National Academies Press: OpenBook

ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook (2019)

Chapter: Chapter 1 - Introduction and Background

« Previous: Front Matter
Page 1
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction and Background." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
×
Page 1
Page 2
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction and Background." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
×
Page 2
Page 3
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction and Background." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
×
Page 3
Page 4
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction and Background." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
×
Page 4
Page 5
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction and Background." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
×
Page 5
Page 6
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 1 - Introduction and Background." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25399.
×
Page 6

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

1 1.1 Introduction This guidebook is a best practices manual for professionals working to implement an airport obstruction management program. Additionally, it is a useful resource for local government professionals or other nonaviation stakeholders involved in planning, design, or approval of tall structures or objects in the vicinity of airports. The term “airport obstruction management” refers to implementing measures to protect the elements of the National Airspace System (NAS)—such as airport approaches, departures, and navigable airways—from encroachment by tall objects. While previous ACRP projects have examined airspace objects and their effect on airports, there has been a lack of guidance on how to use the information to implement a comprehensive obstruction management program. This guidebook is intended to address that gap in guidance. Because potential airport obstructions can occur outside the airport property, the guidebook is designed to speak to a broad range of stakeholder audiences. It includes material that is practicable, actionable, and easily understood by audiences with airport and nonairport backgrounds alike. The term NAS refers to airspace, navigational facilities, and airports in the United States and comprises many elements. Different segments and elements of the NAS, based on their location and type of aircraft operations, can be affected by obstructions. These include the following: • Airport approaches for aircraft preparing to land at an airport • Airport departures for aircraft taking off from an airport • Circling approaches: approaches that do not align with a runway but from which a pilot can position the aircraft to align with a runway for landing • En route airspace: the airspace between airports • Missed approaches: approaches to a landing that result in the aircraft taking off again, typically without touching down • Navigational facilities: radio and radar navigational facilities that provide pilots with naviga- tional guidance in flight and provide air traffic controllers with the position of most aircraft in flight, thus allowing for air traffic separation Elements of the NAS may be encroached upon by tall structures (such as buildings, antennas, smokestacks, or silos), vegetation, terrain, or even traverseways utilized by other modes of transportation. Airport obstruction management is guided by multiple regulations and involves a broad range of technical information spanning not only obstruc- tion evaluation, but—among other matters—intergovernmental coordination, environ- mental issues, public outreach, and consensus building. Moreover, the complexity of obstruction management issues may not be directly proportional to the size of the facility, expertise of the staff, or number of operations. Managers of small airports may contend C H A P T E R 1 Introduction and Background

2 Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook with the same types of issues (albeit on a different scale) as staff at large-hub international airports. This guidebook focuses on obstruction management for portions of the NAS over which an airport and its surrounding community have control. Impacts on navigational facilities by structures (e.g., due to transmission shielding) constitutes a small part of obstruction man- agement practice. The matter of navigational facility performance and frequency spectrum management falls within the responsibility of the federal government and is beyond the scope of this guidebook. 1.2 Research Approach To identify the topics addressed by this guidebook and associated resources, the research team for ACRP Project 09-16 utilized several research strategies. The research included a review of existing guidance resources, a survey of stakeholders affected by airport obstruc- tion management, and a review of obstruction data sources and electronic tools available for obstruction data analysis. Literature Review ACRP reports and syntheses cover a broad range of topics, and several were found to have cross-topic applicability. The most relevant resource, providing key starting topics for the new guidebook, is ACRP Report 38: Understanding Airspace, Objects, and Their Effects on Airports. ACRP Report 38, published in 2010, established an important foundation for educating aviation stakeholders on matters of airspace encroachment, obstruction evaluation, and perti- nent regulatory criteria. ACRP Report 38 set out the criteria as well as the roles and responsibili- ties of key stakeholders in the obstruction evaluation and mitigation process. The research team for ACRP Project 09-16 sought to gain an understanding of the entire range of regulations and guidance pertaining to airport obstruction management, identify gaps and challenges among a cross section of stakeholders, and identify resources and tools to complement the information provided in ACRP Report 38. Some of the regulations discussed in ACRP Report 38 have been reorganized, particularly the reference to FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5300-13, Appendix 2, which is now located in FAA AC 150/5300-13A, Chapter 3. However, ACRP Report 38 is still a good resource for anyone seeking to learn about airspace obstruction evaluation. Part of obstruction management relates to communicating obstruction issues with regard to airport roles. Direct guidance on communicating obstruction management issues was found to be lacking, so the research team identified resources that could cover the gaps, based on guidance for other related matters. In addition to ACRP Report 38, the following ACRP publications can be used to enhance the information in this guidebook: • ACRP Report 15: Aircraft Noise: A Toolkit for Managing Community Expectations • ACRP Report 27: Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 1: Land Use Fundamentals and Implementation Resources • ACRP Report 27: Enhancing Airport Land Use Compatibility, Volume 2: Land Use Survey and Case Study Summaries • ACRP Report 144: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) at Airports: A Primer

