National Academies Press: OpenBook

Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies (2019)

Chapter: Appendix C - Transit Interview Protocols

« Previous: Appendix B - Transit Agency Survey Results
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Transit Interview Protocols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Transit Interview Protocols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Transit Interview Protocols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Transit Interview Protocols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Transit Interview Protocols." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25425.
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APPENDIX C Transit Interview Protocols

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board C-1 TRANSIT AGENCY INTERVIEW INSTRUMENT To be implemented following survey Purpose The purpose of this interview instrument is to guide follow-up conversations with respondents to the transit agency survey. It is meant to capture more nuanced information than the survey, follow up on your survey responses, and to ease the survey burden by reducing a reliance on open-ended questions. There are 30 possible questions. We will take no more than 60 minutes of your time for this interview. Note to interviewer: prior to the call, you should review all survey responses and identify specifically which follow-up questions from this Interview Instrument are relevant to ask. In scheduling the call, please send the relevant questions ahead of time. Basic Transit Agency Information Note to interviewer – please complete this section prior to initiating the call. Transit Agency: Date of Interview: Contact Name: Contact Phone/Email: Contact Title and Department: [Q1] Please describe your personal involvement in the development and/or administration of the TNC partnership or collaboration? Note for interviewer: for the purposes of this survey, collaborations are defined as relationships that are not highly formalized or structured, where entities work toward achieving success in their shared goals. A partnership builds on collaboration and is more formalized, sometimes including legal agreements. Basic Information about the Relationship [Q2] In planning for the relationship, did your transit agency contact staff at a peer agency or agencies that had previously launched a similar collaboration or partnership? [Q3] Could you share with us your primary contact at the TNC? Relationship Initiation, Goals, and Anticipated Outcomes Please help us understand the early phases of your TNC partnership or collaboration. [Q8] Who initiated the exploration/study of a potential partnership or collaboration with a TNC? (note to interviewer: please gather the background story). For example: o Board Member (or member of another governing body) o Transit Agency Staff o Community Member/Stakeholder

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board o TNC, through direct contact with a Board Member or Transit Agency Staff o TNC, through an Unsolicited Proposal o Other [Q9] I’d like to follow up on your other responses to the Relationship Initiation, Goals, and Anticipated Outcomes section of the survey. o You mentioned that XX were primary goals of your transit agency in exploring a relationship with a TNC. Can you elaborate on those motivations? o Did your transit agency previously attempt to achieve any of those goals through methods other than establishing a relationship with a TNC? For example, fixed-route service changes or agency-run demand-response services? o You mentioned XX were unique local opportunities that helped lead to the pursuit of a relationship with a TNC. Can you elaborate? o As you planned for the TNC relationship, you indicated XX as potential barriers, risks, or legal considerations. Did any of those influence the ultimate service design or outcome of the relationship pursuit? Did you (and if so, how did you) mitigate these barriers? [Q10] Note for interviewer: if they mention union labor concerns – Our research panel is particularly interested in labor issues. Which of the following concerns were raised? Which parties raised these issues? o Relying on non-union labor creates a fear of fixed-route service being replaced, and therefore union labor opportunities being reduced o Relying on non-union labor limits the potential future hiring of union labor o Relying on non-union labor reduces passenger safety o Other o Relying on non-union labor creates grievances or other labor unrest within the agency, such as assertions that this work should be given to unionized employees within the agency or picketing the agency or the TNC. [Q11] Did your transit agency conduct a stakeholder or public outreach process before initiating the TNC relationship? For example, did you specifically reach out to any of the following groups? o Board members (or members of another governing body) o General public community members o Community stakeholders or advocacy groups, including representatives of disability groups, universities, suburban communities, o Operations staff o Union/labor representatives o Taxi operators o TNC drivers Establishing a Formal or Informal Agreement [Q4] Note to interviewer: we can keep the agreement confidential if so directed by the interviewee. Make sure to check to see if the agency submitted an agreement through the survey. You indicated that your transit agency had entered into an XX agreement to govern the relationship with the TNC. Are you willing and able to share a copy of that agreement with the research team? [Q5] Note to interviewer: if they cannot share a copy of the agreement, please ask. Which of the following contract provisions are included in your agreement with the TNC? C-2

