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Report Series - Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science Review of the Commercial Aspects of NASA SMDâs Lunar Science and Exploration Initiative Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary Science Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This study is based on work supported by Contract No. NNH17CB02B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any agency or organization that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-48928-7 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-48928-8 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25374 Copies of this publication are available free of charge from: Space Studies Board National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Report Series: Committee on Astrobiology and Planetary ScienceâReview of the Commercial Aspects of NASA SMDâs Lunar Science and Exploration Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25374.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.
Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the studyâs statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committeeâs deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.
COMMITTEE ON ASTROBIOLOGY AND PLANETARY SCIENCE CHRISTOPHER H. HOUSE, Pennsylvania State University, Co-Chair WILLIAM B. MCKINNON, Washington University, St. Louis, Co-Chair ERIK ASPHAUG, University of Arizona RONALD BREAKER, NAS,1 Yale University BETHANY L. EHLMANN, California Institute of Technology ALEXANDER G. HAYES, Cornell University SARAH M. HÃRST, Johns Hopkins University JAMES F. KASTING, NAS, Pennsylvania State University EDWIN S. KITE, University of Chicago ALYSSA RHODEN, Southwest Research Institute NITA SAHAI, University of Akron MARK P. SAUNDERS, Independent Consultant DAVID J. STEVENSON, NAS, California Institute of Technology CLIVE R. NEAL, University of Notre Dame, Consultant to the Committee Staff: DAVID H. SMITH, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board; SARAH C. BROTHERS, Associate Program Officer, Space Studies Board; ANDREA REBHOLZ, Program Coordinator, Space Studies Board; COLLEEN HARTMAN, Director, Space Studies Board and Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board SPACE STUDIES BOARD FIONA HARRISON, NAS, California Institute of Technology, Chair (until January 2019) JAMES H. CROCKER, NAE,2 Lockheed Martin (retired), Vice Chair GREGORY P. ASNER, NAS, Carnegie Institution for Science JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant ADAM BURROWS, NAS, Princeton University MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Dittmar Associates JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara JOSEPH FULLER, JR., Futron Corporation SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research VICTORIA HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, NAS, George Washington University DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory STEPHEN J. MACKWELL, Universities Space Research Association DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University LARRY PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego ERIKA WAGNER, Blue Origin PAUL WOOSTER, Space Exploration Technologies EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, University of California, Los Angeles 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering. v
ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Stephen R. Berry, NAS, University of Chicago, Mary Lynne Dittmar, Dittmar Associates, Inc., Bradley L. Jolliff, Washington University, St. Louis, Simone Marchi, Southwest Research Institute, George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired), Norman H. Sleep, NAS, Stanford University, and Maria T. Zuber, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Charles F. Kennel, NAS, University of California, San Diego. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. vi