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2019 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 889 Performance Measures in Snow and Ice Control Operations ICF Fairfax, VA w i t h Athey Creek Consultants West Lynn, OR a n d Vaisala Inc. Louisville, CO Subscriber Categories Maintenance and Preservation Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&Iâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 889 Project 14-34 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48014-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2019933376 Â© 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed by ICF under NCHRP Project 14-34. ICF was the contractor for this study, with Athey Creek Consultants and Vaisala serving as the subcontractors. Deepak Gopalakrishna, ICF, was the Principal Investigator. The other contributors to this report were Nayel UreÃ±a Serulle, Technical Specialist, ICF; Paul Wlodkowski, Research Assistant, ICF; Jeremy Schroeder, Ginny Crowson, and Dean Deeter of Athey Creek Consultants; and Mark Devries of Vaisala. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 889 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir Hanna, Senior Program Officer Keyara Dorn, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Doug English, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 14-34 PANEL Field of MaintenanceâArea of Maintenance of Way and Structures Caleb B. Dobbins, New Hampshire DOT, Concord, NH (Chair) Steven M. Lund, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul, MN Timothy M. Chojnacki, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City, MO Mylinh Lidder, Nevada DOT, Carson City, NV Richard J. Nelson, Minden, NV Wilfrid A. Nixon, Salt Institute, Iowa City, IA Max S. Perchanok, Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Downsview, ON Timothy John Peters, Illinois DOT, Springfield, IL Ramkumar Venkatanarayana, Virginia DOT, Charlottesville, VA Morgan Kessler, FHWA Liaison James W. Bryant, Jr., TRB Liaison
This report presents approaches for monitoring the performance of snow and ice control activities by public agencies and proposes a core set of performance measures that can be customized and used by agencies to meet their snow and ice control objectives. The report includes a guide document to facilitate implementation of these performance measures, and explores the capabilities required by public agencies to adequately monitor these measures and use relevant information to support decision-making processes and report on the effectiveness of snow and ice control operations. The information contained in the report will be of immediate interest to state maintenance engineers and others involved in the different aspects of snow and ice control operations. Monitoring the performance of snow and ice control operations has become an increasingly important task for highway agencies and contractors because of stakeholder expectations. Different performance measures have been used both in the United States and abroad but with varying degrees of success; there is no widely accepted measure applicable to the different roadway classifications, storm characteristics, or traffic conditions. Key components in implementing performance measures are the identification of means for collecting and quantifying relevant information and the methods for establishing level-of-service targets. By collecting this information, highway agencies and contractors can monitor the level of performance and make appropriate adjustments to effectively manage resources for snow and ice control operations. Under NCHRP Project 14-34, âGuide for Performance Measures in Snow and Ice Control Operations,â ICF Incorporated developed a guide for applying performance measures to snow and ice control operations in order to assess agency and contractor performance with a focus on safety, mobility, and sustainability. To develop the guide, the researchers identified and evaluated the practices and measures for assessing agency and contractor performance pertaining to snow and ice control operations. The evaluation considered storm characteristics/severity; materials management; labor resource allocation; level of maintenance response; maintenance response outcomes; level of operational responses; travel experience, mobility, and safety; cost, budget, and funding; transportation resilience; and economic activity. The guide presents a core set of performance measures for reporting on snow and ice control operations and assists in developing a performance framework for snow and ice control management that would help decision makers apply the proposed measures to identify appropriate adjustments for managing resources effectively. In addition, the researchers developed a Microsoft Excelâbased tool that provides insight into which performance measures an agency can potentially assess and a user manual to facilitate the implementation of the guide. The tool and user manual can be found by going to www.TRB.org and searching for âNCHRP Research Report 889.â F O R E W O R D By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary P A R T I Research Overview 9 Chapter 1 Introduction 9 1.1 Background 9 1.2 Research Objective 9 1.3 Research Context 12 1.4 Organization of the Report 13 Chapter 2 Research Approach 13 2.1 Literature Review 14 2.2 Evaluation of Performance Measures 17 2.3 Identification of Core Performance Measures 18 2.4 Development of a Guide 20 2.5 Supporting Tools and Development of Materials 21 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 21 3.1 Current Practices for Snow and Ice Control Performance Measurement 23 3.2 New State DOT Practices and Approaches 25 3.3 International Practices 28 3.4 Challenges and Constraints to Performance Measurement 29 3.5 Emerging Trends and Crosscutting Issues 32 3.6 Necessary Elements of a Snow and Ice Control Performance Measurement Program 43 Chapter 4 Development of Performance Measures 43 4.1 Impact of Mission and Goals on Performance 43 4.2 Operational and Maintenance Objectives for Snow and Ice Control 51 4.3 Linking Performance Measures to Operational Objectives 65 4.4 Target Setting 68 4.5 Case Studies 75 Chapter 5 Conclusions 75 5.1 Conclusions 75 5.2 Suggested Actions 78 References C O N T E N T S
P A R T I I Guide for Performance Measures in Snow and Ice Control Operations 85 Introduction 85 Guide Focus 86 Guide Audience 87 Ongoing Challenges with Snow and Ice Performance Measurement 87 Guide Organization and Use 89 Chapter I Defining Performance Measures 89 Step 1: Review Mission and Goals 89 Step 2: Refine Operational Objectives 98 Step 3: Identify Performance Measures 121 Step 4: Develop Analytic Approaches 127 Chapter II Implementing Performance Measures 127 Step 5: Inventory Current Practices and Gaps 132 Step 6: Identify Data Sources and Needs 133 Chapter III Using Performance Information 133 Step 7: Set Targets and Establish Baseline 137 Step 8: Report Performance 140 Chapter IV Reinforcing Performance-Based Management 140 Step 9: Integrate into Decision Making 142 Step 10: Evaluate and Improve 143 Guide References P A R T I I I User Guide for Spreadsheet Tool Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.