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Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop (2019)

Chapter: Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
×
Page 192
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
×
Page 193
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Page 194
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Page 195
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Page 196
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Page 200
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Page 205
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25391.
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Appendix E Biographical Sketches of Pre-Workshop and Workshop Speakers and Moderators Abdullah M. Assiri, M.D., FACP, is an adult infectious diseases consultant; assistant deputy minister of preventive health; International Health Regu- lations national focal point in the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia; and adjunct associate professor in the Hubert Department of Global Health at Emory University. Rick A. Bright, Ph.D., is the deputy assistant secretary for preparedness and response and the director of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Devel- opment Authority (BARDA), which is a component of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. He oversees the advanced development and procurement of medical countermeasures against an array of threats to national security and the public’s health, including chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear threats and pandemic influenza, and emerging infec- tious diseases. Dr. Bright began his career in vaccine and therapeutics development at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with a focus on influenza viruses, antiviral drugs, and the development of novel assays for high throughput surveillance for resistance to antiviral drugs. For this work, Dr. Bright was a recipient of the Charles C. Shepard Sci- ence Award for Scientific Excellence. He has extensive experience in the biotechnology industry in which he served in senior leadership and execu- tive management roles. Dr. Bright has also held senior scientific leader- ship positions in nongovernmental organizations for which he championed innovative vaccine development and international vaccine manufacturing capacity expansion in developing countries. He serves as an international 191

192 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS subject matter expert in vaccine, drug, and diagnostics development and has served as an advisor to the World Health Organization and the U.S. Department of Defense. Dr. Bright joined BARDA in 2010, and prior to becoming director in late 2016, he served as director of BARDA’s Influenza and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division. Dr. Bright received his Ph.D. in immunology and virology from Emory University and his B.S. in biology and physical sciences from Auburn University. Peter Daszak, Ph.D., is president of EcoHealth Alliance, a U.S.-based orga- nization that conducts research and outreach programs on global health, conservation, and international development. Dr. Daszak’s research has been instrumental in identifying and predicting the impact of emerging diseases across the globe. His achievements include identifying the bat origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome, identifying the underlying drivers of Nipah and Hendra virus emergence, producing the first ever global emerging disease “hotspots” map, developing a strategy to find out how many unknown viruses exist that could threaten to become pandemic, identifying the first case of a species extinction due to disease, and discover­ ing the disease chytridiomycosis as the cause global amphibian declines. Dr. Daszak is a member and chair-elect of the National Academies of Sci- ences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats. He is a member of the National Research Council (NRC) Advisory Committee to the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the Supervisory Board of the One Health Platform, the One Health Commission Council of Advisors, the Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases External Advisory Board, the Cosmos Club, and the Advisory Council of the Bridge Collaborative; he has served on the Institute of Medicine com- mittee on global surveillance for emerging zoonoses, the NRC committee on the future of veterinary research, the International Standing Advisory Board of the Australian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centres; and has advised the director for medical preparedness policy on the White House National Security Staff on global health issues. Dr. Daszak is a regular advisor to the World Health Organization (WHO), World Organisation for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and is actively involved in the WHO Expert group on Public Health Emergency Disease Prioritization. Dr. Daszak won the 2000 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation medal for collaborative research on the discovery of amphibian chytridiomycosis, is the EHA institutional lead for USAID-EPT-PREDICT, is on the editorial boards of Conservation Biology, One Health, and Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, and is editor-in-chief of the journal EcoHealth. He has authored more than 300 scientific papers, and his work has been the focus of extensive media coverage, ranging from popular press articles to television appearances.

APPENDIX E 193 Victor J. Dzau, M.D., is the president of the National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly the Institute of Medicine (IOM). In addition, he serves as vice chair of the National Research Council. Dr. Dzau is chancellor emeritus and James B. Duke Professor of Medicine at Duke University and the past president and chief executive officer of the Duke University Health System. Previously, Dr. Dzau was the Hershey Professor of Theory and Practice of Medicine and chairman of medicine at Harvard Medical School’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital, as well as chairman of the Department of Medi- cine at Stanford University. He is an internationally acclaimed leader and scientist whose work has improved health care in the United States and globally. His seminal work in cardiovascular medicine and genetics laid the foundation for the development of the class of lifesaving drugs known as ACE inhibitors, used globally to treat hypertension and heart failure. In his role as a leader in health care, Dr. Dzau has led efforts in innovation to improve health, including the development of the Duke Translational Medicine Institute, the Duke Global Health Institute, the Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, and the Duke Institute for Health Innovation. He has served as a member of the Advisory Commit- tee to the director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), chaired the NIH Cardiovascular Disease Advisory Committee, and currently chairs the NIH Cardiovascular Stem Cell Biology and Translational Consortia. C ­ urrently, he is a member of the Board of the Singapore Health System, member of the Health Biomedical Sciences International Advisory Council of ­ ingapore, and Advisory Council of the Imperial College Health Partners, S UK. He chairs the International Scientific Advisory Committee of the Qatar Genome Project, chairs the Scientific Boards of the Peter Munk Cardiac Center, University of Toronto, and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow. Since arriving at the National Academies, Dr. Dzau has designed and led important initiatives such as the Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future; the Human Genome Editing Initiative; and Vital Directions for Health and Health Care. The launch of the NAM Grand Challenge for Healthy Longevity represents his vision to inspire across disciplines and sectors to coalesce around a shared priority and audacious goal to advance health. Mosoka P. Fallah, Ph.D., M.P.H., M.A., co-founded the National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL) 20 months after the Ebola crisis that ravaged his native country. He was appointed by President Ellen Johnson- Sirleaf of Liberia as the deputy director for technical services and oversees the Divisions of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Public Health Laboratory, and Medical and Public Health Research, among others. He was recently appointed as part-time faculty in the Department of Social Medicine at the Harvard Medical School. Dr. Fallah is the Liberian princi- pal investigator of a 5-year natural history study on Ebola that is sponsored

