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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25358.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Committee for the Study on Performance of Bridges A Consensus Study Report of Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD SPECIAL REPORT 330 Construction Program

Transportation Research Board Special Report 330 Subscriber Categories Bridges and other structures; construction; design; maintenance and preservation; materials; research Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www. TRB.org or nationalacademies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organi- zational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transporta- tion Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334-3213; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America This publication was reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine. This study was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration of the U.S. Depart ment of Transportation. Front cover: A project using accelerated bridge construction techniques. Photo courtesy of the New Hampshire Department of Transportation. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48864-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48864-8 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25358 Library of Congress Control Number: 2019933452

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char- ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activi- ties annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typi- cally include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opin- ions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

v COMMITTEE FOR THE STUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF BRIDGES Mary Lou Ralls, Ralls Newman, LLC, Austin, Texas, Chair Ross B. Corotis, University of Colorado Boulder Rebecca L. Curtis, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing Catherine French, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Raymond Paul Giroux, Kiewit Bridge and Marine, Kiewit Infrastructure West Company, Vancouver, Washington Yidong (Eddie) He, Parsons Corporation, Chicago, Illinois Malcolm T. Kerley, NXL Construction Services, Inc., Richmond, Virginia Bijan Khaleghi, Washington State Department of Transportation, Tumwater Norman McDonald, Ames, Iowa R. Shankar Nair, exp US Services Inc., Chicago, Illinois Randall W. Poston, Pivot Engineers, Austin, Texas Abdul-Hamid Zureick, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Transportation Research Board Staff Joseph R. Morris, Study Director Thomas R. Menzies, Jr., Director of Consensus and Advisory Studies Michael Covington, Senior Program Assistant

vii Preface The Transportation Research Board (TRB) formed the Committee for the Study on Performance of Bridges to analyze the performance of bridges that received funding in the federal Innovative Bridge Research and Construc- tion (IBRC) program and to recommend to Congress how life-cycle costs of bridges could be reduced through the use of innovative technologies. The U.S. Department of Transportation commissioned TRB to conduct the study, as it was directed by Congress in Section 1422 of the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act of 2015, Public Law 114-94. The IBRC program, created by Congress in 1998, provided grants to state highway agencies to cover costs associated with the use of new materials and technologies in bridge construction and repair projects as incentives for innovation in the agencies’ practices. The TRB committee included members with expertise in each of the major categories of materials and technologies that were demonstrated in the IBRC projects. Members’ backgrounds included state highway admin- istration, engineering research, and the construction and engineering design industries. The committee heard presentations at its meetings from Reid Castrodale, National Concrete Bridge Council; William R. Cox, National Concrete Bridge Council; Sheila Duwadi, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA); Karl Frank, National Steel Bridge Alliance; Thomas Harman, FHWA; and Dave White, American Composites Manufacturers Association. This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this indepen- dent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the

viii PREFACE National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The com- mittee thanks the following individuals for their review of this report: Jamie Farris, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin; Douglas D. Gransberg, Iowa State University, Ames; Gary J. Klein, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc., Northbrook, Illinois; Sandra Q. Larson, Stanley Consultants, Inc., Des Moines, Iowa; Thomas P. Macioce, Pennsylvania Department of Transpor- tation, Harrisburg; John J. Myers, Missouri University of Science and Tech- nology, Rolla; Henry G. Russell, Henry G. Russell, Inc., Glenview, Illinois; and Phillip Sauser, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul, Minnesota. Although the reviewers provided many constructive comments and sug- gestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Maxine Savitz (National Academy of Engineer- ing), Honeywell, Inc. (retired); and Chris T. Hendrickson (National Academy of Engineering), Carnegie Mellon University (emeritus). They were respon- sible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Joseph R. Morris managed the study, edited the report, and drafted sections of the report under the guidance of the committee and the supervision of Thomas R. Menzies, Jr., Director, Consensus and Advisory Studies Division. Glenn A. Washer, Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Missouri-Columbia, engaged by TRB as a consultant to the study, conducted the interviews with state highway agencies that are summarized in this report and compiled data on the IBRC projects. Karen Febey managed the report review process. Michael Covington assisted with meeting arrangements and communications with committee members.

ix Contents Summary 1 1 Introduction 7 Study Charge, 8 Sources of Information, 10 Organization of the Report, 15 2 IBRC Program Administration, Technologies, and Projects Funded 17 Legislation, Funding, and Administration, 17 Technologies Applied in the IBRC Projects, 20 3 Highway Agency Experience with the IBRC Program 23 Extent of Use Today of the IBRC Technologies, 23 IBRC Technologies That Have Not Been Generally Adopted, 28 Influence of IBRC Experience on Acceptance and Use, 30 Standards and Specifications, 31 Influence of Training Requirements, 33 4 Performance of the IBRC Bridges; Utility of the IBRC Technologies 35 Quantitative Evaluations of the Benefits of IBRC Technologies, 35 Data from the States on Performance of the IBRC Bridges, 44

x CONTENTS 5 Conclusions and Recommendations 51 Performance of the IBRC Projects in Meeting the Goals of the Program, 52 Utility of the IBRC Technologies, 60 Opportunities to Reduce Installed and Life-Cycle Costs of Bridges Through Innovation, 63 Recommendations, 70 References 79 Appendixes A TEA-21 Section 5103 (part) (June 9, 1998): Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program 85 B Definitions of IBRC Technologies 87 Study Committee Biographical Information 101

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TRB Special Report 330: Performance of Bridges That Received Funding Under the Innovative Bridge Research and Construction Program, examines the results of a federal program to promote innovation in highway bridge construction. The report provides recommendations to Congress on how the installed and life-cycle costs of bridges could be reduced through the use of innovative materials and technologies.

The Innovative Bridge Research and Construction (IBRC) program, created by act of Congress, provided state departments of transportation with a total of $128.7 million in grants as incentives for use of innovative materials and technology to construct or repair approximately 400 bridges from 1999 to 2005.

Materials used included fiber-reinforced polymer composites, high-performance concrete, high-performance steel, and corrosion resistant reinforcing bar. Projects also demonstrated accelerated bridge construction (ABC) techniques. Congress directed the U.S. Department of Transportation to commission the Transportation Research Board (TRB) to study the performance of the bridges that received funding in the IBRC program.

The committee that produced the report provides an analysis of the performance of bridges that received IBRC funding and the extent that they met the goals of the program. The committee also provides an analysis of the utility, compared to conventional materials and technologies, of the innovative materials and technologies used in IBRC projects in meeting needs for a sustainable and low life-cycle cost transportation system.

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