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Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies (2019)

Chapter: Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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APPENDIX B Transit Agency Survey Results

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-1 Figure B-1 Does the structure of your transit agency’s relationship with a TNC involve the exchange of any funds? (Select all that apply) (n=23) Figure B-2 Which of the following TNC services participate in the partnership or collaboration? (Select all that apply) (n=23) “Other” includes the following TNC partners: UZURV, Lyft Concierge, Via, and RideAustin 78% 22% 13% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Yes, between our transit agency and the TNC directly No Yes, between our transit agency and customers directly, who then pay TNC(s) directly 26% 22% 26% 35% 61% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Other UberPOOL Lyft Line UberX Lyft

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-2 Figure B-3 In addition to TNCs, do any of the following categories of service providers also participate in the partnership/collaboration program? (Select all that apply) (n=23) “Other” includes the following third-party providers: Ride Roundtrip (ride broker), Verifone, CMT, Limosys, wheelchair van service providers, “overlay for concierge platform for Lyft to handle payment,” and “Taxis and a private operator both provide accessible vehicles.” 26% 13% 13% 30% 39% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Other Non-Emergency Medical Transportation Provider Human Services Transportation Provider No other collaborators or partners Taxi Operator

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-3 Figure B-4 What are/were the primary goals for your transit agency in developing a TNC partnership/collaboration? (Select all that apply) (n=36) “Other” includes “Enhanced paratransit service. i.e. The Ride is good at getting people to the doctor on time, but TNCs are better responding to the uncertain time associated with an appointment's conclusion. Same theory applies to work days,” “Reduce the cost of a supplemental service and test the model for future expansion,” Leverage one-seat ride to Philadelphia International Airport; construction-related impact mitigation,” “Test alternate modes of delivering service and customer choice flexibility, and quick response options,” and “Provide more direct ride choices for customers and flexibility, in same-day demand-response, for customers in changed-time and contingency situations.” 11% 11% 17% 19% 19% 25% 31% 31% 31% 31% 36% 44% 61% 69% 75% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Other Relieve demand on a service or infrastructure (such as an over-… Reduce cost of fixed- route transit Provide a service for low-income or transportation… Provide service to a new area Replace an unproductive service Provide service at a new time (such as late night or early morning) Reduce cost of paratransit Provide an alternative service for ADA paratransit customers Promote/advertise an alternative mobility option Provide same-day mobility options for paratransit customers Supplement an existing service Improve customer experience Demonstrate innovation Provide a first/last mile connection

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-4 Figure B-5 Were there any local opportunities specific to your pursuit of this TNC partnership/collaboration? (Select all that apply) (n=35) “Other” includes: “MicroTransit Accelerator Challenge -- award to provide planning work at no cost,” “Air District,” and “TransLoc provided the connection to Uber through their app that MATA uses for real-time bus information.” Figure B-6 In preparation for your program, did your transit agency identify any of the following barriers, risks, or legal considerations as key challenges? (Select all that apply) (n=33) “Other” includes “Concerns over taxi providers” and “Drug testing and other safety concerns of driver” 29% 11% 26% 29% 31% 60% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Other Unsolicited proposal received from a TNC Unique funding sources (e.g. local sales tax, grant opportunity) Political support from elected officials Transit agency board support and/or champion Transit agency staff champion 33% 30% 39% 48% 52% 58% 64% 79% 88% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Other Limited TNC availability in our service area Ensuring that vehicles being used are safe Concerns about the impact or perceived impacts to union labor Ensuring passenger safety Providing a cash payment option Limiting liability to the transit agency Providing access for people without smartphones Providing access for customers who use wheelchairs or over-sized mobility devices

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-5 Figure B-7 How would you describe the service area covered (or intended to be covered) by your transit agency’s TNC program? (Select all the apply) (n=36) Figure B-8 Who are the target customers of the TNC partnership/collaboration? (Select all that apply) (n=35) “Other” includes “general commuters,” “Caltrain commuters,” and “low-income people traveling late at night (for shift work).” 3% 14% 14% 61% 69% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Resort area Rural University/college Urban Suburban 9% 6% 14% 23% 31% 51% 57% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Other Seniors People who use their private vehicle and park at a station to access transit People with low incomes People needing to travel at times of day not covered by fixed-route transit service People in areas difficult to cover by fixed-route services People with disabilities