194 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and that follows the largest cohort of Ebola survivors in the world. He also served as chair of the Department of Biochemistry at the A.M. Dogliotti College of Medicine at the Univer- sity of Liberia. While still a Ph.D. student at the University of Kentucky, he founded Refuge Place International to address the very high number of maternal and neonatal deaths in Liberia. He then attended the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health to study global health and concentrated in infectious disease epidemiology. In 2013, Dr. Fallah returned to Liberia to work on maternal and child health in a country that was ravaged by civil war and was rebuilding its health system. Just as he opened Refuge Place International in Chicken Soup Factory, a slum in Liberia, the Ebola outbreak occurred, and the organization was shuttered. With his skills in epidemiology and program management, Dr. Fallah became the head of the Liberian Ebola response and launched an active case-finding system, which became a model for epidemic control. Because he was raised in Monrovia, he had prior experience building trust within communities that struggled to deal with Ebola. He also gained extensive experience working in other humanitarian crises with Doctors Without Borders in Liberia during the height of the civil war. With more than 10 years of experience in develop- ment work, he has consulted for Action Against Hunger, Chemonics, the President’s Malaria Initiative, the United Nations Development Programme, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the World Health Organization. Dr. Fallah has worked extensively with the Liberian Ministry of Health, medical centers, and other nonprofit organizations to jumpstart his flagship program in Liberia. For his work in the Ebola response, he was named a Time Magazine Person of the Year in 2014. Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., is director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health, where he oversees an extensive research portfolio focused on infectious and immune-mediated diseases. As the long-time chief of the NIAID Laboratory of Immunoregulation, Dr. Fauci has made many seminal contributions in basic and clinical research and is one of the world’s most-cited biomedical scientists. He was one of the principal architects of the President’s Emer- gency Plan for AIDS Relief, a program that has saved millions of lives throughout the developing world. David Fidler, J.D., M.Phil., is adjunct senior fellow for cybersecurity and global health at the Council on Foreign Relations and is the James Louis Calamaras Professor of Law at the Indiana University Maurer School of Law. He is an expert in international law, cybersecurity, national security, terrorism, counterinsurgency, international trade, biosecurity, and global health. Professor Fidler has served as an international legal consultant to

APPENDIX E 195 the World Bank (on foreign investment in Palestine), the World Health Organization, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (on global health issues), the U.S. Department of Defense’s Defense Science Board (on bioterrorism), the Scientists Working Group on Biological and Chemical Weapons of the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, U.S. Joint Forces Command (on rule of law issues in stability operations), the Interagency Afghanistan Integrated Civilian-Military Pre-Deployment Training Course organized by the U.S. Departments of Defense, State, Agriculture and the U.S. Agency for International Development, and various initiatives undertaken by nongovernmental organizations in the areas of global health and arms control. He served as chair for an International Law Association study group on terrorism, cybersecurity, and international law. Harvey V. Fineberg, M.D., Ph.D., is president of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. He previously served as president of the National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine), provost of Harvard University, and dean of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. He is a trustee of the China Medical Board and of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He helped found and served as president of the Society for Medical Decision Making and chaired the World Health Organization Committee to Review the International Health Regulations (2005) and Response to Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009. Dr. Fineberg is co-author of the books Clinical Decision Analysis, Innovators in Physician Education, and The Epidemic That Never Was, an analysis of the controversial federal immunization program against swine flu in 1976. Gabrielle Fitzgerald, M.P.A., is a global leader who believes that innovative approaches and catalytic coalitions are needed to solve the most challeng- ing issues. Her focus is on designing and driving strategies that measurably impact people, organizations, and countries. Ms. Fitzgerald is the founder and chief executive officer of Panorama, an action tank dedicated to helping ambitious leaders solve global problems. For more than two decades, she has led teams and collaborated with partners to spark global change. Prior to founding Panorama, she directed the $100 million Ebola program at the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation, investing in creative approaches to com- bat the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Ms. Fitzgerald previously served as the director of global program advocacy at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foun- dation, leading the team that advanced policy and advocacy agendas for the organization’s global issues. In 2014, she won the Gold Medallion award from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Center for Com- munication Programs for her leadership on malaria. Earlier in her career, Ms. Fitzgerald led the public affairs strategy for HIV/AIDS at the U.S. Agency for International Development and served as the communications

