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111 ACRP Publications Cleary, E. C., and A. Dickey. 2010. ACRP Report 32: Guidebook for Addressing Aircraft/Wildlife Hazards at General Aviation Airports, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/163690.aspx This report contains valuable methods for implementing vegetation management strategies that reduce wildlife hazards, which can assist managers seeking to make a case for vegetation obstruction management and replacing the removed vegetation with less hazardous natural features. Delta Airport Consultants, Inc. 2011. ACRP Report 58: Airport Industry Familiarization and Training for Part- Time Airport Policy Makers, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166244.aspx This report is designed to provide airport policy leaders, stakeholders, and policy-related decision-makers with a common framework to understand airport administrative and operational requirements in order to help them make more informed policy decisions. Elliot, B. O., R. B. Chapman, and L. W. Kelly. 2015. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 65: Practices to Develop Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Smaller Airports, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/172885.aspx This synthesis contains a number of useful practices, tools, communication techniques, feedback loops, and case examples that highlight how leaders at smaller airports proactively manage stakeholder relation- ships. This guidance can be suited for airports of different sizes and scales. Karlsson, J., J. R. Ludders, D. Wilde, D. Mochrie, and C. Seymour. 2008. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 7: Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/157070.aspx This synthesis examines the methods and models used to define, identify, evaluate, measure, and com- municate different facets of the economic impact of airports. This resource provides helpful information to managers seeking to emphasize the airportâs economic impact during obstruction management. LeighFisher. 2010. ACRP Report 38: Understanding Airspace, Objects, and Their Effects on Airports, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/164477.aspx This report contains guidance on appropriate airspace design and evaluation criteria aimed at ensur- ing a safe operating environment for aircraft, as well as maintaining airport operational flexibility and reliability without unduly restricting desirable building development and attendant economic growth in the surrounding community. Murphy, R. J., and R. K. Bannura. 2014. ACRP Synthesis of Airport Practice 59: Integrating Airport Geographic Information System (GIS) Data with Public Agency GIS, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/171387.aspx This synthesis identifies effective and emerging data exchange practices that airports and public agencies can use to increase the data they have access to, while reducing the cost of identifying, collecting, and maintaining these data. Bibliography
112 Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook Neubauer, K., D. Fleet, F. Grosoli, and H. Verstynen. 2015. ACRP Report 144: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/ Publications/Blurbs/173263.aspx This document provides airports of all sizes with information about UAS and their potential use and impact on airports. Ricketson, M. 2016. ACRP Report 150: NextGen for Airports, Volume 4: Leveraging NextGen Spatial Data to Benefit Airports, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/ Blurbs/175223.aspx This guidebook provides information for airport operators on the benefits to airports associated with the creation, maintenance, and use of spatial data that are generated in conjunction with NextGen initiatives. The guidebook also describes costs and financial and legal considerations of these data. Ward, S. A. D., R. A. Massey, A. E. Feldpausch, Z. Puchacz, C. J. Duerksen, E. Heller, N. P. Miller, R. C. Gardner, G. D. Gosling, S. Sarmiento, and R. W. Lee. 2010. ACRP Report 27: Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources, Transportation Research Board, Washing- ton, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/163344.aspx Ward, S. A. D., R. A. Massey, A. E. Feldpausch, Z. Puchacz, C. J. Duerksen, E. Heller, N. P. Miller, R. C. Gardner, G. D. Gosling, S. Sarmiento, and R. W. Lee. 2010. ACRP Report 27: Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 2: Land Use Survey and Case Study Summaries, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/163345.aspx Volumes 1 and 2 of this report provide analysis of real impacts faced by airports due to land use incompat- ibility, including tall structures, as well as guidance on addressing incompatible land uses around airports that impair current and future airport and aircraft operations and safety. Ward, S., L. Wilson, R. Schnug, J. Pickering, D. Mericas, L. Morland, M. Hooper, R. Dunkelberg, P. Van Pelt, S. Landau, A. Blair, N. Stein, S. Marr, S. Arnold, and M. Cardwell. 2017. ACRP WebResource 1: Aligning Community Expectations with Airport Roles, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Available at https://crp.trb.org/acrp0331/ This resource provides guidance to help airports proactively manage communications and public relations. The resource contains toolkits to help communicate the many roles an airport can play in a community, as well as presenting general ways to engage effectively with the local community and information and communication strategies to enhance understanding of specific aviation- related topics. Woodward, J. M., L. L. Briscoe, and P. Dunholter. 