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-6 Figure B-9 How has your transit agency marketed or promoted the partnership/collaboration? (Select all that apply) (n=36) “Other” includes “We have selected a specific pilot group, all outreach is targeted toward these clients” and “There is no collaboration.” Figure B-10 Apart from the TNC partnership/collaboration, what types of transportation services and programs are offered by your transit agency? (Select all that apply) (n=36) “Other” includes “Connections at Caltrain stations to local transit, including buses, light rail, paratransit, etc. across the Caltrain corridor (spanning 3 counties),” “The local MPO (MORPC) offers vanpool and guaranteed ride home programs,” “Supplemental transportation such as Veterans transportation and senior transportation,” and “None.” 6% 11% 19% 25% 33% 36% 42% 44% 56% 61% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Other Partnership/collaboration is still in development or has not yet launched Employer outreach My agency has not marketed or promoted the partnership/collaboration In-person outreach Advertisements on existing fixed routes/bus stops/train stations The TNC collaborators or partners have promoted the program on their channels Local news media Social media Website 11% 14% 28% 31% 31% 33% 36% 50% 67% 86% 86% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%100% Other Any Fixed-Route or Demand Response (or… Vanpool Program Guaranteed Ride Home Program Taxi Subsidy Program Commuter Rail General Public Demand Response, Dial-A-Ride,… Subway, Light Rail, or Bus Rapid Transit Express Bus Fixed-Route Local Bus or Streetcar ADA Paratransit

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-7 Figure B-11 Are TNC drivers participating in your program required to undergo drug and alcohol testing? (Select all that apply) (n=18) “Other” includes the following response: “During the pilot they are not required, but any service that is not a pilot would require drug and alcohol testing unless we entered into agreement with multiple TNCs to cover the same area so customers have a choice.” Figure B-12 Are TNC drivers participating in your program required to be fingerprinted for background checks? (Select all that apply) (n=18) 6% 6% 17% 28% 56% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Other All TNC drivers that participate in the program must undergo drug and alcohol testing We offer customers a choice of providers (e.g. TNCs and taxi company partners) so that some drivers in the program are ensured to have undergone drug and alcohol testing All TNC drivers in the program service area must already undergo drug and alcohol testing due to local or state requirements No, TNC drivers are not required to undergo drug and alcohol testing as part of this transit- TNC partnership/collaboration 11% 17% 22% 61% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% All TNC drivers that participate in the program must be fingerprinted We offer customers a choice of providers (e.g. TNCs and taxi company partners) so that some drivers in the program are ensured to have undergone fingerprinting All TNC drivers in the program service area must be fingerprinted due to local or state requirements No, TNC drivers are not required to be fingerprinted as part of this transit-TNC partnership/collaboration

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-8 Figure B-13 Does your transit agency require partners to acquire liability insurance above and beyond the TNC’s basic coverage and requirements of drivers? (Select all that apply) (n=17) “Other” includes the following response: “State TNC law sets the insurance requirements (currently higher than most livery services).” Figure B-14 Which of the following legal agreements govern your relationship with a TNC(s)? (Select all that apply) (n=19) “Other” includes “Marketing agreement (advertising space purchase)” and “These programs are outlined via a separate Task Order under each contract agreement with a vendor. Task orders are additional legal agreements that are reviewed and signed by DCTA Presidents, and if the amount of the task order passes a certain threshold they have to be approved by DCTA board.” 12% 6% 29% 53% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Other No, we offer customers a choice of providers (e.g. TNCs and taxi company providers) so that some drivers in the program are ensured to… Yes, TNC partners must obtain additional liability insurance No, no partners/collaborators are required to obtain additional liability insurance as part of this transit-TNC program 21% 11% 16% 42% 84% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Other Collaborative Agreement Data Sharing/Use Agreement Non-Disclosure Agreement Full Contract

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-9 Figure B-15 Did your transit agency rely on an existing contract or contract template to develop this legal agreement(s)? (Select one) (n=18) “Other” includes the response “Not Sure.” Figure B-16 Does the TNC or TNCs provide your transit agency access to data related to the partnership or collaboration? (Select one) (n=19) 42% 26% 21% 5% 5% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% Yes, we used a contract template provided by the TNC(s) Yes, we used a contract template created by our transit agency Yes, we used a combination of templates created by our transit agency and provided by the TNC(s) No Other 63% 21% 16% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Yes, all of our TNC collaborators/partners provide access to data No, they do not provide access to data Yes, but only some of our TNC collaborators/partners provide access to data