196 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS director for the U.S. Committee for Refugees. She also served as a speech- writer for President Clinton at The White House. Ms. Fitzgerald holds n M.P.A. from the Maxwell School at Syracuse University and a B.A. from American University in Washington, DC. Keiji Fukuda, M.D., M.P.H., is the director and a clinical professor of the School of Public Health at The University of Hong Kong. He previously worked at the World Health Organization (WHO) in several capacities including assistant director-general (ADG) and special representative of the Director-General for antimicrobial resistance; ADG for the Health Security and Environment Cluster; and director of the Global Influenza Programme. Before that, he worked at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion (CDC) as the Epidemiology Section chief, Influenza Branch, and as a medical epidemiologist in the Viral Exanthems and Herpesvirus Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases. Dr. Fukuda has been a global pub- lic health leader in many areas, including health security; emerging infec- tious diseases, including seasonal, avian, and pandemic influenza, SARS, MERS, and Ebola; antimicrobial resistance; development of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework; implementation of the International Health Regulations; food safety; and chronic fatigue syndrome. He has considerable experience in epidemiological research and field investiga- tions, media communications, and international diplomatic negotiations including those held to establish a historic heads of state-level meeting on antimicrobial resistance at the United Nations in 2016. He has a B.A. in Biology, an M.D., an M.P.H., was trained in the Epidemic Intelligence Ser- vice at CDC, and is certified in internal medicine by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Laurie Garrett, Ph.D. (honoris causa), has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize three times, receiving it in 1996 for coverage of the Kikwit Ebola epidemic. She is the only writer to have received the Pulitzer, Peabody, and Polk (twice), as well as four Overseas Press Club awards. For 13 years, she was senior fellow for global health at the Council on Foreign Relations. Prior to that she was a correspondent with Newsday, and National Public Radio. Dr. Garrett is the author of The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance, Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health, and I Heard the Sirens Scream: How Americans Responded to the 9/11 and Anthrax Attacks. She graduated with honors from the University of California, Santa Cruz, and did graduate studies in immunology at the University of California, Berkeley, and Stanford Univer- sity. She was a fellow at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and former president of the National Association of Science Writers. She

APPENDIX E 197 is currently the founder of the Anthropos Initiative and a featured writer for Foreign Policy. Bruce Gellin, M.D., M.P.H., is president of global immunization at the Sabin Vaccine Institute in Washington, DC. In this role, Dr. Gellin over- sees Sabin’s mission to make vaccines more accessible, enable innovation, and expand immunization across the globe. With a focus on low- and middle-income countries, this work helps countries make evidence-based decisions about vaccine introduction and implementation and strengthens policy, financing, and political will for country ownership of immunization. Before joining Sabin, Dr. Gellin served in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as deputy assistant secretary for health and director, National Vaccine Program Office (NVPO) within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health. NVPO was created by U.S. Congress to provide lead- ership and coordination among federal agencies and other immunization stakeholders, including states and municipalities, health care providers, ­ and private-sector entities such as vaccine manufacturers. Dr. Gellin has had broad experience in public health aspects of infectious diseases and has held positions at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Dis- eases, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Rockefeller Foundation, the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. In addition, he was the founder and executive director of the National Network for Immunization Information, an organization he founded to be a resource of up-to-date, authoritative information about vaccines and immunizations. He has been a regular consultant to the World Health Organization. He currently has faculty appointments at the Georgetown University School of Medicine and the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Dr. Gellin is a graduate of the University of North Carolina (Morehead Scholar), Cornell University Medical College, and the Columbia University School of Public Health. He is an infectious disease expert with training in epidemiology. He has written extensively about public health aspects of infectious diseases in both medi- cal and nonmedical texts, peer-reviewed medical literature, and has served as a medical advisor to Encyclopedia Britannica. Julie L. Gerberding, M.D., M.P.H., is executive vice president and chief patient officer at Merck & Co., Inc., where she is responsible for a broad portfolio of patient engagement, communications, policy, philanthropic, and other functions. She joined Merck in 2010 as president of vaccines, and was instrumental in increasing access to the company’s vaccines to people around the world. Previously, Dr. Gerberding was director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where she led the agency through more than 40 emergency responses to public health crises. She

198 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS serves on the boards of Cerner Corporation and the MSD Wellcome Trust Hilleman Laboratories, a nonprofit that develops new technologies for developing countries. Anne Huvos, J.D., DESS, joined World Health Organization (WHO) head- quarters in 2006, when she began working on the formal and informal processes and negotiations that would lead to adoption of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework. She has been leading the PIP Framework Secretariat since the framework’s adoption by the World Health Assembly in 2011. Under her leadership, implementation of the framework has demonstrated its value as a model for strengthening public health security through an innovative partnership with public, private, and non­ overnmental sectors. The PIP Framework has been instrumen- g tal in strengthening global pandemic influenza preparedness and response capacities in countries where they are weak, and establishing agreements to provide to WHO access to critical pandemic response supplies, in real time, at the time of a pandemic. Jacqueline M. Katz, Ph.D., is the deputy director of the Influenza Division and the director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Control of Influenza at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). She received her Bach- elor of Science degree in microbiology and biochemistry and her doctoral degree in microbiology from the University of Melbourne in Melbourne, Australia. She did her postdoctoral training in influenza virology and was later an assistant member in the Department of Virology and Molecular Biology at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. Dr. Katz joined CDC in 1992 as the chief of the Immunology and Viral Pathogenesis Section, Influenza Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases. From 2006 until 2014, Dr. Katz was the chief of the Immunology and Pathogenesis Branch, Influenza Division. Dr. Katz has been a board member of the International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Diseases (isirv) since 2007 and the deputy chair since 2012. She is an associate editor for Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses journal. She is the author and co-author of more than 300 research articles, reviews, and book chapters and is the recipient of three CDC Charles C. Shepard Science Awards for excellence in laboratory and methods publications. Dr. Katz is recognized internationally for her studies on the immunology and pathogenicity of influenza viruses, studies at the animal–human interface to understand the extent of and risk factors for human infection with novel influenza viruses of animal origin, and WHO-related work on influenza vaccine virus selection.

