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Page 92
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Microtransit or General Public Demand–Response Transit Services: State of the Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25414.
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Page 92
Page 93
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Microtransit or General Public Demand–Response Transit Services: State of the Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25414.
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Page 93

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92 1. Nisenson, L. Transportation’s Missing Middle. Strong Towns Journal, March 13, 2015. https:// www.strongtowns.org/journal/2015/3/2/transportations-missing-middle. 2. Manville, M., B. Taylor, and E. Blumberg. Transit in the 2000s: Where Does It Stand and Where Is It Headed? Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2018, pp. 104–118. 3. Bliss, L. Bridj Is Dead, but Microtransit Isn’t. CitiLab, May 3, 2017. https://www.citylab.com/ transportation/2017/05/bridj-is-dead-but-microtransit-isnt/525156/. 4. Polzin, S. Just Around the Corner: The Future of U.S. Public Transportation. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2018, pp. 43–52. 5. Teale, R., and A. J. Becker. Business Strategies and Technology for Access by Transit in Lower Density Environments. In Research in Transportation Business and Management, Vol. 2, 2011, pp. 57–64. 6. Volinski, J. Lessons Learned in Transit Efficiencies, Revenue Generation, and Cost Reductions. Center for Urban Transportation Research, Tampa, Fla., 1996. 7. Becker, J., R. Teale, S. Morgan, and R. Smith. Developing General Public Demand Responsive Transit in Metropolitan Areas. Journal of Public Transportation. Submitted in 2012; unpublished but an excellent resource. 8. Koffman, D. TCRP Synthesis 53: Operational Experiences with Flexible Transit Services. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2004, pp. 2, 5, and 6. 9. Potts, J. F., M. A. Marshall, E. C. Crockett, and J. Washington. TCRP Report 140: A Guide for Planning and Operating Flexible Public Transportation Services. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2010. 10. Cambridge Systematics, Inc. TCRP Report 53: New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations. Task 1 Report. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 1999. 11. Berggren, M., D. Moosavi, B. Martin, C. Doxsee, M. Sellinger, and L. Wirtis. Capturing the Ride: Exploring the Low-Density Flexible Transit Alternatives in Salem-Keizer. Portland State University Master of Urban and Regional Planning Workshop Capstone Project Graduate Student Group, Ore., May 2014. https:// trec.pdx.edu/tags/murp?page=2. 12. The Eno Foundation. UpRouted: Exploring Microtransit in the United States. Jan. 2018. https:// www.enotrans.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/UpRouted-18.pdf?x43122. 13. Eaken, N., and C. Rubin. Los Angeles Shared-Mobility Climate and Equity Action Plan. Report 17-10-B. Prepared by the Natural Resources Defense Council and Nutter Consulting, April 2018. https://www.nrdc.org/ sites/default/files/los-angeles-shared-mobility-climate-equity-report.pdf 14. Shaheen, S., A. Stocker, J. Lazarus, and A. Bhattacharyya. RideKC: Bridj Project Evaluation: Impact, Opera- tional, and Institutional Analysis. Transportation Sustainability Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, Oct. 2016. http://www.kcata.org/documents/uploads/TSRC_Bridj.pdf. 15. San Francisco MTA Issues Private Transit Permit to Chariot. METRO, posted April 24, 2018. http:// www.metro-magazine.com/management-operations/news/729489/san-francisco-mta-issues-private- transit-permit-to-chariot?utm_source=email&utm_medium=enewsletter&utm_campaign=20180424-NL- MET-Express-BOBCD180418004&omdt=NL-MET-Express&omid=1000571955. 16. Chariot Launches Crowd Sourced Shuttle in NYC. METRO, posted Aug. 3, 2017. http://www.metro- magazine.com/shuttle/news/724657/chariot-launches-crowd-sourced-shuttle-in-nyc. 17. Rideshare Startup to Launch On-Demand Public Transit in 2 U.S. Cities. METRO, posted Nov. 9, 2017. http://www.metro-magazine.com/shuttle/news/726279/rideshare-startup-to-launch-on-demand-public- transit-in-2-u-s-cities. 18. Berrebi, S. Don’t Believe the Microtransit Hype. CityLab, Nov. 6, 2017. https://www.citylab.com/ transportation/2017/11/dont-believe-the-microtransit-hype/545033/. References

