National Academies Press: OpenBook

Guidelines for Slope Traversability (2019)

Chapter: References

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Page 164
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Slope Traversability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25415.
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Page 165
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Slope Traversability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25415.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Slope Traversability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25415.
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Page 167
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Guidelines for Slope Traversability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25415.
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157 REFERENCES 1. NHTSA (2003) "Initiatives to Address the Mitigation of Vehicle Rollover", Docket No. NHTSA-2003-14622, Notice 1, Washington D.C., USA. 2. Viner, J.G. 1995. Rollovers on Sideslopes and Ditches. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 27(4):483-91. 3. Glennon, J.C., Neuman, T.R. and Leisch, J.E. (1983) "Safety and Operational Considerations for Design of Rural Highway Curves", Federal Highway Administration. 4. Glennon, J.C., http://www.crashforensics.com/papers.cfm?PaperID=45, retrieved July 6, 2012. 5. Rice R.S., and Dell’Amico F. (1974). “An Experimental Study of Automobile Driver Characteristics and Capabilities”, Calspan Report No. ZS-5208-k-1. 6. Peters SC. (2006) "Modeling, Analysis, and Measurement of Passenger Vehicle Stability", Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA. 7. AASHTO (2011), “Roadside Design Guide”, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., USA. 8. Ross, H. E., Jr., Post, E. R., Nixon, J. F., Hustace, D., and Kristaponis, E. V., “Warrants for Guardrails on Embankments,” Highway Research Record 460, Highway Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1973, pp. 85-96. 9. Sicking, D. L., Lechtenberg, K. A., and Petersen, S., NCHRP Report 638: Guidelines for Guardrail Implementation, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009. 10. Bligh, R. P., Miaou, S.-P., and Mak, K. K. Recovery Area Distance Relationships for Highway Roadside. Preliminary Draft Final Report. Prepared for National Cooperative Highway Research Program 17-11 Project, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 2004. 11. Segal, D. J., "Highway Vehicle Object Simulation Model - 1976," four volumes, Report Numbers FHWA-RD-76-162 to 165, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D. C., 1976. 12. Weaver, G. D. and Marquis, E. L., Olsen, R. M., The Relation of Side Slope Design to Highway Safety, Highway Research Board NCHRP Project 20-7, Texas Transportation Institute, September 1974.

158 13. Ross, Hayes E., Jr. and Post, E. R., Dynamic Behavior of an Automobile Traversing Selected Curbs and Medians, Research Report 140-6, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, 1975. 14. Ross, H. E., Jr., Perera, H. S., Sicking, D. L., and Bligh, R. P., NCHRP Report 318: Roadside Safety Design for Small Vehicles, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 1989. 15. Ross, H. E., Jr., Perera, H. S., and Mak, K. K., "Clear Zones as a Function of Side Slopes for Rural Arterial Roadways," Final Report for Texas Department of Transportation Research Study 2-9-90/1-990, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX., 1990. 16. Mak, K. K., and Mason, R. L., "Accident Analysis - Breakaway and Nonbreakaway Poles Including Sign and Light Standards Along Highways," Final Report for NHTSA/FHWA, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX., 1980. 17. Mak, K. K., and Calcote, L. R., "Accident Analysis of Highway Narrow Bridge Sites," Report No. FHWA/RD-82/139, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D. C., 1983. 18. Mak, K. K., Sicking, D. L, and Ross, H. E., Jr., Real-World Impact Conditions for Run- Off-the-Road Accidents, Transportation Research Record, No. 1065, 1986, pp. 98–105. 19. Ross, Hayes E., Jr., Bligh, Roger P., and Liu, Jichuan, "Evaluating the Benefits of Slope Rounding," Final Report, TTI Report 0468F (for Minnesota Department of Transportation) Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, June, 1993. 20. Thomson, R. and Valtonen, J., Vehicle Impacts in V-Ditches. Transportation Research Record, No. 1797, 2002, pp. 82–88. 21. Sheikh, N., Miaou, S.P., and Bligh, R.P. 2012. Guidelines for Cost-Effective Safety Treatment of Roadside Ditches. Interim Report. Prepared for NCHRP Project 16-05. 22. Ivey, D.L., Young, R.D., French, E., Wittich, E.P., Ervin, R.D., Stocker, A.J., Hellmuth, R.F., Gardner, R.H., Post, E.R., Millikan, D.L. Input Response Tests of Selected Small Passenger Cars. Report, November 1971. 23. Buth C.E. and Campise W. L. Performance Limits of Longitudinal Barrier Systems. Volume IV - Appendix C. Details of Embankment Traversal Tests. DTFH61-82- C-00051, May 1985. 24. NHTSA, Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), Analytical Users Manual, 1975-2010. NHTSA Report Number: DOT HS 811 529. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, USDOT. Dec. 2011a.