APPENDIX E 199 Yoshihiro Kawaoka, D.V.M., Ph.D., was educated in Japan, receiving his D.V.M. in 1978 and his Ph.D. in 1983 from Hokkaido University. Dr. Kawaoka established the technique of reverse genetics, which allows the generation of “designer” influenza viruses. This technology—coupled with his findings regarding the weakening of deadly influenza viruses—has been used to develop candidate bird flu virus vaccines. Reverse genetics is also used to generate live attenuated influenza vaccines (e.g., FluMist). Dr. Kawaoka discovered what makes bird flu viruses so deadly and what makes bird flu jump from birds to humans. He also discovered why the 1918 Spanish flu virus was so deadly. As a founder of FluGen, Dr. Kawaoka is developing a universal flu vaccine, which is currently in clinical trials. In addition to his influenza research, Dr. Kawaoka studies Ebola virus, and his group worked in Sierra Leone during the Ebola outbreak in 2014–2016 and continues to work with Ebola survivors. He is currently developing an Ebola vaccine, which will enter clinical trials in 2019. In recognition of his achievements, Dr. Kawaoka was awarded the Robert Koch Award in 2006; he received the Medal of Honor (Purple Ribbon) in 2011 and the Japan Academy Award in 2016 from the Emperor of Japan for his research in the field of influenza virology. In 2013, he was elected as a foreign associate of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. In 2015, he received the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Carlos J. Finlay Prize for Microbiology. Rima F. Khabbaz, M.D., is the director of the National Center for Emerg- ing and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). From 2010 to 2017, she was CDC’s deputy director for infectious diseases and director of the Office of Infectious Diseases, where she helped lead the efforts of CDC’s infectious disease national centers and advance the agency’s cross-cutting infectious disease priorities including the integration of advanced molecular detec- tion technologies into public health. During that time, she also served on an interim basis as acting director of the National Center for Immuniza- tion and Respiratory Diseases, acting director of the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, and acting director of NCEZID during leadership transitions. Her previous CDC positions include director of the National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases; director, acting director, and associate direc- tor for epidemiologic science in the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID); and deputy director and associate director for science in the Divi- sion of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases. Her first job at CDC was an epidemic intelligence service officer in NCID’s Hospital Infections Program. She later served as a medical epidemiologist in NCID’s Retrovirus Diseases Branch, where she made major contributions to defining the epidemiology of the

200 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS non-HIV retroviruses, specifically human T lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) I and II, in the United States and to developing guidance for counseling HTLV-infected persons. Following the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak in the southwestern United States in 1993, she led CDC’s efforts to set up national surveillance for this syndrome. She also played a key role in developing and coordinating CDC’s blood safety and food safety programs related to viral diseases. She has served in leadership positions during many of CDC’s responses to outbreaks of new and/or reemerging infections, including Nipah, Ebola, West Nile virus, SARS, and monkeypox, and she led the CDC field team to the nation’s capital during the public health response to the anthrax attacks of 2001. Dr. Khabbaz is a graduate of the American University of Beirut in Lebanon, where she obtained both her bachelor’s degree in science (biology/chemistry) and her medical doc- torate degree. She trained in internal medicine and completed a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. In addition to her CDC position, she serves as clinical adjunct professor of medicine (infectious diseases) at Emory University. Dr. Khabbaz is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), a member of the American Epidemiological Society, and a member of the American Society for Micro- biology and of the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. She is a graduate of the Public Health Leadership Institute at the University of North Carolina and the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative at Harvard University. She served on IDSA’s Annual Meeting Scientific Pro- gram Committee and serves on the society’s Public Health Committee. She also is a member of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats. Jimmy Kolker, M.P.A., served as assistant secretary for global affairs at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2014–2017). In this role, Ambassador Kolker was the department’s chief health diplomat, rep- resenting the United States at World Health Organization and The Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria meetings. Ambassador Kolker had a 30-year diplomatic career with the U.S. Department of State, where he served as the U.S. Ambassador to Burkina Faso (1999–2002) and to Uganda (2002–2005). From 2005 to 2007, he was deputy U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, leading the implementation of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. He was deputy chief of mission at U.S. embassies in Botswana and Denmark and won awards for political reporting at ear- lier posts in Mozambique, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Zimbabwe. From 2007 to 2011, Ambassador Kolker was chief of the AIDS Section at UNICEF’s New York headquarters. Now retired, Ambassador Kolker is a visiting scholar at American Association for the Advancement of Sci- ence, a nonresident senior associate with the CSIS Global Health Policy

