National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2019 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 204 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation • Passenger Transportation Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) Terra Curtis Meg Merritt Carmen Chen David Perlmutter Dan Berez NelsoN\Nygaard CoNsultiNg assoCiates San Francisco, CA i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Buffy Ellis KFH group, iNCorporated Bethesda, MD

TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 204 Project J-11/Task 26 ISSN 2572-3782 ISBN 978-0-309-48058-1 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 204 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Jarrel McAfee, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT J-11/TASK 26 PANEL Field of Special Projects Gail Murray, Gail Murray Consulting, Walnut Creek, CA (Chair) Jessica S. Alvarez, Foursquare Integrated Transportation Planning, Rockville, MD Chad Ballentine, Capital Metro Transportation Authority, Austin, TX Justin Begley, City of Denver (CO) Department of Public Works, Denver, CO Alejandro Henao, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO James Kuhr, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Michael A. McCall-Delgado, Amalgamated Transit Union, Silver Spring, MD Mindy McNair, Regional Transportation District, Denver, CO Jeffrey Scott Owen, TriMet, Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon, Portland, OR Deborah Schrimmer, Lyft, San Francisco, CA Conrad Wagner, Mobility Systems, Stans, Switzerland Marla Westervelt, Bird, Santa Monica, CA Bonnie Graves, FTA Liaison Charla H. Tabb, FTA Liaison Virginia Dize, National Association of Area Agencies on Aging (n4a) Liaison Darnell Grisby, APTA Liaison Sheryl Gross-Glaser, CTAA Liaison Robin Riesa Phillips, National RTAP Liaison Katherine A. Kortum, TRB Liaison

Transit agencies have long relied on private sector partners to assist in delivering both fixed-route and paratransit services. During the past decade, a new class of private mobility service providers called transportation network companies (TNCs) has emerged that leverage mobile technology and digital platforms to connect customers with mobility options. TCRP Research Report 204: Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) provides practical guidance for decision-makers to enhance understanding and to facilitate informed decisions on where, when, and how partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs should be considered and pursued. TCRP Research Report 204 addresses the nascent field of partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs. The research included reviewing recent literature and conducting case studies of 20 existing, defunct, and in-development partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs in the United States. The case studies address the motivations for the partner- ships, regulatory and legal considerations that affected partnership design, methods for marketing, methods and metrics to measure outcomes or indicate success of partnerships, and funding mechanisms and budgets used to establish the partnerships. The report presents findings pertaining to data and information requirements of both transit agencies and TNCs; the various benefits and outcomes that transit agencies, com- munities, and customers have pursued through partnerships; and the challenges faced by transit agencies in developing partnerships with TNCs. The report culminates with a Partnership Playbook that is presented both as Chapter 6 and as a separate download available on the TRB website (www.trb.org) by searching for “TCRP Research Report 204.” The Playbook offers step-by-step guidance to transit practi- tioners interested in pursuing partnerships with TNCs. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 Background 8 Research Objective 8 Key Terms 10 Chapter 2 Methodology 10 Study Scope 10 The Approach 13 Chapter 3 Transit Agency Survey Results 13 Basic Partnership Information 14 Operational Characteristics 14 Regulatory Considerations 15 Contracting and Data Sharing 15 Third-Party Providers 16 Program Evaluation 17 Chapter 4 Case Studies 21 Big Blue Bus (BBB) 24 Capital Metro (Capmetro) 26 Cascades East Transit (CET) of the Central Oregon Intergovernmental Council 28 Central Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (CPTA) dba RabbitTransit 30 Denton County Transportation Authority (DCTA) 32 Greater Richmond Transit Company (GRTC) 35 Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) 38 Livermore Amador Valley Transit Authority (LAVTA) 40 Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) 42 Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) 45 New York City Transit (NYCT) 47 Omnitrans 49 Pierce Transit 52 Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA) 56 Sacramento Regional Transit (SacRT) 58 San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans) 60 Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) 62 Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority (SORTA/Metro) 64 Solano Transportation Authority (STA) 66 Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) C O N T E N T S

68 Chapter 5 Findings 68 Common Motivations 69 Common Target Markets 70 Common Partnership Designs 72 Approaches to Procurement and Contracting 72 Marketing and Customer Outreach 73 Data Sharing, the NTD, and Sunshine Laws 76 ADA Considerations 77 Title VI Considerations 78 Other Legal Considerations 81 Organizational Considerations 81 Summary of the TNC Perspective 83 Chapter 6 Partnership Playbook 83 Informed Decision-Making for Transit Agencies Interested in Partnering with TNCs 83 Step 1: Organize and Plan 84 Step 2: Understand the Fundamentals 85 Step 3: Plan for Partnership 86 Step 4: Launch and Operate the Partnership 86 Step 5: Debrief and Refine 87 Chapter 7 Suggestions for Further Research 89 Endnotes 91 Appendix A Transit Agency Survey Instrument 117 Appendix B Transit Agency Survey Results 131 Appendix C Transit Interview Protocols 136 Appendix D 2016 U.S. DOT Dear Colleague Letter 139 Appendix E Inventory of Transit Agencies Involved in TNC Partnerships

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Report 204: Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) is designed to help transit agencies that have decided to pursue partnerships with one or more TNCs. The report provides information on where, when, and how partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs should be considered and pursued.

As new mobility service providers emerge, many public transit agencies have partnered, or are in the process of partnering, with such providers. Among these providers are TNCs. While partnerships between transit agencies and private mobility providers are not new, partnerships with TNCs create unique opportunities and challenges as both parties work toward mutually beneficial program models.

TCRP Report 204 provides 20 in-depth case studies of partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs. Its Partnership Playbook synthesizes lessons learned from these case studies and provides step-by-step practical guidance for transit practitioners on how they should be considered and pursued.

The report provides an up-to-date guide on partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs in all stages of development and realization. It covers partnerships developed with several target markets in mind, including:

  • First/last-mile connections to transit;
  • Customers of ADA Paratransit and Demand-Response Services;
  • People traveling in lower density environments;
  • People with late night travel needs; and
  • People with occasional trip needs (e.g. guaranteed ride home).
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