2009. ACRP Report 15: Aircraft Noise: A Toolkit for Manag- ing Community Expectations. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/162800.aspx This report provides valuable guidance and strategies for establishing community engagement and im- proving communication with the general public. Although the report is focused on noise issues, the best practices presented are applicable to all airport issues affecting the public. FAA Advisory Circulars, Orders, and Other Publications FAA. December 14, 1987. A Model Zoning Ordinance to Limit Height of Objects Around Airports. Advisory Circular 150/5190-4A. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/airports/resources/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.current/ documentNumber/150_5190-4 This provides a model zoning ordinance to be used as a guide to control the height of objects around airports. FAA. May 5, 2006. Airport Obstacle Analysis. Advisory Circular 120-91. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/ document.information/documentID/22479 This describes acceptable methods and guidelines for developing takeoff and initial climb-out airport obstacle analyses and in-flight procedures to comply with the intent of the regulatory requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 121,Â§Â§ 121.177 and 121.189, and Part 135, Â§Â§ 135.367 and 135.379 and powered airplanes operated under Parts 121 and 135.
Bibliography 113 FAA. October 2007. Environmental Desk Reference for Airport Actions. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/airports/environmental/environmental_desk_ref/ media/desk-ref.pdf This summarizes special-purpose environmental laws for quick reference. FAA. May 21, 2009. General Guidance and Specifications for Submission of Aeronautical Surveys to NGS: Field Data Collection and Geographic Information Standards. Advisory Circular 150/5300-18B. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/advisory_circulars/ index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/74204 This provides the specifications for the collection of airport data through field and office methodologies. FAA. November 15, 2013. Management of Vegetation in the Airport Environment. Engineering Brief 91. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/airports/engineering/ engineering_briefs/ This brief provides information on the removal or topping of vegetation, as well as the collection, sub- mission, and management of the supporting data regarding vegetation. FAA. February 26, 2014. Airport Design. Advisory Circular 150/5300-13A, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/airports/resources/advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/ document.current/documentNumber/150_5300-13 This provides guidance on FAA standards and recommendations for airport design. FAA. March 2014. Airport Sponsor Assurances. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/airports/aip/grant_assurances/media/airport-sponsor-assurances-aip.pdf This is a summary of all the grant assurances an airport sponsor must commit to meeting as part of the terms of accepting an Airport Improvement Program grant from the FAA. FAA. March 14, 2016. United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS). Order 8260.3D. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/ orders_notices/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentID/1032731 This provides the standardized methods for designing and evaluating instrument flight procedures in the United States and its territories. FAA. September 1, 2016. Aeronautical Study, Coordination and Evaluation. FAA Standard Operating Proce- dure 9.00. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/airports/ resources/sops/ This provides an outline of the FAA process for aeronautical studies. FAA. April 27, 2017. Procedures for Handling Airspace Matters. Order 7400.2L. U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices/index.cfm/go/ document.current/documentNumber/7400.2 This order specifies procedures for use by all personnel in the joint administration of the airspace pro- gram. This is a comprehensive publication incorporating as many orders, notices, and directives of the affected services as possible. Federal Regulations Certification of Airports. 14 CFR, Part 139. U.S. Government Publishing Office, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?c=ecfr&SID=8313bccee050ec81d7e8fb3377331177&rgn=div5&view= text&node=14:22.214.171.124.14&idno=14#se14.3.139_11 This prescribes the rules governing the certification and operation of airports in any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any territory or possession of the United States serving scheduled or unscheduled passenger-carrying operations. Notice of Construction, Alteration, Activation, and Deactivation of Airports. 14 CFR, Part 157. U.S. Government Publishing Office, Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=772de26e8e515 e4122ea487f5d657edf&mc=true&node=pt14.3.157&rgn=div5 Part 157 establishes standards and notification requirements for anyone proposing to construct, alter, or deactivate a civil or joint-use (civil or military) airport. This regulation also addresses proposals that alter the status or use of such an airport.
