National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 195 2019 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Planning and Forecasting Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook Sergey Kireyev Susan J. H. Zellers W. Trent Holder Hanson Professional services inc. Orlando, FL Indianapolis, IN Robert Ori Ken Scarborough Anthony Ferrante Planning TecHnology, inc. Clearwater, FL Julie Quinn Katherine Williams QuinnWilliams, llc Los Angeles, CA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 195 Project 09-16 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48013-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2019932063 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 195 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program (deceased) Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Brittany Summerlin-Azeez, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 09-16 PANEL Field of Maintenance Bryan E. Johnson, Aviation Management Consulting Group, Centennial, CO (Chair) Kevin R. Carlson, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul, MN Darren Large, DM Airports, Ltd, Morristown, NJ Anna Marron, ATKINS, Melbourne, FL Scott Millis, American Airlines, Inc., Fort Worth, TX Enrique Sanabria, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York, NY Glenn A. Boles, FAA Liaison Joseph Carlini, FAA Liaison Andrew Tamanaha, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airport Consultants Council Liaison Christopher J. Oswald, Airports Council International—North America Liaison Justin M. Towles, American Association of Airport Executives Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

ACRP Research Report 195 provides guidance to airport operators on developing and implementing an obstruction management program to protect the airport airspace from encroachment by tall objects. This guidance will assist airport staff in developing an obstruc- tion management plan, as well as in developing a strategy for communication with surround- ing communities that will ensure airport involvement in any development issues that could result in an obstruction around the airport. This guidebook is supplemented by ACRP WebResource 7, which contains additional resources and is available at https://crp.trb.org/acrp0916. Airports are required to protect airport approaches, departures, and navigable airways from encroachment by tall objects to ensure the safety of people on the ground and in aircraft. Unless there are zoning standards in place designed to limit obstructions, com- munities may end up allowing development to occur that will cause obstructions. This can result in a loss of airport operational efficiency as aircraft could have to change their flight procedures. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guide- book, developed by Hanson Professional Services, is a guidebook to help airports prepare and implement an obstruction management program. The research involved a literature review and engagement with the industry that included large and small airports, the FAA, air carrier operators, as well as planning and zoning professionals from local and regional agencies and a state aeronautics agency. The guidebook will help an airport develop a plan by understanding the regulatory environment, identifying obstructions, and developing a communications strategy for working with communities. Supplementing ACRP Research Report 195 is ACRP WebResource 7: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Library (https://crp.trb.org/acrp0916), which contains reference documents, model documents, and presentation materials for obstruction man- agement outreach. Also provided are a methodology for creating a composite map of all applicable airspace surfaces, as well as examples of interactive airspace composite surface maps for small and large airports. Airport staff as well as local planners will benefit from this guidebook and the associated web resource. F O R E W O R D By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction and Background 1 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Research Approach 4 1.3 Target Audience 4 1.4 Guidebook and ACRP WebResource 7 6 1.5 Icons 6 1.6 Guidebook User Tips 7 Chapter 2 Airport Obstruction Management and the Regulatory Environment 7 Key Insights 7 Key Definitions 9 2.1 Understanding Objects, Obstructions, Obstacles, and Hazards 11 2.2 Navigable Airspace Regulations 12 2.3 FAA Airspace Regulations and Criteria 20 2.4 Understanding the FAA Obstruction Evaluation Process 24 2.5 State Regulatory Environment 26 Chapter 3 Identifying the Applicable Airspace Surfaces and Criteria 26 Key Insights 26 Key Definitions 27 3.1 Applicable Surfaces 27 3.2 FAR Part 77 Surfaces 29 3.3 FAA AC 150/5300-13A: Design Surfaces 31 3.4 FAA Order 8260.3D: United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS) 38 3.5 OEI OIS 39 3.6 No Individual Surface Controls 39 3.7 Special Considerations in Obstruction Surface Identification 45 3.8 Summary 46 Chapter 4 Obstruction Data Collection and Resources 46 Key Insights 46 Key Definitions 47 4.1 Sources and Uses of Airport Obstruction Data 55 4.2 Collection of Basic Obstruction Data by Airport Staff C O N T E N T S

56 Chapter 5 Obstruction Evaluation Methods and Tools 56 Key Insights 56 Key Definitions 56 5.1 Introduction 57 5.2 Hand and Spreadsheet Analysis 57 5.3 FAA Tools Available to Airports 59 5.4 State Resources 59 5.5 Geospatial Mapping or Drafting Software for Data Analysis 60 5.6 Software Solutions for Airspace Analysis and Airspace Obstruction Management 62 Chapter 6 Airspace Composite Map and Development Methodology 62 Key Insights 62 Key Definitions 62 6.1 The Composite Map Approach 63 6.2 Selecting the Composite Map Surfaces 68 6.3 Building a Composite Map 72 Chapter 7 Airport Obstruction Mitigation and Management Plan Development 72 Key Insights 72 Key Definitions 74 7.1 Airport Sponsor’s Responsibility 75 7.2 Obstruction Prevention Methods 84 7.3 OAP 85 7.4 Environmental Considerations of Obstruction Management 89 7.5 Air Carrier Considerations 90 7.6 Working with State Aviation Agencies to Manage Obstructions 92 Chapter 8 Building Support for Airport Obstruction Management 92 Key Insights 92 Key Definitions 92 8.1 Developing a Communication Strategy for Obstruction Management 93 8.2 Identifying the Audience 101 8.3 Crafting the Message 103 8.4 Building Consensus 105 Chapter 9 Putting It All Together 105 9.1 Setting Airport Planning and Operational Goals 106 9.2 Identifying Applicable Criteria 106 9.3 Collecting and Analyzing Data 107 9.4 Obstruction Mitigation Through Consensus 107 9.5 Creating the Implementation Framework and Continuing Engagement 108 9.6 Monitoring and Measuring Program Performance 108 9.7 Guidance from Peers and Stakeholders 111 Bibliography 118 Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Initialisms Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook is designed to assist airport operators in developing and implementing an obstruction management program to protect the airport airspace from encroachment by tall objects.

The guidance will help airport staff in developing an obstruction management plan by understanding the regulatory environment, identifying obstructions, and in developing a strategy for communication with surrounding communities that will ensure airport involvement in any development issues that could result in an obstruction around the airport.

The guidebook is supplemented by ACRP WebResource 7: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Library, which provides reference documents, model documents, and presentation materials for obstruction management outreach. A methodology for creating a composite map of all applicable airspace surfaces is also provided, as well as examples of interactive airspace composite surface maps for small and large airports.

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