APPENDIX E 201 Center, and a fellow of Georgetown University’s Center for Global Health Science and Security. He serves on three foundation boards and three non­ governmental organization advisory councils. John E. Lange, J.D., M.S., is senior fellow for global health diplomacy at the United Nations Foundation, serving as the foundation’s primary focal point for global health diplomacy activities and its wide-ranging work with the World Health Organization. He chairs the leadership team of the Measles & Rubella Initiative and earlier served as co-chair of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative’s Polio Partners Group. He worked from 2009 to 2013 at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, where he engaged in high- level global health advocacy with international organizations and African governments. Ambassador Lange had a distinguished 28-year career in the Foreign Service at the U.S. Department of State, where he was a pioneer in the field of global health diplomacy. He served as the Special Representative on Avian and Pandemic Influenza; Deputy Inspector General; Deputy U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator at the inception of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief; and U.S. Ambassador to Botswana (1999–2002), where HIV/AIDS was his signature issue. Ambassador Lange led the U.S. Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as Chargé d’Affaires during the August 7, 1998, terrorist bombing. Earlier, he had tours of duty in Geneva, Lomé, Paris, and Mexico City. Ambassador Lange is the author of a case study on pandemic influenza negotiations, has delivered numerous lectures and writes a blog on global health issues, and has served on global health and security committees of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineer- ing, and Medicine. He has an M.S. degree from the National War College, and J.D. and B.A. degrees from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Gabriel Mathew Leung, M.D., M.P.H., G.B.S., J.P., is the fortieth Dean of Medicine (2013–present), inaugural Helen and Francis Zimmern Profes- sor in population health, and holds the chair of Public Health Medicine at The University of Hong Kong (HKU). He was the last head of community medicine (2012–2013) at the university as well as Hong Kong’s first under- secretary for food and health (2008–2011) and fifth director of the chief executive’s office (2011–2012) in government. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine and was awarded the Gold Bauhinia Star (second highest civilian honor) by the Hong Kong government for distinguished service in protecting and promoting population health. A specialist in public health medicine, Dr. Leung’s interdisciplinary work revolves around topics that have major population health impact locally, where Hong Kong is a reliable and unique epidemiologic sentinel for Main- land China, or where the SAR is best placed to address the fundamental science at hand globally. Dr. Leung is one of Asia’s leading epidemiologists

202 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS and global health exponents, having authored more than 450 scholarly papers with an h-index of 58 (Scopus). His research defined the epidemiol- ogy of two novel viral epidemics, namely SARS-CoV in 2003 and influenza A(H7N9) in 2013. He also led Hong Kong government’s efforts against pandemic A(H1N1) in 2009. He was founding co-director of HKU’s World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epide- miology and Control (2014–2018). In parallel, Dr. Leung leads several large-scale longitudinal cohorts (Children of 1997, FAMILY, Department of Health Elderly Health Service cohort), tracking tens of thousands of lives to study the fundamental causes of noncommunicable conditions and to explain the health impacts of contemporary social phenomena. A final strand of his work concerns the economics and policy issues of health sys- tems. His team is the government’s health accountant and projects health care human resources needs into the future. Regionally, Dr. Leung has tire- lessly worked to build capacity throughout the Asia Pacific. He served as founding chair of the Asia Pacific Observatory on Health Systems Policies (2010–2014) and continues to lead its Strategic Technical Advisory Com- mittee (2018–present). Clement Lewin, Ph.D., M.B.A., has been in the vaccines industry for more than 20 years joining Sanofi Pasteur as associate vice president of R&D Strategy in 2015. Prior to joining Sanofi Pasteur, he held was at several companies including Merck Vaccines Division, Chiron Vaccines, and Acam- bis. Prior to his current role, Dr. Lewin spent 7 years at Novartis Vaccines, most recently as vice president, head of medical affairs and immunization policy for North America, and was responsible for medical affairs activities and relationships with public-sector stakeholders such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Vaccine Program Office; in his role, he helped launch several vaccines. In addition to his experience in vaccines, Dr. Lewin was at Bayer Pharmaceuticals as director of global scientific affairs for their anti-infective franchise. He obtained his B.Sc. and Ph.D. from the University of London after 5 years as a research fellow at the Universities of London and Edinburgh. During that period, he published more than 50 papers in peer-reviewed journals on mechanisms of action and resistance to antibacterials. He left research to obtain an M.B.A. with distinction from Cornell University and then joined the life sciences practice of Pittiglio Rabin Todd & McGrath specializing in product devel- opment issues. Dr. Lewin was the Biotechnology Innovation Organization liaison to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices from 2004 to 2014. He served on the National Vaccine Advisory Committee from 2009 to 2012. He was on the advisory board of Bio Ventures for Global Health and a board member of the Alliance for Biosecurity from 2006 to 2008.