114 Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook Safe, Efficient Use and Preservation of the Navigable Airspace. 14 CFR, Part 77. U.S. Government Publishing Office, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/retrieveECFR?gp=&SID=7f713c1ef8e2bff 1ce6f522f921b6c58&mc=true&n=pt14.2.77&r=PART&ty=HTML#sp14.2.77.a This establishes the standard used to determine obstructions to air navigation and the requirements to provide notice to the FAA of certain proposed construction or alteration of structures and the process for aeronautical studies. Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems. 14 CFR, Part 107. U.S. Government Publishing Office, Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=ae6d1fe83c78f31a821f6a1da6794742&mc=true& node=pt14.2.107&rgn=div5 This describes the registration, airman certification, and operation of civil small UAS within the United States. State and Local Government Resources City/County Association of Governments of San Mateo County. 2012. Comprehensive Airport Land Use Com- patibility Plan for the Environs of San Francisco International Airport. San Francisco, CA. Available at http:// ccag.ca.gov/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Consolidated_CCAG_ALUCP_November-20121.pdf This is a model comprehensive land use plan for a large international airport, which covers airspace protection matters. Florida Department of Transportation Aviation and Spaceports Office. 2012. Airport Compatible Land Use Guidebook. Tallahassee, FL. Available at http://www.dot.state.fl.us/aviation/flpub.shtm This is a state guidebook covering matters pertaining to land use compatibility, including protecting airport airspace from encroachment by tall objects. Iowa Department of Transportation Office of Aviation. 2008. Iowa Airport Land Use Guidebook. Ames, IA. Available at http://www.iowadot.gov/aviation/airports/IowaAirportLandUseGuidebook2008.htm This is a comprehensive land use compatibility resource, which includes ample information, graphics, and sample resources related to protecting airspace from encroachment. Michigan Department of Transportation Aeronautics. 2018. Zoning for Public Use Airports in the State of Michigan. Lansing, MI. Available at http://mi.gov/documents/aero/Zoning_Overview-Approach_Plans_and_AirportZ- oningAct_203533_7.pdf This state guidebook (also called the âAirport Zoning Handbookâ) explains the applicable state laws intended to protect aviation throughout Michigan and to promote the safety, welfare, and protection of persons and property in the air and on the ground. Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission. 2017. Stakeholder Engagement Plan. Minneapolis, MN. Available at https://www.metroairports.org/General-Aviation/Lake-Elmo-Environmental-Assessment/ Stakeholder-Engagement-Plan-03-22-2017.aspx This is a step-by-step stakeholder engagement framework for a small airport owned by the Minneapolis- St. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission. This could be a good example of a template checklist for airports. The framework includes the concept of a âcommunity engagement panelâ consisting of perma- nent stakeholders (city and county government representatives from all affected municipalities, planners, and airline representatives). North Central Texas Council of Governments. 2011. Preserving General Aviation Airports: A Technical Guide for Compatible Land Use Planning in North Texas. Arlington, TX. Available at https://resources.nctcog.org/ trans/aviation/outreach/ This is a handbook prepared for small GA airports by the North Central Texas Council of Governments on compatible land use planning. The guide explains many technical issues in easy-to-understand terms. Of particular interest for stakeholder outreach is a step-by-step communications guideline for each category of stakeholder, including the general public, realtors, and elected officials. North Dakota Aeronautics Commission. 1996. Chapter 17: Land Use Compatibility Guidelines. North Dakota Airport Managersâ Manual. Bismarck, ND. Available at https://aero.nd.gov/image/cache/AIRPORT_ MANAGERS_MANUAL_COMPLETE.pdf
