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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25424.
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128 A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs Anthony, K., L. K. Bay, R. Costanza, J. Firn, J. Gunn, P. Harrison, A. Heyward, P. Lundgren, D. Mead, T. Moore, P. J. Mumby, M. J. H. van Oppen, J. Robertson, M. C. Runge, D. J. Suggett, B. Schaffelke, D. Wachenfeld, and T. Walshe. 2017. New interventions are needed to save coral reefs. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1(10):1420-1422. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-017-0313-5. Arnold, S. N., R. S. Steneck, and P. J. Mumby. 2010. Running the gauntlet: inhibitory effects of algal turfs on the processes of coral recruitment. Marine Ecology Progress Series 414:91-105. DOI. Aronson, R. B., and W. F. Precht. 2001. White-band disease and the changing face of Caribbean coral reefs. Hydrobiologia 460(1):25-38. DOI: 10.1023/A:1013103928980. Aswani, S., P. Mumby, A. C. Baker, P. Christie, L. McCook, R. Steneck, and R. Richmond. 2015. Scientific frontiers in the management of coral reefs. Frontiers in Marine Science 2(50):1-13. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2015.00050. Atad, I., A. Zvuloni, Y. Loya, and E. Rosenberg. 2012. Phage therapy of the white plague-like disease of Favia favus in the Red Sea. Coral Reefs 31(3):665-670. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-012-0900-5. Atkins, J. P., D. Burdon, M. Elliott, and A. J. Gregory. 2011. Management of the marine environment: Integrating ecosystem services and societal benefits with the DPSIR framework in a systems approach. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62(2):215-226. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.12.012. Bachok, Z., P. Mfilinge, and M. Tsuchiya. 2006. Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan. Coral Reefs 25(4):545-554. DOI: 10.1007/s00338-006-0130-9. Baird, A. H., R. Bhagooli, P. J. Ralph, and S. Takahashi. 2009. Coral bleaching: the role of the host. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24(1):16-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.09.005. Bak, R. P. M., M. J. E. Carpay, and E. D. de Ruyter van Steveninck. 1984. Densities of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum before and after mass mortalities on the coral reefs of Curaçao. Marine Ecology Progress Series 17(1):105-108. Baker, A. C. 2003. Flexibility and specificity in coral-algal symbiosis: Diversity, ecology, and biogeography of Symbiodinium. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 34(1):661-689. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132417. Baker, A., and R. Rowan. 1997. Diversity of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) in scleractinian corals of the Caribbean and eastern Pacific. Presented at 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Panama. Baker, A. C., R. Karp, R. Cunning, C. Drury, S. A. Schopmeyer, R. Van Hooidonk, T. Conn, R. Winter, and D. Lirman. 2018. Local Managed Relocation (LMR) as a Minimal-Risk Approach to Building Climate Resilience in a Coral Restoration Program: A Case Study from Florida’s Biscayne Region. Presented at Reef Futures 2018, Key Largo, FL. Ban, S. S., R. L. Pressey, and N. A. J. Graham. 2014. Assessing interactions of multiple stressors when data are limited: A Bayesian belief network applied to coral reefs. Global Environmental Change 27:64-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.018. Barshis, D. J., J. T. Ladner, T. A. Oliver, F. O. Seneca, N. Traylor-Knowles, and S. R. Palumbi. 2013. Genomic basis for coral resilience to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(4):1387-1392. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1210224110. Barshis, D. J., C. Birkeland, R. J. Toonen, R. D. Gates, and J. H. Stillman. 2018. High-frequency temperature variability mirrors fixed differences in thermal limits of the massive coral Porites lobata (Dana, 1846). The Journal of Experimental Biology:jeb.188581. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.188581. Bartelet, H. A., and P. Fletcher. 2017. Exploring disease dynamics on coral reef ecosystems through system dynamics models. Presented at 35th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Baskett, M. L., and R. S. Waples. 2013. Evaluating alternative strategies for minimizing unintended fitness consequences of cultured individuals on wild populations. Conservation Biology 27(1):83-94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01949.x. Baskett, M. L., S. D. Gaines, and R. M. Nisbet. 2009. Symbiont diversity may help coral reefs survive moderate climate change. Ecological Applications 19(1):3-17. DOI: 10.1890/08-0139.1. Baskett, M. L., R. M. Nisbet, C. V. Kappel, P. J. Mumby, and S. D. Gaines. 2010. Conservation management approaches to protecting the capacity for corals to respond to climate change: A theoretical comparison. Global Change Biology 16(4):1229-1246. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02062.x.

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148 A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs Young, C. N., S. A. Schopmeyer, and D. Lirman. 2012. A review of reef restoration and coral propagation using the threatened genus Acropora in the Caribbean and western Atlantic. Bulletin of Marine Science 88(4):1075-1098. DOI: 10.5343/bms.2011.1143. Zhang, Z., A. Jones, and M. J. C. Crabbe. 2018. Impacts of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering strategy on Caribbean coral reefs. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 10(4):523-532. DOI: 10.1108/IJCCSM-05-2017-0104.

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Coral reefs are critical to ocean and human life because they provide food, living area, storm protection, tourism income, and more. However, human-induced stressors, such as overfishing, sediment, pollution, and habitat destruction have threatened ocean ecosystems globally for decades. In the face of climate change, these ecosystems now face an array of unfamiliar challenges due to destructive rises in ocean temperature, acidity and sea level. These factors lead to an increased frequency of bleaching events, hindered growth, and a decreasing rate of calcification. Research on interventions to combat these relatively new stressors and a reevaluation of longstanding interventions is necessary to understand and protect coral reefs in this changing climate. Previous research on these methods prompts further questions regarding the decision making process for site-specific interventions.

A Decision Framework for Interventions to Increase the Persistence and Resilience of Coral Reefs builds upon a previous report that reviews the state of research on methods that have been used, tested, or proposed to increase the resilience of coral reefs. This new report aims to help coral managers evaluate the specific needs of their site and navigate the 23 different interventions described in the previous report. A case study of the Caribbean, a region with low coral population plagued by disease, serves as an example for coral intervention decision making. This report provides complex coral management decision making tools, identifies gaps in coral biology and conservation research, and provides examples to help individuals and communities tailor a decision strategy to a local area.

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