APPENDIX E 203 Nicole Lurie, M.D., M.S.P.H., is currently the strategic advisor to the chief executive officer of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations. She is also a senior lecturer at Harvard Medical School, a member of the research faculty at Massachusetts General Hospital, and is an honorary fel- low at the Leonard Davis Institute for Health Economics at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Lurie recently completed an 8-year term as Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). In that role, she led the HHS response to numerous public health emergencies, ranging from infectious disease to natural and manmade disasters, and was responsible for many innova- tions in emergency preparedness and response. She also chaired the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, a government- wide organization ultimately responsible for the development of medi- cal countermeasures, including vaccines against pandemics and emerging threats. Following that, she served as senior advisor to the director of the Indian Health Service, where she worked on issues related to quality of care, and as a consultant to the World Bank and World Health Organiza- tion. Prior to federal service, Dr. Lurie was the Paul O’Neill Professor of Policy Analysis at RAND, where she started and led the public health pre- paredness program and RAND’s Center for Population Health and Health Disparities. She has also had leadership roles in academia, as professor of medicine and public health at the University of Minnesota, as medical advi- sor to the commissioner, Minnesota Department of Health, and as principal deputy assistant secretary for health at HHS. Dr. Lurie received her B.A. and M.D. degrees from the University of Pennsylvania, and completed her residency and public health training at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her research has focused on access to and quality of care, health system redesign, equity, mental health, public health, and preparedness. She is recipient of numerous awards and is a member of the National Academy of Medicine. Dr. Lurie continues to practice clinical medicine in a commu- nity clinic in Washington, DC. Jonna A. K. Mazet, D.V.M., M.P.V.M., Ph.D., earned her doctorate of veterinary medicine, master of preventative medicine, and her Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of California, Davis (UC Davis). In addi- tion to her faculty appointment in the Department of Medicine and Epide- miology in the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, she serves as the executive director of the UC Davis One Health Institute (OHI). Dr. Mazet specializes in emerging infectious diseases and wildlife epidemiology, and as director of OHI, focuses on global health problem solving. In her role at UC Davis, she assists government agencies and the public with emerg- ing health challenges, and is active in international One Health research programs such as tuberculosis in Africa, novel pathogen detection in less

204 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS developed countries, and pathogen pollution of California coastal waters. Dr. Mazet founded California’s Oiled Wildlife Care Network, the premier model wildlife emergency management system worldwide, and remains a consulting expert on wildlife emergency preparedness and response, serving on multiple government and nongovernmental organization (NGO) advi- sory panels. Dr. Mazet is the principal investigator and global director of the novel viral emergence early warning project, PREDICT, that has been developed with the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Emerging Pandemic Threats Program. She leads a network of global NGOs and gov- ernmental agencies to build capacity within the PREDICT-engaged coun- tries to develop surveillance systems and complete the necessary research to halt the next pandemic, like influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and HIV that have preceded the program. Amanda McClelland, M.P.H.T.M., B.R.N., is senior vice president of the Resolve to Save Lives initiative from Vital Strategies with more than 14 years of experience in global health, working in response to natural disasters, conflict, and public health emergencies. With a focus on local pre- vention and response, Ms. McClelland has spent much of the past decade working with frontline health workers and communities on prevention, early detection, and response to health crises. As part of Resolve to Save Lives’ mission, she supports the building of local capacity at the country level to implement effective International Health Regulations and improve country capacity to prevent, find, and stop outbreaks. Suzet M. McKinney, Dr.P.H., M.P.H., currently serves as chief executive officer/executive director of the Illinois Medical District (IMD). IMD, a 24/7/365 environment that includes 560 acres of medical research facilities, labs, a biotech business incubator, universities, raw land development areas, 4 hospitals, and more than 40 health care–related facilities, is one of the largest urban medical districts in the United States. Dr. McKinney is the for- mer deputy commissioner of the Bureau of Public Health Preparedness and Emergency Response at the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH), where she oversaw the emergency preparedness efforts for the department and coordinated those efforts within the larger spectrum of the City of Chicago’s public safety activities, in addition to overseeing the department’s Division of Women and Children’s Health. Dr. McKinney previously served as senior advisor for public health and preparedness at the Tauri Group, where she provided strategic and analytical consulting services to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), BioWatch Program. Her work at DHS included providing creative, responsive, and operationally based problem solving for public health, emergency management, and homeland security issues, specifically chemical and biological early detection systems

APPENDIX E 205 and the implementation of those systems at the state and local levels. Dr. McKinney serves on numerous committees and advisory boards. Cur- rent board memberships include the board of directors for Susan G. Komen Chicago, Thresholds (mental health), and the African-American Legacy of the Chicago Community Trust. Dr. McKinney is co-chair of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Disasters and Emergencies and is a member of the Standing Committee on Health Threats Resilience. Karen Midthun, M.D., currently serve as a senior advisor on regulatory issues to the Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access at PATH. Before joining PATH, she spent 23 years at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, with positions including director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) (2009–2016); deputy director, CBER (2003–2009); and director, Office of Vaccines Research and Review (2000–2003). Dr. Midthun also held an academic appointment at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (1987–1993), where she was an investigator of vaccine clinical trials. She received her medical degree from George Washington University and trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Johns Hopkins University and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Arnold S. Monto, M.D., is the Thomas Francis, Jr., Collegiate Professor of Public Health and professor of epidemiology at the University of Michigan School of Public Health in Ann Arbor. The major focus of his work has been the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of acute infections in the individual and the community. Respiratory infections, particularly influ- enza, have been a major interest to Dr. Monto, with special reference to the evaluation of vaccines in various populations and the assessment of the value of antivirals. He has worked on these issues in tropical and temperate regions. He led the studies of respiratory infection in Tecumseh, Michigan, a landmark study of infection in the community. He has studied various approaches to influenza vaccine use, particularly to control transmission of the virus in the community. Dr. Monto is involved in assessing the efficacy of various types of influenza vaccine in prophylaxis and antivirals in pro- phylaxis and therapy of influenza, including implications of resistance. He now heads an observational study of effectiveness of influenza vaccines in various settings, including households. His recent activities have included evaluation of face masks and hand hygiene in the control of influenza transmission and determination of efficacy of the traditional inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines. Dr. Monto has been a member of the National Allergy and Infectious Diseases Advisory Council of the U.S. National Institutes of Health and is currently a member of the Vaccine and