Bibliography 115 Chapter 17 of the North Dakota Airport Managersâ Manual provides guidance on protecting airport environs from objects that may impact the navigable airspace, including corrective actions and preventive measures on protecting airspace from encroachment. Ohio Department of Transportation Office of Aviation, 2018. Airspace Protection (booklet). Columbus, OH. Avail- able at http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/Operations/Aviation/Documents/Airspace%20Protection/ AirportProtectionInfoV7-June18-Web-Book.pdf This is a quick reference booklet on guidance and considerations for development in the vicinity of air- ports and heliports in Ohio. The document covers federal and state notification and permitting criteria and provides a quick reference for regulations and regulatory definitions. Oregon Department of Aviation. 2003. Airport Land Use Compatibility Guidebook. Salem, OR. Available at http://www.oregon.gov/Aviation/Pages/landuseguidebook.aspx The guidebook is designed as a statewide planning tool to provide guidance for future land use decisions related to the compatibility of development in the airport vicinity. The document includes guidance on matters related to airspace encroachment as well as resources and examples of encroachment mitigation and management. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation Bureau of Aviation. 1996. Airport Land Use Compatibility Guide- lines. Harrisburg, PA. Available at http://www.penndot.gov/Doing-Business/Aviation/Planning%20and%20 Zoning/Documents/Pennsylvania%20Airport%20Land%20Use%20Compatibility%20Guidlines.pdf This guidebook provides information and resources for compliance with state-specific land use require- ments (including obstruction management) in order to promote and strengthen the long-term viability of the stateâs airport system. Rhode Island Airport Corporation. 2013. Rhode Island Airport Land Use Compatibility Guidebook. Warwick, RI. Available at http://www.pvdairport.com/documents/planning%20docs/_ri%20airport%20land%20 use%20compatibility%20study_april%202013_complete.pdf This is a guidebook designed to assist local communities in conducting planning and land development around Rhode Islandâs state-owned GA airports. State of California Department of Transportation Division of Aeronautics. 2011. California Airport Land Use Planning Handbook. Sacramento, CA. Available at http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/planning/aeronaut/ documents/alucp/AirportLandUsePlanningHandbook.pdf This is a comprehensive document on land use compatibility, including airspace protection, which con- tains a number of key resources and information applicable beyond California. Texas Department of Transportation Aviation Division. 2003. Airport Compatibility Guidelines. Austin, TX. Available at http://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdot-info/avn/avninfo/Airport_Compatibility_Guidelines.pdf This is a set of land use compatibility guidelines, including airspace protection, developed as a reference for elected officials, zoning board members, and city and county staff members responsible for ensuring airport land use compatibility. Virginia Department of Aviation. n.d. A Guide to Compatible Airport Land Use Planning for Virginia Communities (webpage). http://www.doav.virginia.gov/land_use_planning.htm This webpage, created and managed by the Virginia Department of Aviation, is designed to provide guid- ance to community leaders and airport owners on matters of compatibility between future development and airports. Wasatch Front Regional Council. 2000. Compatible Land Use Planning Guide for Utah Airports. Salt Lake City, UT. Available at http://www.udot.utah.gov/main/uconowner.gf?n=200411180926131 This guidebook discusses land use compatibility issues and presents a number of helpful measures for addressing compatibility issues, including airspace encroachment. Washington State Department of Transportation Aviation Division. 2011. Airports and Compatible Land Use Guidebook. Olympia, WA. Available at http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/aviation/Planning/ACLUguide.htm The Airports and Compatible Land Use Guidebook provides guidance to airports, communities, and juris- dictions on working cooperatively and proactively toward preventing incompatible development around airports in Washington state.
