciences Department at Brown University (2009-2014), and a data specialist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Chandra X-Ray Center (2007-2009). She is a recipient of a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship, a NASA Group Achievement Award (Deep Impact-EPOXI mission Science Team), and a Brown University Graduate Fellowship. Dr. Bruck Syal obtained her Ph.D. in planetary geosciences at Brown University.

ERIN L. WALTON is an associate professor at MacEwan University. Dr. Walton holds a Discovery Grant awarded by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada. The focus of her research is shock metamorphism of astromaterials, with an emphasis on martian meteorites. Dr. Walton’s research interests also encompass the age and formation of terrestrial impact structures, such as the 91-million-year-old Steen River Impact Crater in Alberta. She earned her Ph.D. in geology from the University of New Brunswick.

STAFF

EMMANOUIL DETSIS has been a science officer at ESF since 2012. Dr. Detsis’s main role at ESF consists of project management, business development, and coordination for the European Framework program activities of ESF. He has also managed several projects sponsored by the European Space Agency and the European Commission. Dr. Detsis received a B.Sc. in physics from the University of Crete and a Ph.D. in astrophysics from the University of Edinburgh. He also holds a master’s degree in space science from the International Space University in France.

DAVID H. SMITH joined the Space Studies Board (SSB) as a senior staff officer in 1991. Dr. Smith has been and is the study director for numerous National Academies’ activities in the general areas of astrobiology, planetary science, and planetary protection. He also organizes the SSB’s Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Internships and the joint NAS-Chinese Academy of Sciences Forum for New Leaders in Space Science. Dr. Smith received a B.Sc. in mathematical physics from the University of Liverpool in 1976, achieved the honors standard in Part III of the Mathematics Tripos at the University of Cambridge in 1977, and received a D.Phil. in theoretical astrophysics from Sussex University in 1981. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at Queen Mary College, University of London, he held the position of associate editor and, later, technical editor of Sky and Telescope. Immediately prior to joining the staff of the SSB, Dr. Smith was a Knight Science Journalism Fellow at MIT.

MIA BROWN joined the SSB as a research associate in 2016. Ms. Brown comes to the SSB with experience in both the civil and military space sectors and has primarily focused on policies surrounding U.S. space programs in the international sector. Some of these organizations include NASA’s Office of International and Interagency Relations, Arianespace, the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (Austria), and the Department of State. From 2014 to 2015, Ms. Brown was the managing editor of the International Affairs Review. She received her M.A. in international space policy from the Space Policy Institute at the Elliott School of International Affairs. Prior to entering the Space Policy Institute, Ms. Brown received her M.A. in historical studies from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where she concentrated in the history of science, technology, and medicine and defended a thesis on the development of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.

ANDREA REBHOLZ joined the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) as a program coordinator in January 2009. Ms. Rebholz began her career at the National Academies in October 2005 as a senior program assistant for the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation. Prior to the National Academies, she worked in the communications department of a DC-based think tank. Ms. Rebholz has a B.A. in integrative studies—event management from George Mason University’s New Century College. She earned the certified meeting professional designation in 2012 and the certified government meeting professional designation in 2017. She has more than 15 years of experience in event planning, project administration, and editing.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×

JONATHAN LUTZ is an undergraduate student at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he is seeking a degree in astrophysics. He interned with the SSB in fall 2018. Mr. Lutz worked as a student associate at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics in Boulder, Colorado. He was a member of a student-led BalloonSat research team that launched a scintillator gamma-ray detector on a small payload to the stratosphere. Previously, he worked as a freelance graphic designer and has a background in data science.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×
Page 54
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×
Page 55
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×
Page 56
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×
Page 57
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25357.
×
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An international consensus policy to prevent the biological cross-contamination of planetary bodies exists and is maintained by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science, which is consultative to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Currently, COSPAR’s planetary protection policy does not specify the status of sample-return missions from Phobos or Deimos, the moons of Mars. Although the moons themselves are not considered potential habitats for life or of intrinsic relevance to prebiotic chemical evolution, recent studies indicate that a significant amount of material recently ejected from Mars could be present on the surface of Phobos and, to a lesser extent, Deimos.

This report reviews recent theoretical, experimental, and modeling research on the environments and physical conditions encountered by Mars ejecta during certain processes. It recommends whether missions returning samples from Phobos and/or Deimos should be classified as “restricted” or “unrestricted” Earth return in the framework of the planetary protection policy maintained by COSPAR. This report also considers the specific ways the classification of sample return from Deimos is a different case than sample return from Phobos.

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