159 25. NHTSA, 2010 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), Coding and Validation Manual. NHTSA Report Number: DOT HS 811 530. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, USDOT. Dec. 2011b. 26. NHTSA. National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) General Estimates System (GES), 2010 Coding and Editing Manual. NHTSA Report Number: DOT HS 811 531. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, USDOT. Dec. 2011c. 27. NHTSA. National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) General Estimates System (GES), Analytical Users’ Manual: 1988-2010. NHTSA Report Number: DOT HS 811 532. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, USDOT. Dec. 2011d. 28. NHTSA, National Automotive Sampling System (NASS), Crashworthiness Data System, Analytical User’s Manual, 2010 File. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, USDOT, 2011e. 29. NHTSA, National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System, 2010 Coding and Editing Manual. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, USDOT, 2011f. 30. Lohr, S.L. (2010) Sampling: Design and Analysis. Second Edition. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning. 31. Mak, K.K., D.L. Sicking, F.D.B. de Albuquerque, and B.A. Coon, Identification of Vehicle Impact Conditions Associated with Serious Ran-Off-Road Crashes, Draft Final Report for NCHRP Project 17-22, May 2009. 32. TRB, NCHRP Project 17-43, "Long-Term Roadside Data Collection Program," NCHRP, Transportation Research Board, ongoing. 33. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware, AASHTO Subcommittee on Bridges and Structures, Washington, D.C., 2009. 34. 4N6XPRT Systems, Expert AutoStats, 2012 Release, 4N6XPRT Systems. Forensic Expert Software. CA, 2012. 35. Boyd, P.L. NHTSA's NCAP Rollover Resistance Rating System. “Proceedings - 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.” Washington, D.C., June 6-9, 2005. 36. Ferdous, M.R. Placement of Traffic Barriers on Roadside and Median Slopes. Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 2011.

160 37. James M.E. Jr. and Ross, H.E Jr. (1974). “HVOSM User’s Manual.” Research Report 140-9, Research Study 2-10-69-140, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, Texas. 38. Ross H.E. Jr. and Post R.E. (1972). “Comparisons of Full-scale Embankment Tests with Computer Simulations – Volume One, Test Results and Comparisons.” Research Report 140-7, Research Study 2-5-69-140, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, Texas. 39. Weaver G.D., Marquis E.L., and Luedecke A.R. Jr. “Vehicle Dynamics on Roadway Slopes.” NCHRP Project 20-7, Report 626A-1, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, Texas. 40. Cooperrider, N.K., Hammoud, S.A., and Colwell, J. Characteristics of Soil-Tripped Rollovers. Society of Automotive Engineers Technical Papers, Paper 980022, 1998. 41. Grimes, W.D., Balasa, J.A., and Hunter, E.J., Analyzing the Trip-Phase of Soft-Soil Rollovers. Society of Automotive Engineers Technical Papers, Paper 2006-01-1558, 2006. 42. Miaou, S. et al. Rollover Causation and Mitigation Study: Task F Report. Texas Transportation Institute, FHWA Contract DTFH61-00-C-00079, 2003. 43. Viner, J.G., Risk of Rollover in Ran-off-Road Crashes, Transportation Research Record, No. 1500, 1995, pp.112-118. 44. Automakers & ANDC & WSJ., http://www.goodcarbadcar.net/2017/01/usa-2016- vehicle-sales-by-model-manufacturer-brand/, retrieved September 2, 2017. 45. Highway Loss and Data Institute, “Technical Appendix,” http://www.iihs.org/media/f9365d6d-8473-4d26-a4ca- 97c6a4c7d7b6/127016350/Ratings/Protocols/current/tech_06.pdf, retrieved September 2, 2017. 46. Katz, D., Baptista, J., Azen, S. and Pike, M. (1978). Obtaining confidence intervals for the risk ratio in cohort studies. Biometrics 34, 469–474. 47. Selvin, S. Statistical Tools for Epidemiologic Research. Oxford University Press. New York, 2011. 48. Woodward, M. Epidemiology: Study Design and Data Analysis. Chapman & Hall/CRC, 1999.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released a pre-publication version of Research Report 911: Guidelines for Slope Traversability, which includes guidelines for determining the traversability of roadside slopes considering the characteristics of the current passenger vehicle fleet.

As part of development of this report, researchers performed full-scale traversability tests and compared the performance of the vehicles with the simulations performed for the same test conditions.

Rollovers are the leading cause of fatalities in single vehicle ran-off-road (SVROR) crashes. Analysis of six years of data from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System indicates that 31% of SVROR crashes result in a rollover. Approximately 75% of these rollover crashes are initiated by vehicles digging into the ground on embankments or in ditches after encroaching onto the roadside.

Development of NCHRP Research Report 911 was prompted by concern that some roadside slope conditions that have for many years been considered traversable for passenger cars may not be traversable for light trucks. With the steadily increasing percentage of light trucks in the vehicle fleet, further research was needed to determine what should be considered as safe sideslope conditions for today’s vehicle fleet. Proper assessment of slope traversability may help reduce the number of rollover crashes and associated fatalities.

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