116 Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook Wisconsin Department of Transportation Bureau of Aeronautics, 2011. Wisconsin Airport Land Use Guidebook. Available at https://wisconsindot.gov/Documents/doing-bus/aeronautics/resources/arptlusguibk.pdf This is a guidebook designed to help communities and airports work cooperatively to plan for and establish compatible land use around airports and work toward mitigating existing incompatible conditions. Other Resources Cascetta, E., and F. Pagliara. 2013. Public Engagement for Planning and Designing Transportation Systems. ProcediaâSocial and Behavioral Sciences 87, 103â116. Available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S1877042813040421 This is a discussion on identifying the types of stakeholders and classifying their interests in decision- making. It identifies a number of stakeholder engagement tools (such as printed materials, including technical reports, telephone and media, Internet, surveys, informative events, and stakeholder group engagements), acknowledging that different techniques may be used and no single technique is correct. Consensus Building Institute. 2014. CBIâs Mutual Gains Approach to Negotiation. Washington, D.C. Available at https://www.cbi.org/article/mutual-gains-approach/ This is a tool that helps the reader prepare for and conduct negotiations. The tool describes the four phases of the mutual gains process as preparation, creating value, distributing value, and follow-through. A core tenet of the mutual gains approach is to focus on interests, not positions. Consensus Building Institute. 2007. Cognitive Barriers in the Land Use Planning Process, Washington, D.C. This is a helpful psychological assessment of cognitive barriers and biases that stakeholders bring to the table. It is specifically written for planners and offers approaches for each type of perception barrier. Consensus Building Institute. 2010. Overview of Multi-Stakeholder Consensus Building. Washington, D.C. Available at http://www.ctdatahaven.org/sites/ctdatahaven/files/HEA%20Consensus%20Building%20 Steps%20CBI.pdf This is a multistep guide that can be used to facilitate stakeholder consensus, including checklists for each of the steps in the six-step consensus-building plan. CTC & Associates. 2014. Transportation Research Synthesis 1401: Airspace Protection and Land Use Zoning: A Nationwide Review of State Statutes. Prepared for Minnesota Department of Transportation Office of Transportation System Management, Minneapolis, MN. Available at http://www.dot.state.mn.us/research/ TRS/2014/TRS1401.pdf This is a survey and review of various approaches taken by all 50 U.S. states to protect navigable airspace at the local government level. Regulations from all 50 states were reviewed, and state aviation and aero- nautics offices were surveyed, with representatives from 32 states responding. Fisher, R., W. Ury, and B. Patton. 2011. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In, 3rd ed. Penguin. First published in 1981, this book establishes many of the theories and tactics studied at the Harvard Negotiation Project, an organization that deals with all levels of negotiation and conflict resolution. Of particular interest is a section of Chapter 4 dealing with mutual gain and shared interest. A brief descrip- tion of the book is available at https://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/negotiation-skills-daily/six-guidelines- for-getting-to-yes/ Innes, J. E. 1999. Evaluating Consensus Building (Chapter 17). In The Consensus Building Handbook: A Com- prehensive Guide to Reaching Agreement (L. Susskind, S. McKearnan, and J. Thomas-Larmer, eds.). Sage Publications, Inc., 631â671 Available at http://sk.sagepub.com/reference/the-consensus-building-handbook This focuses on consensus building, not only with the goal of reaching agreements but also with the goal of communicating constructively, providing the opportunity for innovating and resolving issues by help- ing participants see things in new ways. National Business Aviation Association. n.d. Airports Handbook: What You Need to Know About General Aviation Airports. Washington, D.C. Available at https://nbaa.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/airports- handbook-2013.pdf This resource, written for the ânon-aviator,â presents information and data on the economic and social value of airports, safety and security issues, and noise and environmental concerns.
Bibliography 117 Susskind, L. 1999. A Short Guide to Consensus Building: An Alternative to Robertâs Rules of Order for Groups, Organizations, and Ad Hoc Assemblies That Want to Operate by Consensus. In The Consensus Building Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Reaching Agreement (L. Susskind, S. McKearnan, and J. Thomas-Larmer, eds.). Sage Publications, Inc., 3â56. Available at http://sk.sagepub.com/reference/ the-consensus-building-handbook/n1.xml This gives checklists for stakeholder groups whether they are ad hoc groups or permanent groups, with a focus on convening, clarifying responsibilities, deliberating, and deciding and implementing agreements. For permanent organizations, a step of organizational learning is added. Susskind, L., M. van der Wansem, and A. Ciccarelli. 2000. Mediating Land Use Disputes: Pros and Cons. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cambridge, MA. Available at https://www.cbi.org/report/mediating-land-use- disputes-pros-and-cons/ This report recommends that land use planners use mediation rather than relying on advocacy and technocratic planning models. Yankelovich, D. 1999. The Magic of Dialogue: Transforming Conflict into Cooperation. Simon and Schuster, New York, NY. This book presents strategies for successful dialogue engagement. The first chapter of the book, âOvercoming the Dialogue Deficit,â is available at http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/y/ yankelovich-magic.html