National Academies Press: OpenBook

Monitoring Educational Equity (2019)

Chapter: References and Bibliography

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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Monitoring Educational Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25389.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Monitoring Educational Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25389.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Monitoring Educational Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25389.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Monitoring Educational Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25389.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Monitoring Educational Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25389.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Monitoring Educational Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25389.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Prepublication copy: Uncorrected proofs References and Bibliography Aaronson, D., Barrow, L., and Sander, W. (2007). Teachers and student achievement in the Chicago public high schools. Journal of Labor Economics, 25(1), 95-135. Abedi, J., and Herman, J. (2010). Assessing English language learners’ opportunity to learn mathematics: Issues and limitations. Teachers College Record, 112(3), 723-746. Achieve, Inc. (2018). On Track or Falling Behind? How States Include Measures of 9th Grade Performance in Their ESSA Plans. Washington, DC: Author. Adelman, H.S., and Taylor, L. (1997). Addressing barriers to learning: Beyond school-linked services and full-service schools. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67(3), 408-421. Adler, N.E., Boyce, T., Chesney, M.A., Folkman, S., and Syme, S.L. (1993). Socioeconomic inequalities in health: No easy solution. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269(24), 3140-3145. Aizer, A., Currie, J., Simon, P., and Vivier, P. (2016). Do Low Levels of Blood Lead Reduce Children's Future Test Scores? (No. w22558). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Allensworth, E., and Clark, K. (2018). Are GPAs an Inconsistent Measure of Achievement across High Schools? Examining Assumptions about Grades versus Standardized Test Scores. UChicago Consortium on School Research. Available: https://consortium.uchicago.edu/publications/are-gpas-inconsistent-measure- achievement-across-high-schools-examining-assumptions [March 2019]. Allensworth, E., and Erlich Allensworth, E., and Easton, J.Q. (2005). The On-Track Indicator as a Predictor of High School Graduation. UChicago Consortium on School Research. Available: https://consortium.uchicago.edu/publications/track-indicator-predictor-high-school- graduation [January 2019]. Allensworth, E., and Easton, J.Q. (2007). What Matters for Staying On-Track and Graduating in Chicago Public High Schools: A Close Look at Course Grades, Failures, and Attendance in Freshman Year. UChicago Consortium on Chicago School Research. Available: https://consortium.uchicago.edu/publications/what-matters-staying-track-and-graduating- chicago-public-schools [Mary 2019]. Allensworth, E., Farrington, C.A., Gordon, M.F., Johnson, D.W., Klein, K., McDaniel, B., and Nagaoka, J. (2018). Supporting Social, Emotional, & Academic Development: Research Implications for Educators. UChicago Consortium on School Research. Available: https://consortium.uchicago.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Supporting%20Social%20 Emotional-Oct2018-Consortium.pdf [December 2018]. Allensworth, E., Gwynne, J.A., Moore, P., and de la Torre, M. (2014). Looking Forward to High School and College: Middle Grade Indicators of Readiness in Chicago Public Schools. UChicago Consortium on School Research. Available: Refs‐1 