References 93 19. Feigon, S., and C. Murphy. TCRP Research Report 195: Broadening Understanding of the Interplay Among Public Transit, Shared Mobility, and Personal Automobiles. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2018. 20. Center for Urban Transportation Research. Best Practices in Transit Service Planning. National Center for Transit Research, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, March 2009, pp. 43–45. https://www.nctr.usf.edu/pdf/77720.pdf. 21. Goodwill, J., and L. Staes. Flexible Public Transportation Services in Florida. National Center for Tran- sit Research, Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, Aug. 2013. https://www.nctr.usf.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/77942-Flexible-Public-Transportation-508.pdf. 22. Kumar, R. The Time for Microtransit is Now. https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/2753005/Content/ White%20Papers/MicroTransit%20Advertorial%20PT%20Magazine%20-%20TransLoc.pdf. 23. Reich, S. L., and J. L. Davis. Analysis of Contracting for Fixed Route Bus Service. Final Report. National Center for Transit Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, June 2011. 24. Hilke, J. Cost Savings from Privatization: A Compilation of Findings. How to Guide. Reason Foundation, Los Angeles, Calif., 1993. https://reason.org/how-to-guide/cost-savings-from-privatizatio/. 25. Volinski, J. Lessons Learned in Transit Efficiencies, Revenue Generation, and Cost Reductions: Second Edition. National Center for Transit Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2003. https://www.nctr.usf.edu/ wp-content/uploads/2012/07/350-07.pdf. 26. Cityfi. There’s a new option in town. March 4, 2018. https://medium.com/@Cityfi/theres-a-new-option- in-town-d51e8a427ed3. 27. Kaufman, D. Can Microtransit Improve Social Mobility? April 19, 2018. https://urbanmobilitydaily.com/ can-microtransit-improve-social-mobility-by-doug-kaufman-ceo-of-transloc/. 28. Walker, J. Maybe Apps Are Not Transforming the Urban Transport Business. Feb. 2, 2018. http://humantransit. org/2018/02/breaking-urban-transport-is-not-a-profitable-business.html. 29. Mackie, P. Is Microtransit Actually Focused on Providing “First Mile” to Transit? Mobility Lab. April 25, 2018. https://mobilitylab.org/2018/04/25/first-mile-may-be-code-for-whitewashing-by- microstransit-companies/. 30. Henderson, P. Some Uber and Lyft Riders Are Giving Up Their Own Cars: Reuters/IPSOS Poll. May 25, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autos-rideservices-poll/some-uber-and-lyft-riders- are-giving-up-their-own-cars-reuters-ipsos-idUSKBN18L1DA. 31. Leins, C., Say Goodbye to Owning Your Own Car. U.S. News and World Report, July 17, 2018. https:// www.usnews.com/news/best-states/articles/2018-07-17/is-owning-your-own-car-a-thing-of-the-past. 32. HR&A. Microtransit & Transit Agencies: A Bridge to Our Driverless Future. April 29, 2018. https:// www.hraadvisors.com/microtransit-a-bridge-to-our-driverless-future/. 33. Luten, J. Not if But When: Autonomous Driving and the Future of Transit. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2018, pp. 92–103. https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/jpt/vol21/iss1/10 34. Volinski, J. Reflections on the Future of Public Transportation. Journal of Public Transportation, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2018, pp. ii–vi.

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Microtransit or General Public Demand–Response Transit Services: State of the Practice Get This Book
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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 141: Microtransit or General Public Demand–Response Transit Services: State of the Practice provides an overview of the current state of the practice of transit systems that are directly providing general public demand–response or microtransit with their own vehicles and personnel or using a traditional contractor.

The report presents a literature review and results from a survey of 22 transit agencies that have had current experiences with microtransit. Case examples of five transit systems are provided. These case examples present in-depth analyses of the processes and considerations, challenges, lessons learned, and keys to success.

General public demand–response transit service is the chameleon of the public transportation world. The service can take many forms in different environments and can even change its form in the middle of its duty cycle. The service can be delivered through point deviation or route deviation methods, as a feeder to fixed route transit, or as a circulator within a community providing a many-to-many or many-to-few service, and can provide circulator and feeder services with the same vehicle.

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