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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25426.
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PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ASSESSMENT OF THE INFORMATION SCIENCES DIRECTORATE AT THE ARMY RESEARCH OFFICE Panel on Review of Extramural Basic Research at the Army Research Laboratory Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board Laboratory Assessments Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. W911QX-14-C-0039 from the Army Research Laboratory. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: xxx International Standard Book Number-10: xxx Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25426 Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assessment of the Information Sciences Directorate at the Army Research Office. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25426. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION

PANEL ON REVIEW OF EXTRAMURAL BASIC RESEARCH AT THE ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY FREDERICK R. CHANG, NAE,1 Southern Methodist University, Chair PETER A. BELING, University of Virginia JAMES O. BERGER, NAS,2 Duke University JONATHAN N. BLAKELY, Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center RANDAL E. BRYANT, NAE, Carnegie Mellon University ALICIA L. CARRIQUIRY, NAM,3 Iowa State University BHARAT DOSHI, Army Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center VIRGIL GLIGOR, Carnegie Mellon University GERALD F. GOODWIN, Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences WILLIAM D. GROPP, NAE, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign BRUCE HAJEK, NAE, University of Illinois MARY JANE IRWIN, NAE, Pennsylvania State University PETER M. KOGGE, University of Notre Dame DAVID A. LAMB, Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center PATRICK MCDANIEL, Pennsylvania State University SORIN MITRAN, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill RADIA PERLMAN, NAE, Dell EMC Corporation STEPHEN M. ROBINSON, NAE, University of Wisconsin - Madison JONATHAN M. SMITH, University of Pennsylvania Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT BOARD JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE, H-Technologies Group, Chair FREDERICK R. CHANG, NAE, Southern Methodist University MARK EBERHART, Colorado School of Mines GEORGE (RUSTY) T. GRAY III, NAE, Los Alamos National Laboratory PRABHAT HAJELA, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology WILLIAM S. MARRAS, NAE, Ohio State University ALAN NEEDLEMAN, NAE, Texas A&M University DANIEL A. REED, University of Iowa Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 3 Member, National Academy of Medicine. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION v

LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS BOARD ROSS B. COROTIS, NAE, University of Colorado, Boulder, Chair WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE, Case Western Reserve University; H-Technologies Group W. CARL LINEBERGER, NAS, JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder C. KUMAR N. PATEL, NAS/NAE, University of California, Los Angeles; Pranalytica, Inc. ELSA REICHMANIS, NAE, Georgia Institute of Technology LYLE H. SCHWARTZ, NAE, University of South Florida, Tampa Staff AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator JAMES P. MCGEE, Director ARUL MOZHI, Senior Program Officer PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vi

Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Steven M. Bellovin, NAE,1 Columbia University, Philip A. Bernstein, NAE, Microsoft Corporation, Katy Borner, Indiana University, Ingrid Daubechies, NAS2/NAE, Duke University, Vice Admiral Paul G. Gaffney II, NAE, Monmouth University (retired), Leslie F. Greengard, NAS/NAE, New York University, Jennifer Rexford, NAE, Princeton University, and Jeffrey D. Ullman, NAE, Stanford University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Philip M. Neches, NAE, Teradata Corporation. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION vii

Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 6 Programs Within the Information Sciences Directorate 6 Approach to the Assessment 7 Assessment Criteria 8 Report Content 9 2 COMPUTING SCIENCE DIVISION 10 Information Assurance Program 10 Information Processing and Fusion Program 12 Computational Architecture and Visualization Program 13 Intelligent Systems Program 15 Overall Assessment of the Computing Science Division 15 3 NETWORK SCIENCE DIVISION 17 Multi-Agent Network Control Program 17 Social and Cognitive Networks Program 18 Communications and Hybrid Networks Program 20 Intelligent Information Networks Program 21 Overall Assessment of the Network Science Division 22 4 MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES DIVISION 24 Computational Mathematics Program 24 Biomathematics Program 25 Modeling of Complex Systems Program 27 Probability and Statistics Program 28 Overall Assessment of the Mathematical Sciences Division 29 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 32 APPENDIX: Possible Metrics for Assessment of Program and Project Accomplishments and Plans 35 PREPUBLICATION COPY – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION ix

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This report summarizes the 2018 findings of the Panel on Review of Extramural Basic Research at the Army Research Laboratory, which reviewed the programs at the Army Research Office’s Information Sciences Directorate.

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