Prepublication copy: Uncorrected proofs https://consortium.uchicago.edu/publications/looking-forward-high-school-and-college- middle-grade-indicators-readiness-chicago [May 2019]. Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., and Johnson, D.W. (2018). High School Graduation and College Readiness Indicator Systems: What We Know, What We Need To Know. UChicago Consortium on School Research. Available: https://consortium.uchicago.edu/publications/high-school-graduation-and-college- readiness-indicator-systems-what-we-know-what-we [May 2019]. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016). Poverty and child health in the United States. Pediatrics, 137(4), 1-16. American Statistical Association. (2014). ASA Statement on Using Value-Added Models for Educational Assessment. Alexandria, VA: Author. Available: https://www.amstat.org/asa/files/pdfs/POL-ASAVAM-Statement.pdf [April 2019]. Anderson, K.P., and Ritter, G.W. (2017). Disparate use of exclusionary discipline: Evidence on inequities in school discipline from a U.S. state. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 25(49). Anderson, M.J., Citro, C.F., and Salvo, J.J. (Eds.). (2012). Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census— From the Constitution to the American Community Survey (ACS), 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: CQPress. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2010). 2010 Kids Count Data Book: State Profiles of Child Wellbeing. Baltimore, MD: Author. Available: https://www.aecf.org/resources/the-2010- kids-count-data-book [January 2019]. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2018). 2018 Kids Count Data Book: State Trends in Child Well-Being. Baltimore, MD: Author. Available: https://www.aecf.org/m/resourcedoc/aecf-2018kidscountdatabook-2018.pdf [April 2019]. Ansari, A., and Purtell, K.M. (2017). Activity settings in full-day kindergarten classrooms and children’s early learning. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 38, 23-32. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2016.09.003 [January 2019]. Appleton, J.J., Christenson, S.L., and Furlong, M.J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369-386. Available: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ790338 [January 2019]. Au, W. (2007) High-stakes testing and curricular control: A qualitative metasynthesis. Educational Researcher, 36(5). 258-267. Aucejo, E., and Romano, T.F. (2016). Assessing the effect of school days and absences on test score performance. Economics of Education Review, 55, 70-87. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2016.08.007 [March 2019]. Austin, G. (2013). The California healthy kids survey: The case for continuation. Prevention Tactics, 9(8), 1-7. Austin, G., Polik, J., Hanson, T., and Zheng, C. (2016). School Climate, Substance Use, and Student Well-Being in California, 2013-2015. Results of the fifteenth Biennial Statewide Student Survey, Grades 7, 9, and 11. San Francisco, CA: WestEd Health & Human Development Program. Baker, B.D., Farrie, D., and Sciarra, D. (2018). Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card, 7th Edition. Newark, NJ: Education Law Center. Available: http://www.edlawcenter.org/assets/files/pdfs/publications/Is_School_Funding_Fair_7th_ Editi.pdf [April 2019]. Refs‐2 

Prepublication copy: Uncorrected proofs Balfanz, R., and Byrnes, V. (2006). Closing the mathematics achievement gap in high-poverty middle schools: Enablers and constraints. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 11(2), 143-159. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327671espr1102_2 [January 2019]. Balfanz, R., and Byrnes, V. (2012a). Chronic Absenteeism: Summarizing What We Know From Nationally Available Data. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Center for Social Organization of Schools. Balfanz, R., and Byrnes, V. (2012b). The Importance of Being There: A Report on Absenteeism in the Nation’s Public Schools. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University School of Education, Everyone Graduates Center. Balfanz, R., Byrnes, V., and Fox, J. (2015). Sent home and put off track: The antecedents, disproportionalities, and consequences of being suspended in the 9th grade. In D.J. Losen (Ed.), Closing the School Discipline Gap: Equitable Remedies for Excessive Exclusion. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., and MacIver, D.J. (2007). Preventing student disengagement and keeping students on the graduation path in urban middle-grades schools: Early identification and effective interventions. Educational Psychologist, 42(4), 223-235. Baltimore Education Research Consortium. (2011). Destination Graduation: Sixth Grade Early Warning Indicators for Baltimore City Schools: Their Prevalence and Impact. Baltimore, MD: Author. Available: http://baltimore-berc.org/pdfs/SixthGradeEWIFullReport.pdf [January 2019]. Barton, P.E., and Coley, R.J. (2007). The Family: America’s Smallest School. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Bassok D., Finch J., Lee R., Reardon S., and Waldfogel J. (2016). Socioeconomic gaps in early childhood experiences: 1998 to 2010. AERA Open, 2(3), 1-22. Baumeister, R.F., and Vohs, K.D. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of Self-regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications. New York, NY: The Guilford Press Baumert, J., Kunter, M., Blum, W., Brunner, M., Voss, T., Jordan, A., Klusmann, U., Krauss, S., Neubrand, M., and Tsai, Y. (2010). Teachers’ mathematical knowledge, cognitive activation in the classroom, and student progress. American Educational Research Journal, 47(1), 133-180. Available: https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831209345157 [April 2019]. Beaton, A.E., Rogers, A. M., Gonzalez, E., Hanly, M. B., Kolstad, A., Rust, K. F., Sikali, E., Stokes, L., and Jia, Y. (2011). The NAEP Primer (NCES 2011-463). National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Belfield, C.R., and Levin, H.M. (2007). The Price We Pay: Economic and Social Consequences of Inadequate Education. Washington, DC: Brookings. Available: https://www.brookings.edu/book/the-price-we-pay [January 2019]. Berliner, D. (2013). Effects of inequality and poverty vs. teachers and schooling on America’s youth. Teacher’s College Record, 115, 1-26.  Bierman, K.L., Nix, R.L., Greenberg, M.T., Blair, C., and Domitrovich, C.E. (2008). Executive functions and school readiness intervention: impact, moderation, and mediation in the Head Start REDI program. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 821-843. Bireda and Chait, 2011 Black, D. (2017). Education Law: Equality, Fairness, and Reform. New York, NY: Aspen Publishers, Inc. Refs‐3 