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board C-3 o Liability clauses limiting the financial exposure of the transit agency o Data sharing requirements for the partner(s) o Confidentiality clauses requiring the transit agency to hold confidential the partnership/collaboration agreement(s) or certain shared data o Stipulations addressing the course of action should a partner or partners go out of business or exit the local market during the course of the program o Service level agreements that stipulate certain performance requirements and/or targets o I don’t know [Q6] How is your transit agency holding the TNC accountable for performance? I [Q7] Is there anything else you would like to share regarding the contracting process to initiate or establish this relationship? Regulatory Considerations [Q12] In December 2016, the U.S. DOT’s Secretary Foxx released a Dear Colleague Letter providing clarity to public entities on equity and accessibility for shared mobility initiatives. Are you aware of the DOT Dear Colleague Letter ? Did it influence the initial development of or subsequent changes to your TNC relationship? What was the reaction among internal stakeholders? [Q12] In your TNC relationship, have you considered or implemented additional agreements with third party providers to ensure accessibility? Note to interviewer: the ADA applies regardless of the use of Federal funding and requires demand-responsive services provide equivalent service to persons with disabilities, including those who use wheelchairs and/or have intellectual disabilities. [Q13] In your TNC relationship, how have you provided alternative payment methods for individuals who must pay cash and/or cannot make reservations through a smartphone? Note to interviewer: Title VI of the Civil Rights Act is a condition of eligibility for the use of Federal funds and requires that alternative methods of fare payment and reservation be made available to individuals who cannot pay with a method other than cash and/or cannot make reservations through a smartphone application. [Q14] Drug/alcohol testing and background checks – Note to interviewer: follow up on these survey questions if unanswered or unclear. If we obtain a copy of the agreement, we can likely find this information on our own. [Q15] Insurance – Note to interviewer: follow up on this survey question if unanswered or unclear. If we obtain a copy of the agreement, we can likely find this information on our own. Operational Characteristics [Q16a] Does the TNC service add new transit services and coverage (such as first mile- last mile or late night service) or does it replace existing routes? o [Q16b] Did your tt transit agency interpret that replacing this service with a TNC pilot would require (or eventually require) a Title VI service change analysis? [Q17] You mentioned that your transit agency relied on XX to market or promote the program. Do you think those efforts have been successful?

PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN TRANSIT AGENCIES AND TNCs | FINAL REPORT Transportation Research Board C-4 Program Evaluation [Q18] Can you elaborate on the evaluation process you’ve envisioned for your TNC program? [Q19] Can you share information on any cost savings achieved through your TNC program to date? [Q20] Note to interviewer: follow-up if they indicated the TNC shares information about their program. In your opinion, does data provided by the TNC allow your transit agency to adequately evaluate the partnership (or collaboration)? [Q21] What additional data would your transit agency like to receive from the TNC (and/or other third party partners) to evaluate the relationship? How do you plan to use this data? [Q22] In your opinion, is the TNC relationship achieving its intended goals? What, in your view, have been the major successes? Failures? [Q23] Many transit-TNC partnerships/collaborations are framed as pilot programs. As such, we are interested in understanding if and how pilot program parameters change during the course of the partnership or collaboration. Has your transit agency made any changes to the transit-TNC program after the initial launch? Did your agency request these changes, or were they proposed by the TNC? Lessons Learned To wrap up, we would appreciate your thoughts on lessons learned and next steps. [Q24] What lessons has your transit agency learned through planning or engaging in this relationship with a TNC? [Q25] If your transit agency were to start from scratch, would you suggest any changes to the phasing of outreach, stakeholder involvement, decision-making, or other key preparation steps? [Q26] If your transit agency were to start from scratch, what changes would you make to the relationship with the TNC(s) or the program itself? [Q27] How would you describe the customer feedback you’ve received thus far? -- good! [Q28] What remaining research questions regarding public transit-TNC relationships do you hope to be addressed? [Q29] Do you have any recommendations for TNCs that would improve the process for your transit agency or other agencies considering a partnership/collaboration? [Q30] Are there any other details about the TNC partnership/collaboration that would provide further context for the study team?. Thank you!

Next: Appendix D - 2016 USDOT Dear Colleague Letter »
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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Report 204: Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) is designed to help transit agencies that have decided to pursue partnerships with one or more TNCs. The report provides information on where, when, and how partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs should be considered and pursued.

As new mobility service providers emerge, many public transit agencies have partnered, or are in the process of partnering, with such providers. Among these providers are TNCs. While partnerships between transit agencies and private mobility providers are not new, partnerships with TNCs create unique opportunities and challenges as both parties work toward mutually beneficial program models.

TCRP Report 204 provides 20 in-depth case studies of partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs. Its Partnership Playbook synthesizes lessons learned from these case studies and provides step-by-step practical guidance for transit practitioners on how they should be considered and pursued.

The report provides an up-to-date guide on partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs in all stages of development and realization. It covers partnerships developed with several target markets in mind, including:

  • First/last-mile connections to transit;
  • Customers of ADA Paratransit and Demand-Response Services;
  • People traveling in lower density environments;
  • People with late night travel needs; and
  • People with occasional trip needs (e.g. guaranteed ride home).
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