206 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS Related Biological Products Advisory Committee of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He was past president of the American Epidemiological Society, the 2009 recipient of the Alexander Fleming Award of the Infec- tious Diseases Society of America for lifetime achievement, and the 2012 recipient of the Charles Merieux Award of the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. He was a member of the emergency committee making recommendations to the World Health Organization during the most recent influenza pandemic. Suerie Moon, Ph.D., M.P.A., is director of research at the Global Health Centre, The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, ­ Geneva, and adjunct lecturer on global health at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. She has served on a number of advisory bodies, ­ including most recently the World Health Organization Fair Pricing Forum Advisory Group, Expert Advisory Group to the United Nations Secretary- General’s High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines, and Proposal Review Committee of UNITAID. Prior to joining The Graduate Institute, she was study director of the Harvard-London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medi- cine Independent Panel on the Global Response to Ebola, and co-founded and led the Forum on Global Governance for Health, a focal point at Harvard University for research, debate, and strategic convening on issues at the intersection of global governance and health. Her research and teach- ing focus on global governance, the political economy of global health (focusing on innovation and access to medicines; outbreak preparedness and response; trade, investment, and intellectual property rules; and devel- opment assistance for health), the evolution of international regimes, and innovative policies for addressing global problems. She received a B.A. from Yale University, an M.P.A. from Princeton University, and a Ph.D. from the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Kumanan Rasanathan, M.B.Ch.B., M.P.H., is a public health physician with 20 years of experience in health and related sectors, and currently works as coordinator, health systems, at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Cambodia, where he leads a team working on health systems and services, antimicrobial resistance, and maternal and child health, with the Royal Government of Cambodia. He was previously chief, Implementa- tion Research Unit and Delivery Science Unit and senior adviser health for the United Nations Children’s Fund in New York, working on implementa- tion research focused on improving child service delivery, universal health coverage, district health systems strengthening, health systems resilience post-Ebola, integrated community case management, the Sustainable Devel- opment Goals agenda, and multisectoral approaches to child health. Prior to this, Dr. Rasanathan worked for WHO in Geneva on primary health

APPENDIX E 207 care and the social determinants of health, and in a number of different countries as a clinician, researcher, policy maker, program manager, and advocate. He started his public health career running Phase I and II vac- cine clinical trials leading to the licensure and rollout of meningococcal B vaccine in New Zealand. Peter A. Sands, M.P.A., is the executive director of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Since June 2015, Mr. Sands has been a research fellow at Harvard University, dividing his time between the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government at Harvard Kennedy School and the Harvard Global Health Institute, part of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, and working on a range of research projects in financial markets and regulation, fintech, and global health. Mr. Sands’s engagement with global health issues includes: chair- ing the National Academy of Medicine’s Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future, which in January 2016 produced the highly influential report The Neglected Dimension of Global Security: A Framework to Counter Infectious Disease Threats; chairing the World Bank’s International Working Group on financing preparedness, which in May 2017 published From Panic and Neglect to Investing in Health Security: Financing Preparedness at a National Level; authoring several papers on infectious disease crises in the New England Journal of Medi- cine, The Lancet, and British Medical Journal; being the lead non-executive director between 2011 and 2017 on the Board of the United Kingdom’s Department of Health, which provides oversight and policy direction to the United Kingdom’s National Health Service; and being an active member on both the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on Ensuring Access to Affordable Drugs and the Forum on Microbial Threats. Mr. Sands is a board member or advisor to several startups in the fintech and meditech arenas, such as Noble Markets (United States) and Cera (United Kingdom). He was group chief executive of Standard Chartered PLC from November 2006 to June 2015. He joined the Board of Standard Chartered PLC as group finance director in May 2002, responsible for finance, strategy, risk and technology, and operations. Prior to this, Mr. Sands was a senior part- ner at worldwide consultants McKinsey & Co. Before joining McKinsey, he worked for the United Kingdom’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office. He has served on various boards and commissions, including as a director of the World Economic Forum and co-chairman of Davos, governor of the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Economic and Social Research, member of the International Advisory Board of the Monetary Authority of Singapore, member of the Browne Commission on Higher Education Funding in the United Kingdom, member of the China People’s Associa- tion for Friendship with Foreign People’s Global CEO Council, co-chair of