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-10 Figure B-17 What datasets does the TNC provide to your transit agency? (n=4) 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 50% 50% 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Average Cost per Trip Average Fare per Trip Disaggregated data on trip time of day/day of week % of trips on Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles % of trips requested using alternative hailing option (call center, etc.) Disaggregated dat on trip origins and/or destinaitions (e.g by address or nearest… Total Trips Subsidized/Provided # of Unique Customers Average Trip Length

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-11 Figure B-18 What datasets does the third party1 provide to your transit agency? (Select all that apply) (n=7) “Other” includes the following response: “We can get most of this data from taxi and wheelchair transport providers; We only get a total number of trips that occurred each month from Uber.” 1 Third parties are the partners involved in a transit agency-TNC partnership that are not the transit agency or TNC; they often include taxi companies or wheelchair van providers. 14% 29% 29% 29% 29% 29% 43% 57% 57% 57% 71% 71% 86% 100% 100% 0% 50% 100% Other Average Subsidy per Trip Average Trip Length Aggregated data on trip time of day/day of week % of trips requested using alternative hailing option Disaggregated data on trip origins and/or destinations Aggregated data on trip origins and/or destinations Average Cost per Trip % of trips on a shared taxi service % of trips on Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles Average Fare per Trip Disaggregated data on trip time of day/day of week # of Unique Customers Total Trips Subsidized/Provided Total Program Cost

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-12 Figure B-19 On what frequency does the third party provide this information? (Select one) (n=7) Figure B-20 Did your transit agency develop a formal evaluation process for the TNC partnership/collaboration? (Select one) (n=22) 43% 43% 14% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% Weekly Monthly By request 41% 32% 27% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% No, but we are in the process of developing an evaluation framework No, and we do not have plans to develop an evaluation framework Yes

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | B-13 Figure B-21 Which of the following metrics are you using to evaluate your agency’s transit-TNC program? (Select all that apply) (n=15) “Other” includes the following response: “A program that actually provides a benefit to our customers beyond a discount on their first Uber trip for new accounts only.” Figure B-22 What methods are you using to collect information about the program? (Select all that apply) (n=15) “Other” includes “Customer feedback received directly,” “transit software,” and “Focus Group review used.” 7% 7% 13% 20% 27% 33% 33% 47% 47% 60% 67% 73% 73% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Other Cars out of parking lot/garage Average passengers per trip Demographic makeup of participants Impact on fixed-route transit ridership Mode shift among participants Customer awareness of program Geographic areas served Impacts on riders with disabilities Overall ridership Overall cost Cost per trip Customer satisfaction 20% 7% 20% 20% 20% 47% 47% 87% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%100% Other In-person/intercept survey conducted at key pickup/dropoff points Customer feedback received through the TNC and/or third party apps Online survey marketed within the service area In-app survey distributed to known participants (in collaboration with TNC or other third party partner) Online survey distributed to known participants Data received directly from other third party partner(s) Data received directly from TNC partner(s)

Next: Appendix C - Transit Interview Protocols »
Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies Get This Book
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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Report 204: Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) is designed to help transit agencies that have decided to pursue partnerships with one or more TNCs. The report provides information on where, when, and how partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs should be considered and pursued.

As new mobility service providers emerge, many public transit agencies have partnered, or are in the process of partnering, with such providers. Among these providers are TNCs. While partnerships between transit agencies and private mobility providers are not new, partnerships with TNCs create unique opportunities and challenges as both parties work toward mutually beneficial program models.

TCRP Report 204 provides 20 in-depth case studies of partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs. Its Partnership Playbook synthesizes lessons learned from these case studies and provides step-by-step practical guidance for transit practitioners on how they should be considered and pursued.

The report provides an up-to-date guide on partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs in all stages of development and realization. It covers partnerships developed with several target markets in mind, including:

  • First/last-mile connections to transit;
  • Customers of ADA Paratransit and Demand-Response Services;
  • People traveling in lower density environments;
  • People with late night travel needs; and
  • People with occasional trip needs (e.g. guaranteed ride home).
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