Introduction and Background 3 • ACRP Synthesis 7: Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models • ACRP Synthesis 65: Practices to Develop Effective Stakeholder Relationships at Smaller Airports • ACRP WebResource 1: Aligning Community Expectations with Airport Roles In addition to the ACRP documents, more than 20 state resources were identified during the research process. A number of those documents have utility for any airports seeking to establish obstruction management programs, such as guidance on interlocal agreements and airport protection zoning. A number of state resources are included in the bibliography. Another important area of obstruction management relates to conflict resolution, commu- nity outreach, and consensus building. The literature review identified limited resources spe- cific to obstruction management. While certain ACRP resources, such as ACRP Synthesis 65, were helpful, the research team examined academic resources to find practical methods and strategies for reaching mutually acceptable outcomes. The most important resources identified were • Airports Handbook by the National Business Aviation Association • “Public Engagement for Planning and Designing Transportation Systems” • “The Mutual Gains Approach to Negotiation: A Four-Step Process” • “Overview of Multi-Stakeholder Consensus Building” • “Stakeholder Engagement Plan” Stakeholder Outreach The coordination of multiple interests among aviation and nonaviation stakeholders can present a challenge for airport obstruction management implementation. The ACRP Project 09-16 research team interviewed a broad range of participants via telephone to iden- tify gaps in guidance and challenges in obstruction management among a variety of airports and external stakeholders. The airport respondents were distributed among the various National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems airport categories and FAA regions and the inter- viewees had varying levels of expertise in obstruction management. Additional stakeholders interviewed included airport users (i.e., air carrier and charter operators) and key influential external parties, such as planning, zoning, and real estate development professionals. The final list of interviewees included • Six representatives of general aviation (GA) airports • Six representatives of commercial service airports • Two FAA representatives • A state aeronautics agency representative • Two representatives of parts 121 and 135 air carrier operators • A Department of Defense air traffic control policy representative • Three representatives of planning and zoning local and regional agencies • A real estate and land use development professional The interviews were tailored to the individual stakeholder group representatives and focused on the following: • Identifying gaps in knowledge and guidance related to airport obstruction management • Individual stakeholder group interests and challenges • Best practices employed by various stakeholders • Desired guidance and resources

4 Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook The research team’s questions and topics were used as a base for data collection while allowing the respondents to provide additional information that they saw as pertinent to the research. A few of the surveyed stakeholders provided examples of outreach presenta- tions, local zoning regulations, and educational tools that include helpful resources that can be adapted to a broader audience. A number of the surveyed stakeholders provided airport obstruction management best practice guidance; these are included in Section 9.7 of this report. Resource and Data Source Review Lastly, the research team examined the various sources of data that airports may utilize for obstruction analysis and management and reviewed software that offers obstruction analysis or airspace analysis capabilities. This part of the research allowed the team to tailor guidance to the obstruction data gathering and analysis resources that are available to the majority of the airport audience. This guidance is detailed in Chapter 5. 1.3 Target Audience Airports continue to face challenges related to airspace encroachment from structures as well as vegetation. Because of the complexity of the various federal and state rules, standards, and criteria for federally obligated airports and certain groups of airport users (e.g., airlines), it is a continual challenge for airport sponsors, airport staff, and local decision-makers to meet their airport obstruction protection obligations. To overcome airspace encroachment challenges, airports need to work with stakeholders, including local government decision-makers, plan- ning and zoning staff, airport neighbors, real estate and land developers, and many others. This guidebook aims to assist public-use airports of all sizes to identify, monitor, and protect all critical airspace, terminal instrument procedures (TERPS), and airport design surfaces. In addi- tion, the guidebook addresses obstruction clearances required of airport users, such as the air carrier one engine inoperative (OEI) surface, which while not an airport requirement should be of interest to airports to best serve their users. The guidebook presents the material in a manner that is accessible to a broad audience—from airspace specialists at larger airports to local gov- ernment, land use planning, and zoning officials—allowing users to apply its best practices and guidance to protect the safety of and public investment in their local airports. The guidebook offers strategies that will be applicable to smaller airports and strategies that may assist larger airports to address matters (such as working with airlines) involving more complex issues that affect the airport’s airspace. 1.4 Guidebook and ACRP WebResource 7 Guidebook Organization Building on existing ACRP reports and syntheses (previously described), this guidebook goes beyond the textbook approach and provides real-world application guidance and examples. In addition, because most airport protection zoning responsibilities ultimately fall within the responsibilities of local government planning and zoning officials, the guidebook connects the subject matter to a cohesive strategy, to provide guidance suitable for an audience outside the aviation field as well as for airport staff. For working with stakeholders outside the avia- tion field, the guidebook provides actionable conflict resolution guidance and examples of obstruction management challenges and their resolutions.