208 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS the UK-India CEO Forum, board director of the Institute of International Finance, chairman of the International Monetary Conference, member of the International Advisory Board of Lingnan University, China, and trustee of the Camden Roundhouse, London. Mr. Sands graduated from Brasenose College, Oxford University, with a first-class degree in politics, philosophy, and economics. He also received a Master in Public Administration from Harvard University, where he was a Harkness Fellow. Steven Solomon, J.D., is principal legal officer at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, Switzerland, where he focuses on WHO governance and international health law matters. He served as the WHO legal adviser to the negotiations that led to the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness (PIP) Framework. Prior to joining WHO, Mr. Solomon served as deputy legal counselor at the United States Mission to United Nations Organizations in Geneva, negotiating a variety of human rights and humanitarian law instruments. He was an attorney with the U.S. Department of State for several years before that handling multilateral negotiations related to the control of conventional weapons as well as international humanitarian law. After law school, before joining the U.S. Department of State, Mr. Solomon was a lawyer in private practice at the Washington, DC, law firm of Williams & Connolly. He also worked on Capitol Hill. Mr. Solomon has written widely on matters pertaining to international law, including global health and humanitarian law matters. Ciro Ugarte, M.D., served as director of norms and deputy director-general at the National Institute of Occupational Health in Peru in 1987 and 1988. He was executive director and director-general of the Office of National Defense of the Ministry of Health of Peru, from 1988 until 1999. During that period, he also held positions as: president of the Peruvian Society of Emergency Medicine, official representative of the Peruvian Government to the International Committee of the Red Cross, member of the National Committee of the Peruvian Red Cross Society, consultant of the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, and member of the United Nations Disas- ter Assessment and Coordination Team. In 1999, he coordinated the United Nations Inter-Agency Disaster Team in Honduras. In 2000, he joined Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), where he served as sub-regional advisor for South America, regional advisor, and director of the Depart- ment of Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief in Washington, DC. In 2016, he was appointed as director of the new PAHO department, Health Emergencies. Dr. Ugarte has extensive experience in disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness, and disaster response. He has coordinated the implementation of public health measures and health care at national and international levels in case of earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions,

APPENDIX E 209 severe floods, El Niño phenomenon, landslides, hazardous materials inci- dents, armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, crisis of hostages, chemical emer- gencies, mass gatherings, meetings of head of states, epidemics of cholera, yellow fever, dengue, malaria, hepatitis, and pandemic influenza, among others. Makarim Wibisono, Ph.D., is the former United Nations special rapporteur on the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the president of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations in New York in 2000, and the chairman of the United Nations Commission of Human Rights in Geneva in 2005. He was also appointed as the executive director of the ASEAN Foundation, the special advisor to the minister of health, and to the speaker of the House of Representatives of Indonesia, as well as a member of the World Health Organization Review Group. He attained his bachelor degree in international relations from the Gadjahmada Uni- versity; master of arts degree from the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Washington, DC; master of arts in political economy and doctorate degree from The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio; and professor from Airlangga University, Surabaya. ­ Ambassador Wibisono started his career at the Department of Foreign ­ Affair of Indonesia in 1972 and climbed his position into becoming the director-general of Foreign Economic Relations and director-general for Asia, Pacific, and African Affairs. He was also appointed as the ambassador extraordinary and pleni­ otentiary, permanent representative of Indonesia p to the United Nations in New York in 1997 to 2001, and ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary, permanent representative of Indonesia to the United Nations and other international organization in Geneva in 2004 to 2007. Ambassador Wibisono’s recent activities include serving as the vice chairman of the Governing Board of the Indonesian Council of World Affairs, the former advisor of the National Commission on Human Rights, senior fellow of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and currently as professor and lecturer at Airlangga University, the Defense University, the National Resilience Institute, and other various universities and institutions in Indonesia. Wenqing Zhang, M.D., has headed the Global Influenza Program of the World Health Organization (WHO) in its headquarters in Geneva, ­ witzerland, since November 2012. In this role, Dr. Zhang provides leader- S ship and coordinates global activities on influenza surveillance, virus moni- toring, detection of emerging novel viruses, risk assessment and evidence for policies, vaccine virus, and pandemic preparedness including pandemic influenza vaccine response. From 2002 to 2012, Dr. Zhang coordinated the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), building

210 LESSONS LEARNED FROM A CENTURY OF OUTBREAKS a functional global system of surveillance, preparedness, and response. In response to 2009 A (H1N1) influenza pandemic, Dr. Zhang directed the laboratory response and capacity aspects of WHO response. Before joining WHO, Dr. Zhang worked for 9 years in the Chinese Academy of Preven- tive Medicine, Ministry of Health on tuberculosis, schistosomiasis, and iodine deficiency disorder projects with WHO, the World Bank, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Dr. Zhang has an M.D., with postgraduate training in system evaluation and epidemiology, and holds a bachelor’s degree in biomedical engineering.

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In November 2018, an ad hoc planning committee at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine planned two sister workshops held in Washington, DC, to examine the lessons from influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks, understand the extent to which the lessons have been learned, and discuss how they could be applied further to ensure that countries are sufficiently ready for future pandemics. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from both workshops.

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