Prepublication copy: Uncorrected proofs Blair, C., and Diamond, A. (2008). Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure. Development and Psychopathology, 20(3), 899-911. Available: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000436 [January 2019]. Blair, C., and Raver, C. (2012). Child development and the context of adversity: Experimental canalization of brain and behavior. American Psychologist, 67, 309-318. Blair, C., and Razza, R.P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78, 647-663. Available: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01019.x [January 2019]. Bowen, W.G., Chingos, M.M., and McPherson, M.S. (2009). Crossing The Finish Line: Completing College at America’s Public Universities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Bowers, A.J. (2010). Analyzing the longitudinal K–12 grading histories of entire cohorts of students: Grades, data driven decision making, dropping out and hierarchical cluster analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, & Evaluation, 15(7), 1-8. Available: https://pareonline.net/pdf/v15n7.pdf [April 2019]. Bowers, H., Manion, I., Papadopoulos, D., and Gauvreau, E. (2013). Stigma in school-based mental health: Perceptions of young people and service providers. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 18(3), 165-170. Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., and Wyckoff, J. (2008). Measuring Effect Sizes: The Effect of Measurement Error. Working Paper 19. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, The Urban Institute. Braxton, J.M. (2000). Reinvigorating theory and research on the departure puzzle. In J.M. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the Student Departure Puzzle (pp. 257–274). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press. Brock et al., 2009 Brookover, W.B, Beady, C., Flood, P., Schweitzer, J., and Wisenbaker, J. (1979). School Social Systems and Student Achievement: Schools Can Make A Difference. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers. Brooks-Gunn, J., and Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7(2), 55-71. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/13921271_The_Effects_of_Poverty_on_Childr en [December 2018]. Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G.J., and Aber, J.L. (Eds.). (1997). Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Brooks-Gunn, J., and Markman, L.B. (2005). The contribution of parenting to ethnic and racial gaps in school readiness. The Future of Children, 15(1), 139-168. Available: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795847.pdf [April 2019]. Bruch, S.K., and Soss, J. (2018). Schooling as a formative political experience: Authority relations and the education of citizens. Perspectives on Politics, 16(01), 36-57. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592717002195 [March 2019]. Bryk, A.S., and Hermanson, K.L. (1993). Chapter 10: Educational indicator systems: Observations on their structure, interpretation, and use. Review of Research in Education, 19(1), 451-484. Refs‐4   

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Disparities in educational attainment among population groups have characterized the United States throughout its history. Education is sometimes characterized as the “great equalizer,” but to date, the country has not found ways to successfully address the adverse effects of socioeconomic circumstances, prejudice, and discrimination that suppress performance for some groups.

To ensure that the pursuit of equity encompasses both the goals to which the nation aspires for its children and the mechanisms to attain those goals, a revised set of equity indicators is needed. Measures of educational equity often fail to account for the impact of the circumstances in which students live on their academic engagement, academic progress, and educational attainment. Some of the contextual factors that bear on learning include food and housing insecurity, exposure to violence, unsafe neighborhoods, adverse childhood experiences, and exposure to environmental toxins. Consequently, it is difficult to identify when intervention is necessary and how it should function. A revised set of equity indicators should highlight disparities, provide a way to explore potential causes, and point toward possible improvements.

Monitoring Educational Equity proposes a system of indicators of educational equity and presents recommendations for implementation. This report also serves as a framework to help policy makers better understand and combat inequity in the United States’ education system. Disparities in educational opportunities reinforce, and often amplify, disparities in outcomes throughout people’s lives. Thus, it is critical to ensure that all students receive comprehensive supports that level the playing field in order to improve the well-being of underrepresented individuals and the nation.

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