Introduction and Background 5 Because of the broad range of stakeholder backgrounds and experience in the airport obstruction management process, the obstruction evaluation and mitigation guidance in this report is scalable. This allows readers to obtain quite detailed information or information on more complex issues by going further into the guidance. The guidebook contains nine chapters and is organized into four key areas to help airport sponsors identify, monitor, and protect their airspace: • Regulatory criteria: Chapter 2 describes the regulations related to the airport obstruction management process and the regulatory requirements and criteria that govern that process. This subject area includes FAA requirements and state and local considerations. Chapter 3 takes the regulations described in Chapter 2 and applies them to airports. Chapter 3 also identifies some special considerations and circumstances that airports need to consider due to regulatory overlap or conflicts. • Obstruction evaluation: Chapters 4 through 6 cover subjects related to obstruction evalu- ation. Chapter 4 addresses the existing data resources and the most up-to-date methods of data collection and evaluation, including the use of unmanned aerial systems. Chapter 5 covers obstruction evaluation methods that use existing or gathered data to evaluate the impacts of potential or existing structures, vegetation, and terrain and to determine the safety, operational, and fiscal impacts that a proposal may have on an airport. As part of NCHRP Project 09-16, the research team identified and reviewed technical tools and resources for obstruction evaluation and airspace analysis. Chapter 5 is based on that review and includes what to consider when selecting obstruction management software. Chapter 6 presents composite map development, which allows an airport to identify the appropriate airspace surfaces to protect their airport. • Obstruction management: Chapter 7 focuses on guidance and best practices for establishing procedures that aim to prevent the creation of obstructions via proactive monitoring and coordination with key stakeholders. Additionally, this chapter contains guidance on options to mitigate impacts that cannot be proactively avoided. Section 7.3 also addresses vegetation management options, as well as a balanced approach to meeting intersecting requirements (e.g., environmental or grant assurances). • Consensus building and conflict resolution: Chapter 8 focuses on practical techniques for communicating the airport’s operational requirements, future capacity needs, fiscal and eco- nomic constraints, and safety issues to local government planning and zoning staff, elected officials, developers, nongovernmental entities, and the general public. • Summary and best practice guidance: Chapter 9 is a summary of the best practice guidance in the guidebook. It also includes best practice guidance for the industry survey process. ACRP WebResource 7 ACRP WebResource 7: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Library (https://crp. trb.org/acrp0916) was developed to supplement this guidebook and contains airspace composite maps, templates and samples, and reference resources. One of the key components of this guidebook is the methodology for creating a composite map of all the applicable airspace surfaces for a facility. The application of this methodology, in the form of example airspace composite surface maps for large and small facilities, is available in ACRP WebResource 7. The maps are in KMZ format, allowing the user to utilize Google Earth to render the maps three dimensionally and examine utility and functionality of the program for airport obstruction management. Finally, ACRP WebResource 7 also contains a linked bibliography of useful materials identified during the research process. This allows users to readily access additional resources.

6 Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook 1.5 Icons To make the guidebook easy to use, these icons identify key matters and application of the information: 1.6 Guidebook User Tips Users should consider the following strategies and tips to gain the highest utility from the guidebook: • The guidebook is divided into nine chapters that cover all aspects of the four key areas dis- cussed in Section 1.4: regulatory criteria, obstruction evaluation, obstruction management, and consensus building and conflict resolution. • The guidebook is arranged in a scalable manner—the complexity of issues increases from matters that may affect airports of all sizes to specialized issues related to complex and commercial service airports. • Each chapter is preceded by a summary of key insights and definitions important to under- standing the material in the chapter. • Icons present a “shortcut” to information that may be applicable to a specific user or circumstance. • Reference and editable documents are available in the associated ACRP WebResource 7. Caution: use caution with this activity Commercial service: applicable to airports with commercial service Hint: practical suggestion or useful approach Definition: important terms defined Key: important point for consideration Regulatory: regulations-driven requirement Scalable: guidance can be adopted to airports of various sizes Editable tool: document in web resource that can be customized

Next: Chapter 2 - Airport Obstruction Management and the Regulatory Environment »
ACRP Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 195: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Guidebook is designed to assist airport operators in developing and implementing an obstruction management program to protect the airport airspace from encroachment by tall objects.

The guidance will help airport staff in developing an obstruction management plan by understanding the regulatory environment, identifying obstructions, and in developing a strategy for communication with surrounding communities that will ensure airport involvement in any development issues that could result in an obstruction around the airport.

The guidebook is supplemented by ACRP WebResource 7: Best Practices for Airport Obstruction Management Library, which provides reference documents, model documents, and presentation materials for obstruction management outreach. A methodology for creating a composite map of all applicable airspace surfaces is also provided, as well as examples of interactive airspace composite surface maps for small and large airports.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!